Download the 2011 French Domain Name Industry Report - Afnic

afnic.fr

Download the 2011 French Domain Name Industry Report - Afnic

2011 Issue

French Domain Name Industry Report

AFNIC - Télécom SudParis


2011 Issue

French Domain Name

Industry Report


2

OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 6

Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report?....................................................... 6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY........................................................................................................... 7

Growth in the process of slowing down, but still above the average for extensions... 7

A dynamic .fr portfolio, in line with current events........................................................... 8

Young urban holders........................................................................................................... 9

On-going market concentration....................................................................................... 10

A steadily growing resale market..................................................................................... 10

A namespace implementing Anycast, DNSSEC and IPv6.............................................. 11

A living ecosystem............................................................................................................. 12

Expected changes in France and worldwide.................................................................. 12

PART ONE: BACKGROUND................................................................................................... 15

Chapter 1: the Internet in France..................................................................................... 16

Internet users increasingly numerous and better equipped................................................. 16

International comparisons.................................................................................................. 18

Chapter 2: Domain names worldwide.............................................................................. 20

Use of extensions in the world............................................................................................ 20

Geographical breakdown of domain names........................................................................ 23

Distribution of web servers and Internet hosts per extension.............................................. 23

Internationalized national extensions (IDN).......................................................................... 24

Chapter 3: Domain names in France............................................................................... 26

Market share for extensions in France................................................................................ 26

French market share worldwide.......................................................................................... 27

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES......................................................................................... 29

Chapter 4: Number of .fr domain names......................................................................... 30

Number of .fr domain names ............................................................................................. 30

Private individuals and legal entities.................................................................................... 32

Renewal of .fr domain names............................................................................................. 33

Operations on .fr domain names........................................................................................ 34

Chapter 5: Number of .fr domain names per holder...................................................... 35

Individuals.......................................................................................................................... 35

Legal entities...................................................................................................................... 36

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


OVERVIEW

3

Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names .......................................... 37

Length of .fr domain names................................................................................................ 37

Hyphens and numbers in .fr domain names ...................................................................... 38

Terms used in .fr domain names ........................................................................................ 39

Combinations registered as .fr domain names ................................................................... 42

Searches using various lists of terms.................................................................................. 42

French words registered as .fr domain names.................................................................... 43

Proportion of French first names and surnames registered as .fr domain names................. 44

Names of French municipalities registered as .fr domain names......................................... 44

Business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names....................................... 45

PART THREE: HOLDERS....................................................................................................... 47

Chapter 7: The location of private individuals who hold .fr domain names................. 48

Opening remarks................................................................................................................ 48

Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals............................................. 49

Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants........... 50

Growth rate over one year.................................................................................................. 53

Chapter 8: The location of legal entities that hold .fr domain names........................... 55

Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities..................................................... 55

Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies................... 56

Growth rate over one year.................................................................................................. 59

Chapter 9: Location of private individuals and legal entities holding .fr

domain names.................................................................................................................... 61

Total number of .fr domain names (private individuals and legal entities).............................. 61

Changes over the last year................................................................................................. 64

Location of .fr domain names per municipality.................................................................... 64

Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names......................................... 65

Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names....................................................... 65

Changes in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names........................................... 67

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS................................................................................................... 69

Chapter 11: Registrars of .fr domain names .................................................................. 70

Number of registrars of .fr domain names........................................................................... 70

Location of registrars of .fr domain names.......................................................................... 71

Chapter 12: Services and prices offered by registrars................................................... 75

Services offered by registrars.............................................................................................. 75

Rates charged by registrars................................................................................................ 76

Chapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market.................................................................. 78

Market for registrars of .fr domain names........................................................................... 78

Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names................................................... 83

The market for ICANN-accredited registrars....................................................................... 85


4

OVERVIEW

Chapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market............................................................... 88

The secondary domain name market worldwide (DN Journal.com)..................................... 88

The secondary domain name market worldwide (Sedo) ..................................................... 89

Secondary market for .fr domain names (Sedo).................................................................. 93

PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES................................................................................................ 97

Chapter 15: DNS Servers.................................................................................................. 98

Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name..................................................................... 98

Number of .fr domain names per DNS server..................................................................... 98

Characteristics of the DNS servers for .fr domain names.................................................... 99

Requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC................................. 99

Chapter 16: Use of IPv6 addresses................................................................................ 102

Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses.............................................................. 102

IPv6-compatible .fr domain names................................................................................... 103

International comparisons................................................................................................ 104

IPv4 exhaustion................................................................................................................ 104

PART SIX: USES................................................................................................................... 107

Chapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web........................................................ 108

Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names...................................... 108

Types of website associated with .fr domain names......................................................... 111

Chapter 18: AFNIC and the ecosystem of domain name stakeholders in France..... 113

Communities identified..................................................................................................... 113

The main lessons............................................................................................................. 115

Chapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France................................................... 116

Disputes over .fr domain names....................................................................................... 116

UDRP disputes handled by WIPO.................................................................................... 118

PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................ 123

Chapter 20: Market review and prospects.................................................................... 124

Review of the year............................................................................................................ 124

Outlooks.......................................................................................................................... 125

ANNEXES.............................................................................................................................. 129

List of figures................................................................................................................... 130

Table of tables.................................................................................................................. 132

Table of notes................................................................................................................... 134

Glossary............................................................................................................................ 136

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


6

INTRODUCTION

This document is the 2011 issue of the French Domain Name Industry Report. It was drafted in

September 2011.

The statistics presented were obtained using various sources, including the retrieval of

non-confidential information from the AFNIC database, public information sites, etc. AFNIC would

like to thank all those who provided information useful for drafting this report.

This study was conducted as part of a research contract between AFNIC and Télécom SudParis,

from July to September 2011. Information obtained thereafter was not taken into account in this

version of the report.

Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report?

There are already various providers offering information on domain names, but these organizations

have a worldwide, generalist vision and cannot access the registries’ own data. In addition, they

usually do not undertake in-depth analysis of the various markets.

Since 2007, the AFNIC has undertaken the initiative of establishing an annual industry report on

French domain names, to be of benefit to market participants, as well as to the government and

Internet development agencies in France.

The overall aims of this industry report are therefore to:

••

give a reliable picture of the market and its players,

••

provide the keys for analysing the factors shaping the market and its trends,

••

help promote understanding and recognition of this market and its special features among

the private and public sectors,

••

identify the market’s strengths and weaknesses, putting forward recommendations for registrars

and/or the registry.

The aim is to produce a paper to be presented to the government and distributed to Internet

stakeholders and the general public.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

7

Salient points concerning the .fr extension for 2010-2011

The .fr TLD turned 25 on 2 September 2011

A new legal framework resulting from the law of 22 March 2011

Two millionth .fr domain name registered on 18 April 2011

17% annual growth rate, i.e. 5 points more than the average for other national extensions

39.5% of .fr domain names filed by private individuals

A close correlation between the creation of .fr domain name and start-ups in France

Median end-user price steady at €12 excl. VAT/year, in line with other top level domains

Continuation of the market consolidation of domain name registrars

Growth above average for the .fr resale market and the highest rates

Continued deployment of DNSSEC with the software interface for registrars

40% of .fr domain names are IPv6-enabled for their DNS servers

Nearly one in every two names refers to a professional website, far in front of personal websites

Growth in the process of slowing down,

but still above the average for extensions

After a decline in 2009, the market dynamics of domain names worldwide have slightly stabilised:

in June 2011 all the extensions outside China posted an annual growth rate of 9% against 10%

in the previous year. While the level of overall growth has continued, it is far from the record highs

posted up until 2008 (20% per year or more). National extensions still retain the lead in terms of

growth, but the difference with generic extensions has been reduced to a few percent per year. The

.com generic extension now represents more than 95 million domain names registered worldwide.

Against this background, the .fr TLD retains a high absolute level of growth, of around 17% over one

year, i.e. five points higher than the average for national extensions. The slowdown is due both to

mechanical factors (the base of domain names already registered increases each year) and cyclical

factors (the .com extension has posted an upswing over the last year in terms of market share in

France). The French extension has increased by some 300,000 names a year since it was opened

to individuals in June 2006, and exceeded 2.1 million domain names in September 2011. It now

represents nearly one-third of all the domain names registered in France, behind the .com gTLD.


8

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The slowdown, which is due to general economic conditions, is not inexorable however; indeed, the

.fr extension has a number of factors for future growth in its favour. For example, while the number

of domain names registered per capita has sharply increased in recent years (1.2 per thousand

in 2007 to 3.1 per thousand in 2011), is still considerably lower than other comparable countries

such as Germany (at around 18 per thousand). In addition, while France is better placed than the

European average in terms of high-speed internet connection for individuals and businesses, it is

still behind in terms of the creation of websites, indicating a persistent lack of awareness among

French companies about online communication compared with their counterparts (58 companies

out of 100). As a corollary, in 2011, only 2.6% of the generic domain names registered worldwide

were held by French entities.

The year 2010-2011 was also marked by the opening of internationalized domain names (IDN),

and in particular by the success of the Russian national extension .рф in Cyrillic characters, which

reached 850,000 names in June 2011, only a few months after its launch.

A dynamic .fr portfolio, in line with current events

The average length of .fr domain names is increasing year by year, standing in 2011 at

12.7 characters per name. Serving as a separator in increasingly long names, dashes are still

frequently used (37% of domain names) and constantly increasing in use.

The portfolio of .fr domain names is also in line with current events. Alongside terms such as

"france" and "paris" which are regularly placed at the head of the character strings forming domain

names, this year terms related to the insurance industry, and logically the years 2011 and 2012,

have appeared. Conversely, years gone by are less used in registered domain names.

Generic terms are also present in the portfolio for the French extension: 80% of the most frequently

used French words were recorded, a figure which has also increased by eight percentage

points since 2007. The same is true for almost all of the names of towns with more than 10,000

inhabitants (95%), although the ratio fell to 38% when all the French municipalities are included.

As for companies, 94 out of the top 100 firms in France and nearly 80% of the top 1,000 had

registered their .fr domain name in 2011. All of these figures are steadily increasing, although the

rise is measured as the years go by.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

9

Young urban holders

In 2011, 39.5% of the holders of .fr domain names were individuals, and 60.5% were entities. Since

2006, in half of the cases the new names are registered by individuals, and the percentage of the

portfolio they hold is increasing year by year. In addition, the turnover of the .fr extension is around

80%, a very high figure compared with many of its counterparts.

The study of the location of domain names in France still reports a significant concentration in

departments with the greatest population density, for individuals and businesses alike. It also shows

a strong correlation between the number of .fr domain names registered in French regions and the

regional gross domestic product. Each year, Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine department are placed

at the top of the rankings, but others are gradually catching up, and many departments this year

have seen growth well above the national average (such as the Sarthe department for both types

of holders, or Reunion Island for the corporate market).

French nationals living abroad have been entitled to register .fr domain names since March 2010,

and in June 2011 held 0.5% of the portfolio of domain names in the individual segment. Located in

a hundred different countries, a quarter reside in Belgium, followed by Spain and Switzerland. With

regard to companies holding .fr domain names, 2% of them are located abroad, mainly in Germany,

the United States, and the United Kingdom.

The median age of individual holders rose five months between 2010 and 2011, and now stands

at 36 years and five months. This development, however, is largely due to the natural aging of the

population of registrants, and if demographic factors are excluded, the median age would actually

drop seven months. The younger age groups are still the growth drivers for the extension.

A study comparing the monthly creations of .fr domain names and the monthly creations of

companies in France reported a strong correlation between the two indicators. It thus appears

that a significant proportion of the new domain names are registered because of start-ups in the

national territory (including auto-entrepreneurs), the protection of their trade name preceding or

accompanying the legal constitution of their structure.


