Glucose - InnovateWithDairy.com

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Glucose - InnovateWithDairy.com

Impact of Dairy Protein on Weight

Loss and Body Composition

Dr. Donald K. Layman

Professor of Nutrition

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign


The Great Diet Debate

What is the ideal balance of macronutrients?

fats

carbohydrates

protein


Macronutrient Balances

carbohydrates vs. fats

choices of energy balance

carbohydrates vs. protein

choices of metabolic balances


The right diet for the right person

how do we choose?

U.S. Population (360 million +)

blood lipid profiles

normal

27 m 46 m

hypercholesterolemia

dyslipidemia

Syndrome X


Syndrome X and glucose homeostasis

In 1988, Dr. Reaven reported that individuals

with impaired glucose tolerance and

compensatory hyperinsulinemia had increased

risk for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD).

stability of blood glucose


Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

RDA

UL

Risk of

Inadequacy

safe

Risk of Adverse

Affects

N-balance

(lysine)

Protein Intake

Metabolic

(leucine)


Branched-chain chain Amino Acids

Leucine

Valine

Isoleucine

CH 3

CH CH 2

CH 3

CH

NH 2

COOH


Leucine Requirements

• essential amino acid for protein synthesis

RDA for leucine is < 4 g/day

regulator of muscle protein synthesis

critical in insulin signal pathway

regulation of glucose-alanine cycle

Leucine need is > 8 grams/day


Insulin Signaling

Insulin

GLUT4

Cell

Membrane

IRS-1

feedback?

PI3-K

Akt

PKC

mTOR

glycogen synthesis

[leucine]

p70 S6 K

eIF4

protein synthesis


Metabolism of

Branched-Chain Amino Acids

Liver

alanine

pyruvate

BCAA

BCAA

protein

synthesis

energy

alanine

glucose

alanine

aKG

Glu

glucose

Ala

pyruvate

glucose

CO 2

Gln

glutamine

Gln

Intestine

Muscle


Leucine Content of Foods

leucine

BCAA

whey protein isolate 14% 26%

milk protein 10% 21%

egg protein 8.5% 20%

muscle protein 8% 18%

soy protein isolate 8% 18%

wheat protein 7% 15%


Recommended Ranges (for 1700 kcal):

RDA

Upper Limit

CHO ~ 130 g

170

250

350 g ??

protein ~ 65

70

120

250 g ??

USDA Food Guide = 250/70 = 3.5

Laymans s guide = 170/120 = 1.5


Findings with moderate protein diets

Ø weight loss

Ø loss of body fat

Ø sparing of muscle protein

Skov et al. Internal. J. Obesity 23:528, 1999

Parker et al. Diabetes Care. 25:425, 2002

Layman et al. J. Nutrition 133:411, 2003


Moderate Protein Diet (10 weeks)

Weight loss:

CHO = 15.3 lbs

Prot. = 16.6 lbs

fat as % of loss:

CHO = 69%

Prot. = 75%

Ratio

Layman J. Nutr. 133:411, 2003

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Ratio of Loss of Fat to Lean Tissue

CHO Group

Protein Group

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (weeks)


Diet plus Exercise (16 weeks)

Weight loss (lbs):

CHO = 14.8

(15.3)

Prot = 17.1

(16.6)

CHO + Ex = 14.9

Prot + Ex = 21.6


Diet plus Exercise (16 weeks)

Weight loss (lbs):

CHO = 14.8

Prot = 17.1

CHO + Ex = 14.9

Prot + Ex = 21.6

Ratio of fat/lean loss:

CHO = 1.85

Prot = 2.76

CHO + Ex = 5.5

Prot + Ex = 22.0


Metabolic choices

physiological outcomes

Male athlete, 22 y.o., 180 lbs, 7% body fat, 3700 kcal/d

15% protein = 138 g/d

55% CHO = 508 g/d

30% fat = 123 g/d

Female CPA, 57 y.o., 180 lbs, 39% fat, 2100 kcal/d

15% protein = 74 g/d

55% CHO = 289 g/d

30% fat = 70 g/d


Glucose Homeostasis

glucose

glycogen

insulin

GLUT4

portal

vein

glucose

glucose

diet

liver

muscle


Liver glucose metabolism

high

dietary

glucose

cell membranes

G-6-P

blood glucose

G-6-P

glycogen

gluconeogenesis

glycolysis

pyruvate

acetyl CoA

FA

TCA cycle


Liver glucose metabolism

dietary

glucose

cell membranes

G-6-P

blood glucose

G-6-P

glycogen

GNG

glycolysis

pyruvate

lactate

glycerol

amino acids


Rate of glucose appearance ---

Liver release of glucose

Choices:

carbohydrate intake from diet

glycogen breakdown for fasting


liver synthesis of glucose

gluconeogenesis


Rate of glucose appearance ---

Glucose appearance from diet occurs rapidly

during 2 hours after a meal.

(20 to 40 g/hr)

Gluconeogenesis is a slow, steady process

(5 to 7 g/hr)


Rate of glucose removal ---

Peripheral clearance:

all tissues can use glucose

only skeletal muscle and fat tissue are variable

only muscle and fat are insulin affected

Muscle uses glucose for energy

Fat converts glucose into fat for energy storage


Glucose Homeostasis

glucose

insulin

GLUT1

GLUT4

GNG

glycogen

portal

vein

glucose

pyruvate

amino

acids

alanine

leucine

diet

liver

muscle


Glucose and Insulin Curves

glucose

(mg/dl)

insulin

(mU/ml)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Time (minutes)

insulin

glucose


Breakfast meal (400 kcal)

CHO Group: 61% CHO/ 12% Prot./ 27% fat

oat cereal (1 cup) with milk (4 oz)

bagel (1 oz) with cream cheese (1 Tbsp)

orange juice (6 oz)

Protein Group: 35% CHO/ 34% Prot./ 31% fat

egg (1 large)

Canadian bacon (2 oz)

cheese (1 slice, low fat)

toast (1 slice)

milk (8 oz)


Insulin Response to Meal

Insulin

(mU/ml)

(at 2 hrs)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

-5

CHO Group

Protein Group

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (weeks)

Layman, J. Nutr. 133:405, 2003


Fasting Blood Glucose

Glucose

(mg/dl)

95

90

85

CHO Group

Protein Group

80

75

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time (weeks)


Insulin-to

to-Glucagon

ratio after meal

0.06

I/G

ratio

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

Carb

Protein

0

0 20 40 60 80 100

Time, minutes


Insulin response to meal

Insulin response (mU/ml)

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

CHO Group

Protein Group

0 2 4 6 8 10

Time (wks)


Summary

Weight loss diets with increased protein and

reduced carbohydrates:

Ø weight loss

Ø loss of body fat

Ø protein sparing

ΠTG (VLDL)

Ø insulin sensitivity

Ø stability of blood glucose

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