10

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

On-going market concentration

The decrease in the number of registrars continued in 2011: there are now 770, of which 16%

are located abroad (mainly in the European Union). The number of foreign service providers also

rose over the year, contrasting with the general trend, perhaps in connection with the forthcoming

opening of the .fr TLD to Europe. In France, the registrars are still predominantly located in the large

urban areas, with Paris and the Hauts-de-Seine department in the lead, while thirteen departments

have none at all.

The study of the offers from the top 30 registrars of .fr domain names reported a very broad price

range, from €5 to €70 excluding VAT. The market segments targeted by each server provider

(general public, SME / VSE, major accounts, resellers), and the additional services that may be

included in the basic package would seem to substantiate the differences. The median price has

been stable since 2009 at €12 excl. VAT, and more than 80% of providers surveyed have not

changed their rates since last year. It should also be noted that registrars generally align the prices

for the main extensions (.fr and generic).

The market concentration of registrars of .fr domain names is continuing inexorably, on both the

individual segment and on the corporate sector, mainly to the benefit of the market leader this year

once again. The market remains "concentrated" for individuals, and has reached the "moderately

concentrated" level for the corporate sector.

Concentration is not specific to the .fr extension; it also concerns the market for ICANN-accredited

registrars of generic extensions. However, the global market appears to be slightly less concentrated

than the French extension, apart from the market leader which has become slightly more powerful.

In addition, more than half of the registrars are located in the United States, and on their own

manage 64% of the generic domain names in the world. On its behalf, France has 2% of the

ICANN-accredited providers for 1.9% of the gTLDs.

A steadily growing resale market

After a slowdown in 2009, the resale market for domain names resumed strong growth in 2010:

+12% in the number of transactions, average prices up 23% year on year and +39% in the financial

volume of exchanges. The "social.com" domain name attained the highest price in the first half of

2011, selling for $2.6 million. The prices for the top 100 domain names exchanged worldwide have

declined, however, over the year.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

11

While the .com extension continues to be the most sought after, the .fr TLD is gaining ground

each year, posting growth rates well above the average for extensions (with an increase of 65% on

the value of sales in 2010). It remains the most expensive on the resale market, with an average

price in 2010 of €5,000 due to the exceptional price paid for "credit.fr" of some €600,000, and a

median price of approximately €1,000 in the first half of 2011. These figures demonstrate the vitality

of the resale market for the .fr extension which has taken off fast since 2008, reflecting a better

understanding of the intrinsic value of .fr domain names.

A namespace implementing Anycast, DNSSEC and IPv6

In 2011, the French namespace contained nearly 50,000 DNS servers, a figure that is constantly

growing from year to year. To ensure the highest quality of service and security in its DNS

infrastructure, AFNIC uses a comprehensive series of standard technologies and protocols.

It manages a set of authoritative DNS servers for the .fr namespace and uses partners for other

servers in order to improve the resilience of the extension. In addition, some of these servers use

Anycast technology, to improve the performance and security of the DNS infrastructure thanks to a

cloud of servers geographically distributed worldwide (a total of sixty servers for the extension). In

all, the servers managed directly by AFNIC received an average of 3000 DNS queries per second

during the first half of 2011.

In terms of security, 2010-2011 was also marked by the deployment of the DNSSEC protocol, to

authenticate DNS exchanges and avoid attacks such as cache poisoning. The French namespace

was signed in September 2010 and an interface allowing registrars to forward signature elements

of their customers’ domain names was opened in April 2011.

The share of .fr domain names that are IPv6-enabled has evolved considerably since last year:

nearly 40% of .fr domain names now support IPv6 for DNS and more than 8% for mail servers,

but only 2% for web servers. The development is a gradual one, however, the change taking place

when the main registrars implement IPv6 in their equipment. The French extension is ahead of

the Japanese .jp TLD for DNS servers and mail servers, but is behind as far as web servers are

concerned. Finally, the percentage of requests received by the authoritative servers for IPv6 in the

French namespace is also slightly up, standing at 1.5% this year. The overflow of the pool of IPv4

addresses reserved for Europe is currently scheduled for June 2012, and it is important that all the

market players concerned move forward together in implementing IPv6.


12

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

A living ecosystem

A study carried out by the Linkfuence Company at the request of AFNIC has highlighted the diversity

of French social web players present in the "Domain Names" sector, and their respective positions.

The "snapshot" taken in early 2011 is probably highly scalable, especially since, like many other

structures, AFNIC has taken action to significantly expand its presence on the social web, and

educate its members about the issues related to domain names and the benefits that can be

gained from them.

In 2011, 85% of .fr domain names lead to an effective website, either directly or by redirect to

another address, underlining the high rate of use of the extension. In addition, based on a random

sample of 1,000 .fr domain names, an analysis of site content again shows that nearly half of them

are professional in nature, well ahead of personal sites (4%). A quarter of the sites are parked and

lead to a holding page or sponsored links.

In legal terms, a new naming policy and a new procedure for resolving disputes for the .fr TLD had

been put in place by 1 July 2011. The PREDEC procedure for AFNIC and the ADR procedure for

the WIPO were suspended in April-May 2011, but had been used on a regular basis up until then.

Requests to lift anonymity and verify the eligibility for .fr domain names continue to be commonly

used. Of all the disputes, all extensions combined, France represents 11% of the plaintiffs and 3%

of the defendants: it seems that French companies are more often victims than perpetrators of

acts such as cybersquatting, and seem to always initiate litigation a posteriori rather than pursue

defensive registration policies in advance.

Expected changes in France and worldwide

On 22 March 2011, the law adapting French legislation to the European Union law on occupational

health, labour and electronic communications has clarified the legal framework for the allocation

of domain names in France. In the new Article L. 45 of the French Electronic Communications

and Telecommunications Act, it includes issues related to the Freedom of Communication and

Freedom of Trade, to make it consistent with the French Constitution. On 1 July 2011, AFNIC

implemented various changes related to this new legal framework, including a new naming policy,

new procedures for dispute resolution, release of "key terms" that were previously blocked, daily

publication of the list of domain names registered on the previous day, to name but a few.

Other major changes will follow, such as opening access to the .fr TLD to Europe as well as most

of the overseas extensions in December 2011. This opening could affect the market structure of

registrars, if new leading European players decide to move into the French extension. AFNIC is also

studying the possibility of registering domain names in internationalised characters (IDNs) under

the .fr TLD.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

13

The process of creating new extensions introduced by ICANN in 2008 is now in progress, the

schedule having set the application deadline for the 12th of April 2012, potentially enabling the

operational launch of the new extensions by the end of 2013. Hundreds of new extensions,

representing cities, regions and cultural communities, as well as brand names or points of interest,

could well emerge. In a few years this development is liable to upset the landscape of the Internet

as we know it, with possible impacts on existing extensions and market players. AFNIC, which

is already involved in the draft extension .paris, is also positioned as a solutions provider and

technical operator capable of providing support for project leaders for new extensions, in preparing

the submission of their application to ICANN and the operational management of the extension

thereafter.


PART ONE

BACKGROUND


16

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

Chapter 1: the Internet in France

■■

Data source: CREDOC, ARCEP, CGIET, Eurostat.

This chapter presents an overview of Internet use in France, including the rate with which people in

France are being equipped for Internet access, number of users, number of Internet subscriptions

and international comparisons.

Internet users increasingly numerous and better equipped

Household penetration of PCs and Internet access has been steadily increasing for many years 1 . In

2010, more than three-quarters of French people had a computer at home, and more than seven

out of ten had Internet access. The percentage of individuals with a computer but no Internet

access has significantly dropped over the years (from 19% in 1998 to 5% in 2010).

The percentage of Internet users is also continuing to grow: depending on the surveys, in 2010 it

ranged between 74% and 80% of the French population 2 .

In Q1 2011 the total number of Internet subscriptions in France was 22.2 million, according to

ARCEP 3 . The vast majority uses broadband technology, mainly ADSL, the growth of which continues

to be strong (8% per year). As to broadband access, in the second quarter of 2011 it stood at

555,000 subscribers, including 155,000 using fibre to the home (FTTH), with very high growth rates

(of some 50% per year for all types of broadband access and 70% for FTTH alone). For the first

time, in early 2011, high-speed broadband subscriptions surpassed low-speed access, which has

seen rapid decline for a number of years.

The installed base of mobile phones is currently approaching 102% of the population due to multidevice

systems, with strong growth in Internet use: 43% of callers use multimedia services (WAP,

i-mode, MMS, e-mail), while 36% of callers use 3G services. If growth in the installed base of mobile

phones remains strong (around 6% a year), 60% of that growth is linked to non-voice SIM cards, a

market segment that has been booming for the last two years with an annual growth rate of more

than 27% in Internet-only cards (PCMCIA cards, 3G/3G+ Internet keys) and above all a growth rate

of nearly 61% for SIM cards for communicating objects ("machine to machine" cards).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART ONE: BACKGROUND

17

French Internet statistics for 2011 (according to CREDOC, Eurostat and ARCEP)

Indicator

Value

Change

over one

year

Equipment at home

Computers 76% of the population in 2010 + 2 points

Internet access 71% of the population in 2010 + 4 points

Internet users

Internet users

74 to 80% of the population in 2010 (accord. to survey)

+ 4 à 8

points

Internet subscriptions

Internet access 22.2 million in Q1-2011 7 %

Low Bandwidth 0.44 million in Q1-2011 - 27 %

Broadband access 21.5 million in Q2-2011 7 %

Very High Bandwidth access 0.56 million in Q2-2011 52 %

Mobile phones

Installed base of mobile phones 66 million, or 101.6% of the population in Q2-2011 6 %

Active base of multimedia mobile phones 28.4 million, or 43.3% of the mobile base in Q1-2011 18 %

Active installed base of 3G users 23.7 million, or 36.2% of the mobile base in Q1-2011 29 %

Internet-only SIM cards 2.8 million in Q1-2011 27 %

SIM cards for communicating objects 2.8 million in Q1-2011 61 %

Table 1 – French Internet statistics, 2011


18

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

International comparisons

According to Eurostat, in 2010 France was above the European average penetration rate for

household broadband access (67% against 61% for the EU). This rate was up ten points for

France, when on average in Europe it only improved five points. The northern countries of Europe

continue to post the highest broadband access rates, reaching 87% in the case of Iceland.

With regard to the high-speed access ratios for companies, France is one of the leading countries

in Europe, with a rate of 93% against an average of 84% for the European Union. These relatively

high figures have changed little over the past year (zero to one point of growth).

European companies with broadband Internet access in 2010 (Source: Eurostat)

Percentage of companies (10 or more employees)

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

95% 95%

93% 93%

91% 90% 89% 89% 88% 88% 87% 87% 87% 85% 85% 85% 84% 84% 84% 83% 83%

80%

78% 78% 76% 76% 75%

71%

Spain

Iceland

Finland

France

Malta

Netherlands

Belgium

Turkey

Germany

Sweden

Estonia

Luxembourg

United Kingdom

Cyprus

Czech Rep.

Slovenia

Denmark

Country

Figure 1 – Broadband Internet access ratios for European companies

EU Average: 84%

66% 66%

61%

49%

Ireland

Norway

Italy

Portugal

Greece

Hungary

Lithuania

Macedonia

Croatia

Austria

Slovakia

Latvia

Poland

Bulgaria

Romania

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART ONE: BACKGROUND

19

The situation is still the opposite with regard to the creation of websites for companies in France: in

2010, 58% of companies with at least ten employees had a website, compared with the European

average of 67%. This inferior ranking should be seen in conjunction with the lesser use of domain

names in France by comparison with countries of similar economic development. However, over

the past year in France this figure rose slightly more than the EU average (3% against 2%).

100%

European companies with a website or home page in 2010 (Source: Eurostat)

Percentage of companies (10 or more employees)

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

89% 88% 87%

81% 81% 80%

78% 78% 77% 76%

74% 74% 73%

70% 70% 68% 66% 65% 65%

62% 61% 61%

58% 58% 57%

53% 52% 52%

48%

EU average: 67%

43%

37% 35%

0%

Sweden

Denmark

Finland

Germany

Netherlands

Austria

Belgium

Norway

Iceland

United Kingdom

Czech Rep.

Slovakia

Slovenia

Estonia

Luxembourg

Ireland

Country

Malta

Lithuania

Poland

Spain

Croatia

Italy

France

Greece

Hungary

Turkey

Cyprus

Portugal

Latvia

Macedonia

Bulgaria

Romania

Figure 2 - Development of web sites by European companies


20

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

Chapter 2: Domain names worldwide

■■

Data source: AFNIC, Wikipedia, CENTR, WebHosting.Info, Security Space, Internet Systems Consortium.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical data on the use of domain names around the

world (including all extensions).

Use of extensions in the world

The .com generic domain is still far ahead, with more than 95 million domain names registered.

Far behind, two extensions represent more than ten million names (the German extension .de

and the .net generic extension), with two others approaching (.uk for the United Kingdom and the

generic .org). The Chinese extension .cn continued to fall due to the highly restrictive registration

requirements established by the CNNIC extension registry: after a brief period in 2009 during which

it was the second largest extension in the world with 13 million domain names, it is now ranked

eighth with only 3.4 million domains. The French extension occupies 16th place in the standings

with just over two million domain names.

Number of domain names registered in June 2011 per extension

(Source: AFNIC, study of 50 of the main global extensions)

Extension

.de (Germany); 14,490,843

.net; 13,993,299

.uk (United Kingdom); 9,490,537

.org; 9,256,054

.info; 7,881,985

.nl (Netherlands); 4,522,665

.cn (China); 3,379,441

.eu (European Union); 3,347,378

.ru (Russia); 3,335,265

.br (Brazil); 2,553,255

.it (Italy); 2,210,999

.pl (Poland); 2,136,182

.au (Australia); 2,132,108

.biz; 2,104,281

.fr (France); 2,036,473

.us (United States); 1,720,579

.ca (Canada); 1,714,373

.ch (Switzerland); 1,594,382

.es (Spain); 1,353,110

.com; 95,771,200

0 20,000,000 40,000,000 60,000,000 80,000,000 100,000,000 120,000,000

Number of domain names per extension

Figure 3 – Number of domain names per extension

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART ONE: BACKGROUND

21

In terms of growth, the .me extension of Montenegro posted the fastest growth this year (32%) as

well as last year, due to its position as an open extension designed to identify personal content. The

Israeli extension (.il) and the Iranian extension (.ir) follow with annual growth of around 30%, but only

represent a small number of domain names registered (each representing approximately 200,000).

The .info extension has also grown significantly over the past year (28%). With an annual growth

rate of 17%, the French extension is well-positioned and more dynamic than the average for the

national extensions included in the study (12% excluding China). This year, growth has also been

slightly higher for generic extensions (13%), contrasting with the reverse trend in previous years.

As such, while the overall market has gained five percentage points of growth compared with last

year, it is only due to the generic extensions (+7 points), with the national extensions maintaining the

same growth rate as for the previous year. Finally, the special case of the Russian national extension

in Cyrillic characters .рф is worth noting: after totalling some 20,000 registrations by the end of the

priority registration period in September 2010, it grew dramatically during the public opening to

reach 850,000 domain names by June 2011.

In terms of the number of domain names registered per capita, the .fr extension posted a ratio

of 3.1 domain names per 100 inhabitants, and has been continuously growing for several years

(1.2 in 2007). The Montenegrin extension .me remains well ahead due to its market positioning

which places it more among the generic extensions rather than national. These are followed by the

Dutch (.nl), Swiss (.ch), and Danish (.dk) extensions with more than 20 names per 100 inhabitants.

We may note that the number of domain names per head of population is not necessarily

representative of a national domain’s real usage by the people in the country concerned: some

of the domain names have been registered by firms and not by individuals. On the other hand,

in the case of domains without any territorial requirements, some of the names are registered by

people who do not belong to the country concerned (the most blatant case being the Montenegro

domain, mainly registered by English-speaking people). This means that the "number of domains

per head of population" turns out to be largely connected with the degree to which a domain is

openly available: the ratio should therefore be viewed with care. Up until now, the .fr extension has

included a territorial requirement: its domain names were available only to French residents and

corporate bodies registered in France, to French citizens living abroad, or to holders of registered

trademarks in France.


22

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

The changes in the adjusted number of domain names in the major extensions since 2007 show

that the French extension has grown significantly more than the average extensions studied, both

national and generic, and that its growth is highly stable. As a result, its growth has reached 137%

over the last four years, against an average of 64% for the national extensions excluding China,

and 39% for generic extensions over the same period. The Russian, Polish, Romanian, and Czech

extensions have posted the best growth rates over the last four years, immediately followed by the

.fr TLD. This contrasts sharply with the Chinese extension .cn which has lost 45% of its portfolio of

names over the same period, and nearly 80% from the peak of 14 million names in late 2009, just

before the "purge" organized by the CNNIC.

Changes in the adjusted number of domain names per type of extension since 2007

(base 100 in June 2007, Source: CENTR, study of the 30 main global extensions)

260

Standardised number of domains (base 100 in June 2007)

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

Changes over one year (June 2010 - June 2011)

.fr : +17%

Total ccTLD (except CN) : +12%

Total gTLD : +9%

Total TLD (except CN) : +9%

Total TLD (except CN)

.fr

Total ccTLD (except CN)

Total gTLD

100

Jun

2007

Sep

2007

Dec

2007

Mar

2008

Jun

2008

Sep

2008

Dec

2008

Mar

2009

Jun

2009

Sep

2009

Dec

2009

Mar

2010

Jun

2010

Sep

2010

Dec

2010

Mar

2011

Jun

2011

Month

Figure 4 – Changes in the "adjusted" number of domain names, per type of extension

The growth rate year on year has been declining for several years for all TLDs, probably due to the

current economic crisis. In contrast, the growth of the .fr TLD has stayed several points above the

average for the national and generic extensions: the average of the extensions currently seems to

stabilize around 10% of the annual growth rate, while the .fr TLD was still 17% in June 2011.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART ONE: BACKGROUND

23

Geographical breakdown of domain names

The site WebHosting.Info 4 provides estimates of the geographical distribution of generic domain

names around the world. These indicate that nearly two thirds of such domain names were

registered in the United States, followed by Germany, China, the United Kingdom, and Canada.

The proportion of generic domain names registered in France is 2.6%, as last year, but has grown

over the last four years (2.2% in 2007). China rose by 0.4 points in the rankings this year and is

double that for the United Kingdom after overtaking Canada last year, indicating a growing interest

in generic extensions when the conditions for accessing the national extension .cn have become

highly restrictive.

Distribution of generic domain names .com/.net /.org /.info /.biz

Based on the country of registration in July 2011 (Source: WebHosting.Info)

Other countries; 9.7%

Netherlands; 1.1%

Japan; 1.9%

Italy; 1.1%

Spain; 1.3%

Australia; 1.8%

(-0.4 over one year)

France; 2.6%

Number of generic domains:

120 million

Up 7.3% over one year

(against 7.1% in 2010

and 4.1% in 2009)

Canada; 3.3%

United Kingdom; 3.8%

China; 4.1%

(+0.4 over one year)

Germany; 5.4%

United Kingdom; 64.0%

(-0.5 over one year)

Figure 5 – Breakdown of generic domain names per country

Distribution of web servers and Internet hosts per extension

Domain names are used to identify different hardware, such as servers or network equipment.

According to the website Security Space 5 , the primary extension chosen to identify Web servers is

the .com gTLD (45%), the .fr extension in turn being used by 1.3% of the web servers in the world.

With regard to all Internet hosts (including servers and network equipment), the statistics provided

by Internet Systems Consortium 6 indicate that the .net extension is by far the first choice (over one

third), the .fr TLD being used by almost 2% of Internet hosts.


24

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

Internationalized national extensions (IDN)

After the groundwork carried out by ICANN from 2006 onwards, since late 2009 that states and

territories that wish to can request an extension using their national characters, such as Arabic

or Chinese. The objective of the national IDN extensions is to enable people in the countries

concerned to use domain names written entirely in their native language, while under the previous

rules, extensions had to be written using the American alphabet (ASCII). The first four applications

approved by ICANN were for Saudi Arabia, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Russia. The first

IDN extensions were introduced into the DNS root zone in May 2010, and the market openings

immediately followed for the four extensions. The Russian extension in Cyrillic characters .рф met

with immediate success, with over 200,000 registrations within the first six hours after the public

opening on 11 November 2010, and 850,000 domain names had been registered by June 2011.

Many other countries have followed, with national extensions using different character sets (Arabic,

Chinese, Cyrillic, Persian, Tamil, Thai, etc.). Other applications are currently being processed by

ICANN (Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Oman, Pakistan, Ukraine, and Yemen).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART ONE: BACKGROUND

25

Country

Extensions nationales IDN

Algeria . (Arabic)

China

. 中 国 (simplified Chinese)

. 中 國 (traditional Chinese)

Egypt . (Arabic)

Hong Kong

India

. 香 港 (traditional Chinese)

.ভারত (Bengali)

.भारत (Devanagari)

.ભારત (Gujarati)

.ਭਾਰਤ (Gurmukhi)

. (Urdu)

.இந்தியா (Tamil)

.భారత్ (Telugu)

Iran . (Persian)

Jordan . (Arabic)

Morocco . (Arabic)

Palestine . (Arabic)

Qatar . (Arabic)

Russia

.рф (Cyrillic)

Saudi Arabia . (Arabic)

Serbia

Singapore

South Korea

Sri Lanka

.срб (Cyrillic)

. 新 加 坡 (simplified Chinese)

. - (Tamil)

.한국 (Hangeul)

. - (Sinhala)

. - (Tamil)

Syria . (Arabic)

Taiwan

Thailand

. 台 湾 (simplified Chinese)

. 台 灣 (traditional Chinese)

.ไทย (Thai)

Tunisia . (Arabic)

United Arab Emirates . (Arabic)

Table 2 – IDN national extensions accepted by ICANN in 2011


26

PART ONE: BACKGROUND

Chapter 3: Domain names in France

■■

Data source : ZookNIC, AFNIC.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical evidence on market share for extensions for

domain names registered in France (.fr and generic extensions), as well as market share in France

in relation to the all generic domain names registered worldwide.

Market share for extensions in France

In July 2011, the extensions most used in France were .com (nearly 46% of all names) and the

.fr TLD (32%), the other extensions being far behind. The .com has made the most progress

in the year, to the detriment of most of the other extensions. The upswing could be linked to

the promotional campaign organized by the VeriSign registry for registrars to celebrate the 25th

anniversary of the .com gTLD in the spring of 2010. It may also reflect the rotation of extensions

that the main registrars promote one after another via time-limited offers, such that the .fr TLD won

market share in France for several years but lost ground this year.

Distribution of the main domain names registered in France in July 2011

(Source: ZookNIC and AFNIC)

.info ; 2.4%

(-0.3 over one year)

.eu ; 4,6%

(-0.8 over one year)

.org ; 5.5%

(-0.4 over one year)

.biz ; 1.3%

(-0.3 over one year)

.mobi ; 0.3%

.net ; 7.8%

(+0.4 over one year)

.com; 45.9%

(+3.2 over one year)

.fr ; 32.2%

(-1.7 over one year)

Figure 6 – Breakdown of extensions for domain names registered in France

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART ONE: BACKGROUND

27

After a period of latency between July 2008 and July 2009, the .com extension has resumed its

growth in the French market, particularly since the beginning of 2011, which may correspond to the

promotional campaign initiated by the VeriSign registry. The .fr TLD has grown much more smoothly

and regularly over time. Over one year, the .com and .net extensions have grown by around 30%,

followed by the .fr TLD which this year has posted an increase of 17%. The other extensions have

had more limited annual performance, the .biz and the .eu TLDs making almost no headway at all.

All extensions combined, the overall French market has grown 22%.

On an observation period of four years (July 2007-July 2011), the .fr extension has seen the

strongest growth in France, well ahead of the overall growth of the French market, all extensions

combined (140% against 90%). Over the same period, the .com gTLD alone has increased its

portfolio of domain names by 80%.

The .fr TLD has gradually gained market share on the French territory to the detriment of the

major generic extensions since 2000. After a peak of 34% in summer 2010, it underwent a slight

downswing to 32% one year later.

Since the principle of entitlement to a name was abandoned in May 2004, the .fr TLD has almost

always been ahead of the .com / .net / .org and .eu extensions in terms of growth rates year on

year until the summer of 2010. The .com gTLD then took the head of extensions until the summer

of 2011.

French market share worldwide

Over one year, the French market share worldwide in the registration of domain names with generic

extensions rose from 2.8% to 3.2%. It is close to 9% for the .eu TLD, whose market is European

and not global, and between 3% and 4% for most generic extensions except for the .info and

.mobi TLDs in which France is less present (around 2% of market share). Over one year, France

has slightly improved its position worldwide for the three main generic extensions .com / .net / .org

and remained stable for other extensions (.biz, .info, .eu, .mobi). This trend is probably due to the

renewed dynamism of these extensions after several years of "depression", and is consistent with

their relative strength compared with the .fr extension.


PART TWO

.FR DOMAIN NAMES


30

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Chapter 4: Number of .fr domain names

■■

Data source: AFNIC.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide figures on the registration of .fr domain names, including

changes in the number of names registered, distribution as between individuals and corporate

bodies, and operations carried out (name creation, deletion, and renewal rates).

Number of .fr domain names

The growth curve for the total number of .fr domains clearly shows the impact of successive

changes in the naming policy (abolition of entitlement to a name in May 2004 and opening to

private individuals in June 2006). The momentum increased from 30,000 new names a year in the

early 2000s, to 300,000 new names per year since 2006 to the present date. On 1 July 2011, there

were 2,054,731 .fr domain names registered in the AFNIC database. Growth has slowed since the

economic crisis: it dropped from 25% in 2009 to 21% in 2010 and to 17% this year. This slowdown

is not specific to the French extension, however, but affects all the extensions.

Domain names are overwhelmingly registered directly under the .fr TLD, only 1% of them are

registered in a level-two sub-domain. In addition, sub-domains have regressed or stagnated over

one year (-2% on average), except for gouv.fr (+7%) and com.fr (2%). It should be noted that the

figures presented here only take into account the sub-domains directly managed by AFNIC, not the

sectoral sub-domains delegated to other administrative authorities 7 .

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

31

Change in the number of .fr domain names since 2000

(directly under .fr or under a sub-domain managed by AFNIC)

2,500,000

Right to .fr domain

name renounced

.fr opened to

private individuals

2,000,000

+ 300,000 domains/year

Number of domain names

1,500,000

1,000,000

+ 120,000

domains/year

500,000

+ 30,000 domains/year

0

Jan 2000

Jul 2000

Jan 2001

Jul 2001

Jan 2002

Jul 2002

Jan 2003

Jul 2003

Jan 2004

Jul 2004

Jan 2005

Jul 2005

Jan 2006

Jul 2006

Jan 2007

Jul 2007

Jan 2008

Jul 2008

Jan 2009

Jul 2009

Jan 2010

Jul 2010

Jan 2011

Jul 2011

Month

Figure 7 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names


32

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Private individuals and legal entities

Domain names under the .fr TLD may be registered by private individuals as well as by corporate

bodies (companies, associations, public bodies, etc.). Until June 2006, private individuals only

could only register .fr domain names in sub-domains of the extension (nom.fr and com.fr); they can

now file names directly under the national extension.

The distribution between the two types of holders shows that a majority of them are still legal

entities: at the end of the first half of 2010, 60.5% of the domain names were registered by corporate

bodies as against 39.5% by private individuals. In one year, the percentage held by individuals has

nonetheless gained a little more than 1 point.

The share of .fr domain names held by individuals is also steadily increasing: it has almost doubled

in four years, from 21% in early 2007 to 39.5% in June 2011. Since the domain became available

to individuals in 2006, half of the new name registrations have been by individuals. This mechanism

of catching up on the part of individuals seems to converge to an asymptote of around 40%.

Percentage of .fr domain names registered by physical persons since 2007

(cumulative number and creations of new names)

70%

60%

Creations of new .fr domain names

Percentage of .fr domain names registered

by physical persons

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

Cumulative number of .fr domain names

Annual average (July 2010 - June 2011):

Individuals own 39.2% of .fr domain names

and create 50% of new domain names

0%

Mar

2007

Jun

2007

Sep

2007

Dec

2007

Mar

2008

Jun

2008

Sep

2008

Dec

2008

Mar

2009

Jun

2009

Sep

2009

Dec

2009

Mar

2010

Jun

2010

Sep

2010

Dec

2010

Mar

2011

Jun

2011

Month

Figure 8 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

33

Renewal of .fr domain names

The renewal rate of a domain is the proportion of its domain names renewed by the holder on expiry.

For the .fr extension, the renewal rate is currently around 80%: this figure, which has remained

stable over the past year, is very high compared with many other extensions. The curve also shows

some irregularities related to clearly identified limited phenomena, such as the declines observed in

July 2007 (non-renewal of names recorded a year earlier when the domain was opened to private

individuals) and in February 2009 (non-renewal of names recorded in January 2008 during a "oneoff"

promotional campaign by a major registrar).

Renewal rates for .fr domain names since 2007

90%

Renewal rate for domain names

85%

80%

75%

70%

86%

84%

85%

83%

82%

83% 83%

77%

83%

84%

82%

86% 86%

83%

84%

84%

84% 84%

Trend curve

(except for the impact

of one-off operations)

83%

82% 82%

81%

Non renewal

of domains one year after

the service was opened to private

Individuals in June 2006

72%

84%

81%

83% 83%

82%

81%

Annual average (July 2010 - June 2011):

80% renewal rate (stable over one year)

78%

82% 82%

79%

80%

78%

80%

77%

Non renewal

of domains one year after

the OVH marketing campaign

in January 2008

79%

80% 80%

77%

82%

79%

77%

81%

78%

80%

81%

82%

82%

79%

69%

65%

Mar

2007

Jun

2007

Sep

2007

Dec

2007

Mar

2008

Jun

2008

Sep

2008

Dec

2008

Mar

2009

Jun

2009

Sep

2009

Dec

2009

Mar

2010

Jun

2010

Sep

2010

Dec

2010

Mar

2011

Jun

2011

Month

Figure 9 – Renewal of .fr domain names


34

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Operations on .fr domain names

Operations involving the creation and deletion of domain names in the AFNIC database are steadily

increasing from year to year. Between the summers of 2010 and 2011, on average the database of

.fr domain names saw some 51,000 new names created per month for 28,000 losses, highlighting

the dynamism and fluidity of the market.

A study comparing the monthly creations of .fr domain names and the monthly creations of

companies in France reported a strong correlation between the two indicators: the degree of

statistical correlation stood at 77%, with an average of 1.15 .fr domain names created for each

legal entity. This finding may suggest that a significant proportion of the creation of .fr domain

names is due to the creation of start-ups in France. Conversely, it should be noted that new

registrations made during corporate life-cycles apparently have less impact on the development

in the number of creations, as well as the registrations made by individuals. One explanation for

the latter phenomenon may be that a significant portion of the registrations made by individuals

are done by entrepreneurs or self-entrepreneurs during the process of setting up their business,

protecting their domain name(s) preceding or accompanying the legal constitution of the actual

structure.

Correlation between creations of .fr domain names and creations of companies in France

(Source: AFNIC and INSEE)

80,000

70,000

Creation of the auto-entrepreneur

type of sole proprietorship

Creations of domain names or companies per month

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

Domain name creations

Company creations

0

Mar

2007

Jun

2007

Sep

2007

Dec

2007

Mar

2008

Jun

2008

Sep

2008

Dec

2008

Mar

2009

Jun

2009

Sep

2009

Dec

2009

Mar

2010

Jun

2010

Sep

2010

Dec

2010

Mar

2011

Jun

2011

Month

Figure 10 – Correlation between the creation of .fr domain names and start–ups in France

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

35

Chapter 5: Number of .fr domain names per holder

■■

Data source: Output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (number of names registered by private individuals

and by legal entities).

This chapter gives figures for the number of .fr domain names registered per holder, for both types

of holder (private individuals and legal entities).

AFNIC makes every effort to identify holders of domain names in its database unequivocally, by

analysing the information supplied when the names are registered. It is possible, however, for a

person to appear as a holder more than once in the AFNIC database, if that holder has registered

domain names through different registrars and given different details on each occasion. This also

applies to firms if their domain names have been registered by different subsidiaries or bodies which

AFNIC has no means of cross-referencing. Holder numbers in the AFNIC database are accordingly

a slight overestimate of the actual situation. The figures given in this chapter for the number of

domain names per holder will therefore be slightly below the true values.

Individuals

A great majority of individuals who hold .fr domain names have only one such name (79.6%). A

few hold two .fr domain names (11.5%), but the registration of three or more names is much rarer.

These figures are virtually unchanged from last year. In addition, in early July 2011 there were almost

13,000 individuals each with more than five domains, and only 128 had over one hundred domains.

Since 2010, the number of individual holders has increased by 20%, and the number of names

submitted by individuals has risen by 19%. The average number of names per individual holder

stands at 1.66 names per person (against 1.67 in 2010).

The few individuals who have a very large number of domain names could be domainers. The two

largest portfolios held by individuals contain respectively some 5,000 and 7,000 .fr domain names.


36

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Number of .fr domain names registered per individual holder July 2011

Five domains 1.0%

Four domains 1.8%

Three domains 3.6%

Over five domains 2.6%

Two domains 11.5%

Average:

1.66 .fr domain names

per indvidual holder

One domain 79.6%

Figure 11 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals)

Legal entities

The distribution of the number of names per holder among legal entities is fairly similar to that for

individuals. The percentage of holders with only one .fr domain name is however slightly higher for

legal entities, standing at nearly 84% against 80% for private individuals. Here again, the figures

have hardly changed over the year. The number of entities holding more than five domain names

was approximately 21,000 in July 2011, and of those, 328 held over one hundred names.

Over the year, the number of corporate holders has increased by 14%, and the number of names

registered by corporate bodies has risen by 15%. The average rose in 2011 from 1.75 to 1.77

names per corporate holder.

Lastly, some corporate holders have very great numbers of .fr domain names, three of them each

holding between 9000, and 12,000 names. These may be firms in the domainer business, trading

in the resell market for the .fr extension.

Overall, the AFNIC database contains some 1.2 million holders (individuals and entities combined).

The top ten holders in numbers of domain names hold 3% of all the names, the top 100 hold 6%,

the top 1,000 hold 11%, and the top 10,000 hold 20% of the database.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

37

Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a set of statistical data on the lexicographical structure of

the .fr domain names present in the AFNIC database (length of name, presence of hyphens and

numbers, the most commonly used terms, use of combinations of characters of the acronym type),

as well as the proportion of various types of terms in the database (French words, French surnames

and first names, names of municipalities, corporate names of companies and brands).

Length of .fr domain names

The following figure shows the distribution of the length of .fr domain names present in the AFNIC

database (names directly under the .fr TLD without the use of sub-domains, without the ".fr" suffix).

The most frequent length in 2011 was ten characters, a figure that has been steadily increasing

over the years (eight in 2008, nine in 2009 and 2010). The average length is also growing steadily,

from some 0.3 to 0.4 character per year (11.3 in 2007, 11.6 in 2008, 12 in 2009, 12.4 in 2010, and

12.7 in 2011). This development is the logical consequence of an increased use of the extension,

the shorter names having already been registered and new entrants therefore turning to longer

names.

The minimum length is two characters. All the combinations of two characters permitted by the

AFNIC naming policy ("digit digit", "digit letter" and "letter digit") had all been registered by 1 July

2011.

The maximum size allowed by the policy is 63 characters (excluding the suffix): there were fifteen

.fr domain names of this length in the database at the time of the analysis. Most of them consist of

keyword concatenations designed to boost their search engine referencing above its natural level.


38

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Length of .fr domain names in July 2011

8%

7%

Percentage of domain names

6%

5%

4%

3%

2%

Average length:

12.7 (against 12.4 in 2010)

Median length:

11.4 (against 11.1 in 2010)

1%

0%

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

Length

Figure 12 – Length of .fr domain names

Hyphens and numbers in .fr domain names

Hyphens are very frequently used in .fr domain names: 37% of the names contain one or more

hyphens. The average number of hyphens per domain name is steadily rising from year to year:

from 0.38 in 2007 to 0.5 in 2011.

Figures are much less used: only about 6% of the names contain any. Names with two figures

are more numerous than those with single digits, and those with four figures more than those

containing three, probably due to the presence of the numbers of French departments and years

in .fr domain names. The average number of figures per name is also slightly increasing each year

(from 0.10 in 2007 to 0.13 in 2011).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

39

Extreme .fr domain names in July 2011

Longest domain names

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.fr

alma-transitaires-transport-international-entrepot-frigorifique.fr

assurances-devis-moto-scooter-sportive-malus-alcoolemie-drogues.fr

batisseur-architecte-constructeur-villa-maison-maitre-oeuvre-06.fr

brdecodesign-amenagement-evenementiel-stand-decoration-mobilier.fr

coiffure-enfant-coupe-de-cheveux-enfant-cheveu-bebe-paris-75-92.fr

creation-site-internet-depannage-informatique-maintenance-vente.fr

devis-tarif-installation-remplacement-modification-compteur-eau.fr

espejo-peinture-papiers-peints-decoration-facades-degat-ds-eaux.fr

isolation-chauffage-pompeachaleur-menuiserie-fermeture-prorenov.fr

jp-merle-energie-renouvelable-salle-de-bain-plombier-couverture.fr

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo-la-la.fr

piscine-entretien-pro-reparation-renovation-analyse-deau-fuites.fr

portail-automatique-motorisation-amiens-picardie-key-automation.fr

vente-maison-villa-appartement-terrain-la-salvetat-saint-gilles.fr

Domain name with the greatest number of hyphens

m-e-d-e-c-i-n-e-e-s-t-h-e-t-i-q-u-e.fr

Domain name with the greatest number of digits

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.fr

Table 3 – Extreme .fr domain names

Terms used in .fr domain names

Domain names are sometimes created by their holders from generic terms. This study identifies

the terms present in .fr domain names as strings of alphabetic characters, preceded and

followed where applicable by a non-alphabetic character (hyphen or number). For example, the

"hotel-paris.fr" domain name would be taken into account for the terms "hotel" and "Paris", but not

the name "hotelparis.fr".


40

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Among the twenty terms most used in .fr domain names in 2011, excluding linking terms (articles,

conjunctions, prepositions), the following are primarily found:

••

geographic terms ("france", "paris", "saint"),

••

terms related to real estate ("immobilier", "location", "maison", "immo"),

••

terms related to tourism, leisure activities and practical things ("hotel", "location", "auto",

"maison", "restaurant", "art"),

••

terms related to services ("services", "conseil", "formation"),

••

computing terms ("web", "informatique"),

••

terms related to the insurance industry ("insurance", "insurance policies")

••

the term "municipality" as used in the AFNIC non-mandatory naming convention

"mairie commune.fr"

••

The term "group" identifying the type of company.

The terms "insurance" and "insurance policies" have more than doubled in one year, apparently

due to the implementation of an SEO strategy by a major insurance group. The use of the terms

"restaurant" and "paris" has also increased, as last year. Conversely, the percentage of names

using the terms "maison" and "mairie" has dropped since last year.

With regard to the new .fr domain names filed between July 2010 and July 2011, the term "paris"

ranks first, ahead of even the term "France". The terms "insurance" and "insurance policies" take

third and fifth place respectively for the terms most frequently used in the new domain names,

"mma" taking ninth position. Logically, the term "2011" is also among the top twenty terms used

this year.

Figure 13 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names (tag cloud generated by Wordle)

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

41

Years are also part of the terms used in .fr domain names. Logically, the use of past years drops

(2008, 2009, 2010) while the current and future years are more present (2011, 2012). The number

"2000" is still growing strong year after year, because of its symbolic character.

Use of years in .fr domain names

Year

Number

of domains in 2011

Number

of domains in 2010

Change in

1 year

2000 869 759 +110

2001 33 34 -1

2002 8 10 -2

2003 12 20 -8

2004 17 22 -5

2005 25 34 -9

2006 26 48 -22

2007 127 181 -54

2008 296 466 -170

2009 254 529 -275

2010 679 1 188 -509

2011 1 538 315 +1 223

2012 1 393 614 +779

2013 233 133 +100

2014 381 246 +135

2015 103 77 +26

2016 179 170 +9

2017 106 58 +48

2018 111 83 +28

2019 31 27 +4

2020 148 118 +30

Table 4 – Use of years in .fr domain names


42

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Combinations registered as .fr domain names

Combinations of 2 to 5 letters and/or figures were analysed (bearing in mind that two-letter

combinations are forbidden by the AFNIC naming policy). These combinations are worth studying

since they may be acronyms – company names, for example.

The findings show that almost all the permissible two-character combinations have been registered,

and also almost all the three-letter or three-digit combinations. The ratio is lower (44%) for threecharacter

letter-numeral combinations, and still lower (8% or under) for longer combinations.

Combinations of three characters or numerals have all decreased this year, especially those with

three letters which have lost nearly eight points over the year when they gained seven points last

year. It is likely that a domainer registered a large batch of similar domain names last year, and has

not renewed them one year later.

Searches using various lists of terms

The following analysis examines the proportion of terms from different sources that had been

registered as .fr domain names in July 2011:

••

French dictionary words,

••

French family names and first names,

••

the names of French municipalities,

••

the names of French and global companies or brands.

Some of the words in these lists contain characters disallowed in .fr domain names (accented

characters, spaces, punctuation, etc.). Accented characters are replaced by their unaccented

equivalent, while the other forbidden characters and hyphens have either been deleted or replaced

by a dash. Thus, for the town of Pont-l'Évêque, we tested the four names "pontleveque", "pontleveque"

"pontl-eveque" and "pont-l-eveque".

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

43

French words registered as .fr domain names

We have used four lists of French words:

••

the list of the most frequently used words of the French language drawn up by the lexicographer

Étienne Brunet (1,364 words) 8 ,

••

The Dubois-Buyse spelling scale, containing a set of commonly used words supposedly

known to every French adult as a result of gradual acquisition between primary and high

school (3,725 words) 9 ,

••

the list of French words by Christophe Pallier, after the Gutenberg Project carried out by the

University of Lausanne (336,531 words with their declined and conjugated forms) 10 ,

••

The 2007 Official Grand Challenge of common names (489,166 words with their declined and

conjugated forms) 11 .

The results show that in the most comprehensive French dictionaries (300,000 to 500,000 entries),

approximately 10% of the words have been registered as .fr domain names (an increase of two

percentage points since 2007). This percentage is around 80% for the most common French

words, with an increase from eight to nine percentage points since 2007.

100%

Percentage of French words registered as .fr domain names in July 2011

Percentage of words registered as domain names

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

+8 since 2007

83%

+9 since 2007

78%

+2 since 2007

10% 8%

0%

Dictionary of the 1,500

most frequent words

Dictionary of the 4,000

most frequent words

Dictionary of 350,000 words

Dictionary of 500,000 words

List of French words

Figure 14 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names


44

PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

Proportion of French first names and surnames registered

as .fr domain names

These findings are based on four lists:

••

the list of the commonest 100 surnames in France, published on the "Beaucarnot Généalogie"

website (figures as of 1 January 2006 drawn from the official statistics of the electronic version

of the telephone directory) 12 ,

••

the list of the commonest 5,000 surnames in France, taken from the "Geopatronyme.com"

website (a ranking of surnames by number of births between 1891 and 1990, according to

the national statistics institute INSEE) 13 ,

••

the list of the most common 20 female names and 20 male first names in France, according

to "The 2008 Official list of first names" by Stephanie Rapoport 14 ,

••

the list of first names used in France published on the "QuelPrenom.com" website 15 .

The results indicate that 94% of the most common 5,000 surnames have been registered as .fr

domain names today, a figure which rises to 99% for the first 100. The same applies for almost

three-quarters of all the first names used in France (up 9 points since 2007), and for all of the most

common 40 surnames.

Names of French municipalities registered as .fr domain names

These findings are based on four lists:

••

the list of municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories) with more than

30,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2008, according to the French National Institute for Statistics

and Economic Studies (INSEE) (269 unique names) 16 ,

••

the list of municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories) with more than

20,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2008, according to the INSEE (456 unique names),

••

the list of municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories) with more than

10,000 inhabitants on 1 January 2008, according to the INSEE (961 unique names),

••

the list of all the municipalities in France (metropolitan and Overseas Territories), on 1 January

2011, according to the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE)

(over 36,000 municipalities corresponding to 34,235 unique names after deleting duplicates) 17 .

The analysis identified whether the name of each municipality is included in the AFNIC base alone

or preceded by the words "ville" or "mairie" used in the .fr naming conventions (with an optional

separation hyphen).

The results indicate that almost all the names of towns with more than 10,000 inhabitants have

been filed under the .fr TLD, and nearly a quarter of all the municipalities of France. The latter figure

has also been steadily growing, having risen 2 points since last year, and 16 points since 2007. The

names of the municipalities were reserved by AFNIC from 2004 to 2011, and since 1 July 2011

have formed part of the list of terms subject to prior review.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART TWO: .FR DOMAIN NAMES

45

Business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names

This study is based on five lists:

••

the 40 companies in the CAC 40 stock market index 18 ,

••

the list of the 100 largest French companies according to their sales turnover in 2009, as

published on the website "L’Expansion.com" 19 ,

••

the list of the thousand largest French enterprises according to their sales turnover in 2009,

as published on the "L'Expansion.com" website

••

the list of the leading 500 companies worldwide according to their sales turnover (fiscal year

ending 31 March 2011), published by "Fortune" magazine 20 ,

••

the list of trademarks used in France, according to Wikipedia (approximately

2,500 trademarks) 21 .

The findings show that almost all the companies in the Paris stock exchange index CAC 40 have

reserved their names under the .fr domain. So have 94 of France’s hundred biggest firms (up ten

points since 2007), and nearly 80% of the top 1,000. Although multinationals do not necessarily

have offices in France, more than half of them have nevertheless reserved their domain names

under the .fr TLD. Lastly, nearly three quarters of the brand names used in France have also been

registered under the national extension.

Percentage of corporate and brand names registered as .fr domain names

in July 2011

100 %

90 %

+10 since 2007

Companies

Brands

80 %

Percentage of names registered as domains

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

100%

94%

79%

52%

74%

10 %

0 %

Companies in the CAC 40

List of 100 largest French

companies

List of 1,000 largest French

companies

List of 500 largest French

companies worldwide

List of 2500 French brands

List of companies or brands

Figure 15 – Proportion of business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names


PART THREE

HOLDERS


48

PART THREE: HOLDERS

Chapter 7: The location of private individuals who hold .fr

domain names

■■

Data source: Output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2010 (geographical distribution of domain names held by

private individuals), INSEE statistics.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical data on the geographical location of individuals

(natural persons) holding .fr domain names, as well as the associated penetration rates (domain

names per 1,000 inhabitants) and annual growth rates.

Opening remarks

Since location information is provided by the holders of .fr domain names, the AFNIC database

contains some erroneous records, such as the numbers of non-existent French departments.

These extremely minor errors have been excluded from the analysis.

Because of the location method by zip code, the results provided in this study are aggregated in the

case of Corsica (no distinction between departments 2A and 2B) and Guadeloupe (no distinction

between Guadeloupe, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint-Martin).

As to the overseas parts of France, it should be pointed out that these departments and other

local authorities have their own ccTLDs (Guadeloupe: .gp, French Guiana: .gf, Reunion Island: .re,

Martinique: .mq, Mayotte: .yt, New Caledonia: .nc, French Polynesia: .pf, Saint Barthélemy: .bl,

Saint Martin: .mf, Saint Pierre and Miquelon: .pm, French Southern Territories: .tf,

Wallis and Futuna: .wf). The residents living in these departments and under these local authorities

can record domain names with these extensions in addition to the .fr extension, depending on the

corresponding naming policies.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

49

Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

The .fr extension has been open to individuals of French nationality residing abroad since 16

March 2010. In July 2010, 0.5% of the domain names (i.e. approximately 4,000 names) belonged

to individuals living abroad in 98 different countries. A quarter of them were located in Belgium,

followed by Spain (16%), Switzerland (13%) and Vietnam (12%). The strong growth in Spain and

Vietnam over one year may be related to the presence of domainers in these countries.

Distribution per country outside France of .fr domain names held by individuals

in July 2011

Other countries 17.8%

Belgium 25%

(-11.3 points in one year)

Afghanistan 1.5%

Canada 2.0%

Luxembourg 2.3%

Germany 2.4%

USA 3.0%

UK 4.7%

Spain 16.4%

(+13.2 points in one year)

Viet Nam 12%

(+12 points in one year)

Switzerland 12.9%

Figure 16 – Location of .fr domain names registered by individuals residing abroad

99% of the domain names are located in metropolitan France and 1% in the Overseas Territories.

The national average is 7,700 domain names per department and the median value approximately

3,400, but with very high geographical differences: nearly 130,000 names for Paris against

approximately 450 for Lozère. Not surprisingly, there are high concentrations of domain name

registrants in the departments with the largest populations. The eight departments of the Île-de-

France (Greater Paris region) alone account for 37% of the domain names registered in France by

individuals. Conversely, rural departments make up the first quartile.

In the Overseas Territories, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Reunion Island are in the second quartile,

ahead of the other overseas departments for the number of .fr domain names filed by individuals.


50

PART THREE: HOLDERS

The department of Paris accounts for 16% of the individual holders of .fr domain names, far

outnumbering the runners-up. The top 10 departments contain four other departments in the Paris

region (Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne, Yvelines, Seine-Saint-Denis), and well as the other most

densely populated departments of France: the Rhône, Bouches-du-Rhône, Haute Garonne, Nord

and Alpes-Maritimes departments.

Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

per 1,000 inhabitants

The following maps show the number of domain names registered by individuals in relation to

department population (names per 1,000 inhabitants). The population figures for the departments

are derived from INSEE estimates as at 1 January 2009 22 .

The national average is 12.4 names per 1,000 inhabitants (against 10.6 in 2010); once again with

marked disparities between departments (from 58 for Paris to 3.5 for Haute-Marne). Compared

with the statistics on the gross number of domain names, new departments appear in the bottom

quartile: they are departments with lower population densities, but in which .fr domain names

have been in high demand by private individuals in relation to the population (Charente-Maritime,

Dordogne, Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, Drôme and Vaucluse).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

51

Numbers of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants

(metropolitan France)

As at 1 July 2011

76

62

80

59

02

08

92

75

93

94

29

22

56

50

35 53

44

85

17

49

79

14

61

72

16

86

37

24

27

87

28

41

36

95

78

23

19

91

60

45

18

15

77

03

63

89

58

10

43

51

42

21

71

69

57

55

54

88

52

70

25

39

01 74

73

38

68

67

Numbers

of domains per

1,000 inhabitants

More than 10.5

7.7 to 10.5

5.8 to 7.7

Less than 5.8

40

33

47

82

46

12

48

07 26 05

30 84 04 06

source

AFNIC

32

31

81

34

13

83

64

65

09

11

66

2B

2A

Figure 17 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants

(Metropolitan France)


52

PART THREE: HOLDERS

The overseas departments are in the top quartile, except for Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which has

a rate of 6.6 .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants.

Numbers of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants

(Overseas Territories)

As at 1 July 2011

St Pierre and Miquelon

Mayotte

New Caledonia

Numbers

of domains per

1,000 inhabitants

More than 10.5

7.7 to 10.5

Guadeloupe

Reunion Island

Wallis and Futuna

5.8 to 7.7

Less than 5.8

source

AFNIC

Martinique

Guyana

French Polynesia

Figure 18 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants

(Overseas Territories)

The top 10 departments by number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000

inhabitants shows the department of Paris again well ahead (58 names), once more followed by

Hauts-de-Seine. Some departments are found here which did not make the top ten in absolute

number of names registered: Hérault, Haute-Savoie and Essonne, where the registration by

individuals is really booming (from 14 to 17 names per 1,000 inhabitants). Haute-Savoie also moved

from twelfth to ninth position in this ranking in one year.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

53

Growth rate over one year

The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered

by individuals. The rise in the number of names registered by individuals averaged 18%.

Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

(Metropolitan France)

As at 1 July 2011

76

62

80

59

02

08

92

75

93

94

29

22

56

50

35 53

44

49

14

61

72

37

27

28

41

95

78

91

60

45

18

77

89

58

10

51

21

55

52

57

54

88

70

25

68

67

85

17

79

16

86

24

87

36

23

19

15

03

63

43

42

71

69

39

01

38

74

73

Growth rate

per department

> 21.5%

18.5% - 21.5%

16% - 18.5%

< 16%

40

33

47

82

46

12

48

07 26 05

30 84 04 06

source

AFNIC

32

31

81

34

13

83

64

65

09

11

66

2B

2A

Figure 19 – Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

(Metropolitan France)


54

PART THREE: HOLDERS

In the Overseas Territories, Martinique and Mayotte have growth rates over a year of some 25%

above the national average, followed by New Caledonia with an annual growth rate of 19%.

Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

(Overseas Territories)

As at 1 July 2011

St Pierre and Miquelon

Mayotte

New Caledonia

Growth rate

per department

> 21.5%

18.5% - 21.5%

16% - 18.5%

Guadeloupe

Reunion Island

Wallis and Futuna

< 16%

source

AFNIC

Martinique

Guyana

French Polynesia

Figure 20 – Annual growth rates in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

(Overseas Territories)

The top 10 departments by annual rate of growth show a vigorous upward trend in individuals’

registrations in these departments. Sarthe leads this year with a growth rate of 40%. The rates

are also 30% or higher in five French departments (Hautes-Alpes, Dordogne, Corsica, Aquitaine,

Eure-et-Loir), followed by Haute-Savoie, Lot, Loire and Hautes-Pyrénées. Besides catching up

departments with lower growth rates (Hautes-Alpes and Lot), the table also shows the departments

already well positioned and that have strengthened their lead, such as Gironde and Haute-Savoie.

Hautes-Pyrenees is the only department that also ranked among the top ten in terms of growth

last year.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

55

Chapter 8: The location of legal entities that hold .fr

domain names

■■

Data source: Output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2010 (geographical distribution of domain names held by

legal entities), INSEE statistics.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistical data on the geographical location of legal

entities (companies, associations, government agencies, etc.) holding .fr domain names, as well as

the associated penetration rates (domain names per 1,000 companies) and annual growth rates.

Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities

The AFNIC charter implies that corporations registering an .fr domain name must have their registered

office or a facility located in France, or hold a trademark in France, or hold an EU or international

trademark covering France. A large majority of corporate holders of .fr domain names are in fact

located in France (98%). Companies located abroad (holders of trademarks covering France) are

located in 99 different countries, mostly in the European Union (74%) or in North America (17%).

Only 9% of them are located in another region of the world.

Germany is easily first in the table with over a third of the domain names registered by legal entities

located abroad. This advance could be related to the presence of a German domainer with a large

portfolio of domain names. Belgium continues to grow as in previous years (up 1.1 points over one

year). Conversely, Denmark lost 1.5 points over the year.

Distribution per country outside France of .fr domain names held by legal entities

in July 2011

Spain: 2.4%

Luxembourg 2.5%

Other countries: 8.6%

Italy: 2.8%

Switzerland: 4.5%

Germany: 34.1%

Denmark: 4.6%

(-1.5 point)

Belgium: 5.7%

(+1.1 point)

Netherlands: 8.3%

United Kingdom: 9.8%

United States: 16.8%

Figure 21 – Location of .fr domain names registered by legal entities located abroad


56

PART THREE: HOLDERS

In France, the average number of .fr domain names filed by corporations is approximately 11,700

names per department against 10,000 in 2010, the median this year standing at 4,800 names.

Here again there is a great range of variation among departments, from the highly industrialised

(more than 18% of corporate name holders are located in Paris and 36% in the Greater Paris region)

to the most rural (fewer than 0.1% in Creuse and in Lozère). The distribution of corporate bodies

by department is actually very similar to that for individuals. Three departments, however, appear

in the bottom quartile for legal entities, but were not concerned by individual holders: Maine-et-

Loire, Charente-Maritime and Loire, where the corporate market appears to be comparatively more

dynamic than the market for individual holders. Conversely, the .fr market is more developed for

individual holders than legal entities in Pas-de-Calais and Gard.

The Overseas Territories represent 1.4% of the .fr domain names held by legal entities. Reunion

Island comes in the top half of French departments for the number of .fr domain names registered

by corporate bodies, with more than 11,000 names. Martinique and Guadeloupe are next in the

ranking with around 2,500 domain names each.

The top 10 departments for legal entities consist essentially of the same departments as for

individuals, but in a different order. Paris and Haute-Garonne are comparatively better placed on

the corporate market, while Val-de-Marne is best placed on the individual market.

Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities

per 1,000 companies

The maps below represent the number of corporate domain names per 1,000 legal entities,

by department. The number of companies per department is based on the INSEE statistics for

commercial activities excluding agriculture as at 1 January 2010 23 . This economic sector covers all

active businesses in industry, construction, commerce and services, but not organizations whose

functioning is not funded by commercial activity (i.e. local, regional or national government, social/

charitable organisations, non-profit associations, etc. ), nor agriculture, forestry or fisheries.

The national average is 356 corporate names per 1,000 legal entities against 340 in 2010 (to

be compared with the average of 12 individuals’ names per 1,000 inhabitants). Once again, we

find large disparities between departments, the first (Haute-Garonne, with 823 names per 1,000

firms) has nearly 15 times more than the last (Guadeloupe, with 52 names per 1,000 firms). In

addition, several departments appear in the bottom quartile when they were not included in the

gross number of domain names for corporations (Loiret, Côte-d’Or, Sarthe, Indre-et-Loire and

Deux-Sèvres), where the corporate market is experiencing a significant upswing.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

57

Numbers of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies

(Metropolitan France)

As at 1 July 2011

76

62

80

59

02

08

92

75

93

94

29

22

56

50

35 53

44

85

17

49

79

14

61

72

16

86

37

24

27

87

28

41

36

95

78

23

19

91

60

45

18

15

77

03

63

89

58

10

43

51

42

21

71

69

57

55

54

88

52

70

25

39

01 74

73

38

68

67

Number of

domains per

1000 companies

> 320

250 - 320

220 - 250

< 220

40

33

47

82

46

12

48

07 26 05

30 84 04 06

source

AFNIC

32

31

81

34

13

83

64

65

09

11

66

2B

2A

Figure 22 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies

(Metropolitan France)


58

PART THREE: HOLDERS

The results for the Overseas Territories only cover the four departments with usable statistics on

company numbers. Reunion Island is in the first half of French departments, with over 260 names

for 1,000 companies.

Numbers of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies

(Overseas Territories)

As at 1 July 2011

Number of

domains per

1000 companies

Guadeloupe

Reunion Island

> 320

250 - 320

220 - 250

< 220

source

AFNIC

Martinique

Guyana

Figure 23 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies

(Overseas Territories)

The list of top 10 departments for the number of corporate domain name registrations per 1,000

firms is similar to that for the absolute number of such registrations, but there are three new

departments (Sarthe, Bas-Rhin and Maine-et-Loire). Sarthe has also shot up in this indicator: this

year it became the fourth department for the number of domain names per company, when it

occupied the 29th position last year. Haute-Garonne and Hauts-de-Seine rank higher than Paris

in the classification for the number of domain names per 1,000 companies, for reasons that are

perhaps different (there is a major "domainer" in Haute-Garonne, and in Hauts-de-Seine there are

many corporate headquarters that are potential holders of large portfolios of names).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

59

Growth rate over one year

The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered

by corporate bodies. The national average growth for the year was 15%, relatively similar to the

17% observed in 2010.

Annual growth rate in the number of domain names registered by legal entities

(Metropolitan France)

As at 1 July 2011

76

62

80

59

02

08

92

75

93

94

29

22

56

50

35 53

44

49

14

61

72

37

27

28

41

95

78

91

60

45

18

77

89

58

10

51

21

55

52

57

54

88

70

25

68

67

85

17

79

16

86

24

87

36

23

19

15

03

63

43

42

71

69

39

01

38

74

73

Growth rate

per department

> 21%

18% - 21%

13.5% - 18%

< 13.5%

40

33

47

82

46

12

48

07 26 05

30 84 04 06

source

AFNIC

32

31

81

34

13

83

64

65

09

11

66

2B

2A

Figure 24 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities

(Metropolitan France)


60

PART THREE: HOLDERS

In 2011, many departments or local authorities overseas showed annual growth rates higher than

20%: Reunion Island, Mayotte and French Guiana.

Annual growth rate in the number of domain names registered by legal entities

(Overseas Territories)

As at 1 July 2011

St Pierre and Miquelon

Mayotte

New Caledonia

Growth rate

per department

> 21%

Guadeloupe

Reunion Island

Wallis and Futuna

18% - 21%

13.5% - 18%

< 13.5%

source

AFNIC

Martinique

Guyana

French Polynesia

Figure 25 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities

(Overseas Territories)

Among the highest annual growth rates in number of domain names held by corporations, Sarthe

undoubtedly occupies the lead position, after doubling of the number of domain names between

2010 and 2011 (from 5,000 to around 10,000 names). It is followed by the departments with few

domain names and are catching up (Lozere, Mayotte and Haute-Saône, and to a lesser extent

Mayenne, Landes and Aisne), but also by departments with more domain names and which are

therefore strengthening their position (Reunion Island, Oise and Puy de Dome).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

61

Chapter 9: Location of private individuals and legal entities

holding .fr domain names

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (geographical distribution of domain names held by

private individuals and legal entities).

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the geographical location of .fr domain name

holders, whether they are private individuals or corporate bodies, and the corresponding annual

growth rates.

Total number of .fr domain names (private individuals and legal entities)

The national average for the number of domain names registered per department including all

types of holders is about 19,400 domain names against 16,600 in 2010. The median value is

approximately 9,000 domains per department. The disparities we found when looking at the

individuals’ and corporate bodies’ markets separately are naturally reflected in the entire market as

well: Paris comes top with some 350,000 domain names, while there are only 1,500 in Lozère and

Creuse. The most dynamic departments on the global market are virtually the same as on the legal

entity market, which remains the majority for the .fr extension.


62

PART THREE: HOLDERS

Numbers of .fr domain names registered by individuals or legal entities

(Metropolitan France)

As at 1 July 2011

76

62

80

59

02

08

92

75

93

94

29

22

56

50

35 53

44

49

14

61

72

37

27

28

41

95

78

91

60

45

18

77

89

58

10

51

21

55

52

57

54

88

70

25

68

67

85

17

79

16

86

24

87

36

23

19

15

03

63

43

42

71

69

39

01

38

74

73

Number of domains

per department

> 18,000

9,000 – 18,000

4,000 – 9,000

< 4,000

40

33

47

82

46

12

48

07 26 05

30 84 04 06

source

AFNIC

32

31

81

34

13

83

64

65

09

11

66

2B

2A

Figure 26 – Total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)

The proportion of .fr domain names whose holders are located in the Overseas Territories was

1.2%. Reunion Island is included the first half of French departments with a portfolio of nearly

14,000 .fr domain names, which focuses more on the corporate market (which weighs 0.9%) than

the individual market (0.3%). Guadeloupe and Martinique have about 4,000 and 4,500 .fr domain

names respectively, with very similar weights on the market for private individuals and for legal

entities (around 0.2% of the total number in France).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

63

Numbers of .fr domain names registered by individuals or legal entities

(Overseas Territories)

As at 1 July 2011

St Pierre and Miquelon

Mayotte

New Caledonia

Number of domains

per department

> 18,000

9,000 – 18,000

Guadeloupe

Reunion Island

Wallis and Futuna

4,000 – 9,000

< 4,000

source

AFNIC

Martinique

Guyana

French Polynesia

Figure 27 – Total number of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories)

In the top 10 departments for the total number of .fr domain names, we find most of the departments

that already figured among the top 10 for corporate registrations, and in practically the same order.

In 2011, Paris continued to concentrate almost 17% of French domain names and Île-de-France

having 36%, the phenomenon of concentration regressing, however, over the years (19% and 39%

in 2007).

If the number of .fr domain names registered in a French region is compared with the regional gross

domestic product, a strong correlation can be seen between these two indicators, the statistical

correlation index standing at 99.6%. The market dynamics for domain names, at least in terms of

the national extension, therefore seems to be closely linked to the creation of economic wealth in

the regions. The French average is approximately 1.1 domain name per million euros of regional

GDP. Some regions hold slightly more .fr domain names compared with their domestic product

(Midi-Pyrenees, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur), while

for others the situation is the opposite (Haute-Normandy, Champagne-Ardenne, Picardie, and

Limousin).


64

PART THREE: HOLDERS

Changes over the last year

The average annual growth in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals or

legal entities located in France stood at 16.4% in July 2011 (against 21% in 2010). This represents

an intermediate value between the growth rate over one year for private individuals alone (18%) and

for legal entities (15%).

Reunion and Mayotte are among the departments which have made the most progress over one

year, with respective growth rates of 28% and 26%. Guyana also posted an annual growth above

the national average (20%).

The top 10 departments having made the most progress in the global market between 2010 and

2011 include departments that have few domain names that are catching up (Mayotte and Lot, and

to a lesser extent Mayenne, Landes and Hautes-Pyrénées), and other departments that have more

domain names and have consolidated their lead (Sarthe, Reunion, Dordogne and Puy de Dome).

Location of .fr domain names per municipality

The list of major French towns for the number of .fr domain names registered puts Paris well in

the lead with more than 350,000 names against 35,000 for the second, the city of Lyon. The top

30 municipalities in terms of domain names are almost all among the top 100 municipalities of

France in terms of population (more than 50,000 inhabitants), with the exception of Blagnac which

occupies the fourth position due to the presence of a domainer, and Suresnes, where a number of

large groups have their head offices. The municipalities that have made the most progress over one

year are Le Mans (155% annual growth) and Clermont-Ferrand (35%).

In addition, there are major discrepancies in the distribution between private individuals and legal

entities in the portfolios of domain names in these municipalities. The rate of private individuals

is very low for Blagnac (2%) and to a lesser extent for Roubaix (18%). Conversely, the individual

market for is proving to be highly dynamic in Toulouse and Nice, where approximately one is every

two domains is held by an individual.

The list of large cities abroad logically shows the metropolitan areas with the greatest economic

active in Europe (Brussels, Luxembourg, London, Rotterdam, Dusseldorf, Bonn, Berlin, Neuchâtel,

Munich, Geneva, Monaco, and Barcelona) and in the United States (Los Angeles, New York). But

there are also smaller municipalities, due to the presence of registrars (Starnberg in Germany,

Wommelgem in Belgium, Conegliano in Italy) or probable domainers (Linden in Germany, Ribarroja

in Spain, Da Nang in Vietnam). The town of Starnberg on its own focuses nearly 60% of all the .fr

domain names registered in Germany.

The percentage of domain names outside France belonging to private individuals is about 15%. It is

much higher in a certain number of cities that have a large French community (Brussels, Neuchâtel,

Geneva, Barcelona).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

65

Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 (dates of birth of individual holders), INSEE statistics.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on individual holders of .fr domain names (the

age pyramid and changes to same).

Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names

This study uses the holders' current age on 1 January. In addition, since the dates of birth are

provided by holders when registering their domain name, the AFNIC database contains a small

percentage of outliers for ages (approximately 0.4%, from 56 to 120 years of age). Accordingly we

have removed from the study all the ages below 18 years (in keeping with the AFNIC policy which

require holders to be adults) and also (more arbitrarily) ages above 90 years.

Certain values of the age pyramid seem to be over-represented: they probably correspond to the

default values of the registrars’ software interfaces, which holders do not change (either deliberately

or not) when they register their domain name. For instance, 40 years (year of birth: 1970), is an

over-represented age, doubtless because 1 January 1970 is the start date for a certain number of

operating systems (Unix).

The mean age of name holders in 2011 was 38. The median age was 36: there are as many holders

aged under 36 as those aged over 36. The average age and the median age have both increased

by four to five months since 2010.

A comparison of this age pyramid with that for the French population based on INSEE statistics

(metropolitan France and Overseas departments) shows that historical events have had a similar

impact on both curves: the deficit of births during the Second World War, and the baby boom

which followed from 1946 to 1973 (37 to 64 age groups). Earlier events (the First World War) do not

show up on the curve of name holders, as older people make less use of domain names.

We also find a change in the statistics at about 48 or 49 years of age: cohorts of holders of

.fr domain names below that age are proportionally larger than their counterparts in the population

at large, while the opposite applies to those above that age.


66

PART THREE: HOLDERS

Comparison of age pyramids for individual holders of .fr domain names and the French population in 2011

(aged 18 to 90)

4.5 %

More holders than individuals

Less holders than individuals

Percentage of sample

Holders of domain names or French population

4.0 %

3,5 %

3.0 %

2.5 %

2.0 %

1.5 %

1.0 %

0.5 %

End of the

baby boom

Baby boom

Individual holders

French population

WWII

0 %

18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90

Ages of people

Figure 28 – Comparison of age pyramids for individual holders of .fr domain names,

and the French population

The mean was 9.7 domain names per 1,000 inhabitants for the whole population in 2011 (against 8.2

in 2010), while the maximum is around 31 years with 20.8 names per 1,000 inhabitants (excluding

overestimated values). The curve rises quickly between the age of majority and this maximum, and

then declines steadily with the number of years.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART THREE: HOLDERS

67

Changes in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names

The growth in the number of owners remained strong in 2011 (19.4%), although it has slowed

down over the last two years (24% in 2010 and 36% in 2009). Like last year, the median age

of the holders of .fr domain names rose five months over the year, from 36 to 36.4 years. This

development, however, is largely due to the natural aging of the population of holders (up 12

months). Excluding demographic factors, the trend continues to be negative (-7 months), indicating

that the younger age groups are the key growth drivers for the extension.

Change over one year in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names

(aged 18 to 90)

Characteristic 2010 2011

Demographic

change

Non-demographic

change

Overall

change

Number of persons 409,799 489,332 - 0.1% 19.5 % 19.4 %

Median age 36.0 36.4 12 months -7 months 5 months

Table 5 – Annual change in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names

The distribution of individual holders by age is gradually changing due to the natural aging of

the population. For example, the 18-34 age group slight declined by one point between June

2010 and June 2011, mainly to the benefit of the 50-65 age group (up 0.5 points) and over 65

(up 0.4 point). The older age groups are slightly increasing each year, although they continue to be

under-represented (less than 19% of the holders are aged more than 50).

Excluding demographic factors, the rate of growth in the number of domain names per age group

is higher than that for the average population (19.5%) from 19 to 28 years of age, and even reaches

very high values up to 24 years of age, with annual growth rates of more than 30%. Excluding

demographic factors, the growth rate remains slightly below the average for the population from 32

to 57 years of age, and then decreases more sharply from age 58 onwards.


PART FOUR

REGISTRARS


70

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Chapter 11: Registrars of .fr domain names

■■

Data source: Historical AFNIC data (changes in number of registrars since 1996) and data from the AFNIC database

on 1 July 2011 (distribution of registrars per country and per French department).

The purpose of chapter is to provide certain items of information about the registrars of .fr domain

names, including their number, changes over time and geographical distribution.

Number of registrars of .fr domain names

The number of service providers for the .fr extension continued to decline in 2011, as has been

the case since 2006. At the end of June 2011, there were 770 registrars of .fr domain names in all.

Over the last year, that number has fallen by approximately 30 providers, a drop of 4% (compared

with a drop of 8% in 2010).

The number of registrars grew very fast until the end of 2001; it then dropped for a few years

when the dotcom bubble burst. Since June 2006, when individuals began to be able to register .fr

names, the market has restructured: some smaller registrars have become resellers for registrars

who handle larger portfolios of names, which has reduced the overall number of registrars.

Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names since 1997

1,400

Creation

of AFNIC

Explosion of the

Internet bubble

.fr naming rights

abolished

Opening of the .fr TLD

to individuals

1,200

1,154

1,106

1,057

1,076

1,047

1,000

962

1,026 1,001

1,039 1,031

1,031 1,051 1,018 992 985 960 952

890

874

814 802 807

770

800

758

Numbers of registrars

600

400

311

277

441

498

652

200

0

Jun

1997

Jun

1998

Jun

1999

Jun

2000

Jun

2001

Jun

2002

Jun

2003

Jun

2004

Jun

2005

Jun

2006

Jun

2007

Jun

2008

Jun

2009

Jun

2010

Jun

2011

Months

Figure 29 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

71

A breakdown of registrars by nationality reveals that this increase in concentration is among the

French registrars; the number of foreign registrars has started to grow again this year. Compared

with last year, there are 40 fewer registrars in France (-6%), while there are eight new ones abroad

(+7%). The forthcoming opening of .fr domain names to the European Union could be an explanation

for this reversal in the number of foreign registrars, due to the expectation of some players to

change in their offer to include the French extension.

Location of registrars of .fr domain names

The figure below shows the breakdown of registrars by department. The national average is 6.1

registrars per department (against 6.6 in 2010), and the median this year stands at three registrars

per department The map of registrars in France also shows a wide range of geographic disparities:

the departments of the bottom quartile, each with more than six registrars, are those of the largest

French cities (Paris and Ile-de-France, Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble, Lille, Montpellier, Nice, Rennes,

Nantes, Strasbourg, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Mulhouse, Tours, and Orleans). With 121 service

providers, Paris alone has 19% of all registrars of .fr domain names, while the eight departments of

the Greater Paris region account for 38% of them. At the other end of the scale, 20 departments

have only one registrar, and 13 have none (Ardennes, Cher, Dordogne, Haute-Saône, Hautes-

Alpes, Loir-et-Cher, Lot, Lozère, Nièvre; and overseas, Mayotte, New Caledonia, French Polynesia

and Wallis and Futuna).

Since 2010, most departments have remained stable or have lost a limited number of providers.

The largest decreases over the past year concern the two departments with highest number of

registrars: Paris (-6) and Hauts-de-Seine (-10).


72

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Location of registrars

(Metropolitan France)

As at 1 July 2011

76

62

80

59

02

08

92

75

93

94

29

22

56

50

35 53

44

49

14

61

72

37

27

28

41

95

78

91

60

45

18

77

89

58

10

51

21

55

52

57

54

88

70

25

68

67

85

17

79

16

86

24

87

36

23

19

15

03

63

43

42

71

69

39

01

38

74

73

Number of registrars

per department

> 6

4 - 6

2 or 3

0 or 1

40

33

47

82

46

12

48

07 26 05

30 84 04 06

source

AFNIC

32

31

81

34

13

83

64

65

09

11

66

2B

2A

Figure 30 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

73

Among the French registrars, approximately 2% are located overseas: there are six providers in

Reunion Island, 3 in Martinique and one in Guadeloupe, French Guyana, and Saint Pierre and

Miquelon.

Location of registrars

(Overseas Territories)

As at 1 July 2011

St Pierre and Miquelon

Mayotte

New Caledonia

Number of registrars

per department

> 6

4 - 6

2 or 3

Guadeloupe

Reunion Island

Wallis and Futuna

0 or 1

source

AFNIC

Martinique

Guyana

French Polynesia

Figure 31 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories)

Among the top ten departments in terms of registrar numbers, Paris heads the list with twice as

many registrars as the runner-up, Hauts-de-Seine. In addition to three other departments in the

Paris region (Yvelines, Val-de-Marne, and Seine-Saint-Denis), logically there are the departments

of the most populated and most dynamic towns in terms of new technologies: Rhône, Bouchesdu-Rhône,

Isère, Nord and Hérault. These10 departments alone account for more than half of all

French registrars.


74

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Among the registrars of .fr domain names, 16% are now located outside France (compared with

14.5% last year). Nearly 70% of the foreign service providers reside in the European Union and

9% are located in North America. Compared with 2010, three new countries now have a service

provider for the French extension: Spain, India and Japan.

Location of registrars of .fr domain names outside France

in July 2011

Other countries: 14

Norway: 2

Germany: 26

Sweden: 3

Canada: 3

Australia: 3

Monaco: 4

Luxembourg: 4

Belgium: 13

Denmark 5

Italy: 6

Netherlands: 12

United States: 8

Switzerland: 9

United Kingdom: 12

Figure 32 – Distribution of registrars of .fr domain names outside France

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

75

Chapter 12: Services and prices offered by registrars

■■

Data source: Websites of the 30 top registrars of .fr domain names in terms of the numbers of names managed

(checks carried out in September 2011).

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the services offered by the leading registrars

of .fr domain names, and the prices they charge. The details were collected in September 2011

from the websites of the 30 registrars handling the largest numbers of .fr domain names.

Since the study concerned the French market, we have excluded from the statistical calculations

those registrars in the sample that do not have a version of their website in French. In addition,

some providers do not have detailed information on their websites and therefore have also not been

included in the statistics (mainly on the corporate market). In all, the registrars included in the study

manage 79% of the domain names in the .fr zone, so it seems legitimate to consider the results as

being relatively representative of the overall supply.

It should also be noted that the database managed by AFNIC identifies registrars in charge of the

management of .fr domain names, but none of the resellers who may be involved in the value chain

as intermediaries to sell the names to end users. In this way, the results obtained only concern the

offers made direct to end-customers by AFNIC service providers, and none of the offers made

available through their respective reseller networks.

Services offered by registrars

Registrars’ offerings differ in many ways. Firstly, the number of domains available for registration is

very variable. Some of the service providers offer only a limited number: the main gTLDs .com/.net/

.org/.biz/.info; the ccTLDs .fr and .re (Reunion Island) and the European domain .eu; also frequently

.mobi (mobile devices), and other French language ccTLDs such as .be (Belgium). Other registrars

have a wider range, covering dozens of TLDs. Lastly, there are far fewer which claim to offer

registration under all of the available Top Level Domains (around 250).

Nearly 30% of the providers reviewed include a web hosting service in their basic domain name

package; the amount of space varies considerably in size (from 1 MB to 5 GB). Others offer hosting

as an additional service at an extra charge. E-mail hosting is likewise often bundled with the basic

package (by half the registrars; the space provided ranges from 100 MB to 25 GB). Most offers also

include Web and e-mail redirection services in connection with the registered domain name. On the

other hand, security services associated with an e-mail address (anti-virus and anti-spam) appear

to be included in only 40% of the basic packages.


76

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Among the other services present in the core and / or complementary offerings, some primarily

address individuals or small businesses, such as the availability of tools for creating websites,

or anonymous Whois services allowing clients not to reveal their personal details in the Whois

extensions directory (a default feature for individuals in the .fr namespace). Other services are

more for professionals and large accounts: e-commerce features (online payment), SEO, portfolio

management (name audit and background check before registration, monitoring and surveillance

after registration, legal services and recovery in case of cybersquatting, etc.). Security services are

also sometimes offered as an option (SSL, Anycast DNS servers).

Rates charged by registrars

The rate included in this study is the cost of renewal of a domain name for one year, excluding

additional services, discounts or temporary promotional operations. It should also be pointed out

that corporate customers will tend, through commercial negotiations for bulk purchase, to get

better terms than those publicly displayed on the registrars’ websites.

The figure below shows the range of annual fees charged in September 2011 by the registrars

studied for .fr domain names. As with services provided, there is a very wide range of fees charged:

from about €5 to about €70+VAT. The mean for the sample of the main registrars was still €12 plus

VAT, which means there are as many offers less expensive than €12 as there are more expensive

than €12. In addition, the weighted average market share of registrars this year is also equal to €12:

it has been steadily declining for three years (€-0.80 in the previous year, on a like-for-like basis).

Compared with the 2010 study, the rates charged by providers have remained stable in most cases

(82%), but were down in 12% of the providers, and up in only 6% of them.

This diversity of fees applied can be explained by the market segments these offers address (e.g. mass

market, SMEs, micro-businesses, corporations, domain name resellers) and by the added-value

services that are sometimes offered in a package with the domain name, such as technical services

(e.g. web hosting, e-mail accounts, etc.), legal services (e.g. background checks, surveillance,

name recovery, legal assistance, etc.) and marketing services (search engine optimisation, etc.).

In addition, two-thirds of the registrars studied offered volume discounts for longer registration

periods and/or the number of names purchased, particularly in the case of domain name resellers.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

77

Pricing of .fr domain names in September 2011 per registrar

(Study of the top 30 registrars in the number of .fr domain names managed)

Registrars

4.99 €

5.99 €

6.90 €

6.99 €

6.99 €

8.99 €

12.00 €

12.00 €

12.00 €

12.00 €

14.40 €

18.00 €

23.90 €

28.00 €

29.00 €

Median price: 12 € excl. VAT in 2011

(stable over the year on a like-for-like basis)

Average price: 21.70 € excl. VAT in 2011

(-0.35 € over the year on a like-for-like basis)

Average weighted rate per registrar market share:

12 € excl. VAT in 2011

(-0.80 € over the year on a like-for-like basis)

59.40 €

60.00 €

69.00 €

0 € 10 € 20 € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 € 70 € 80 €

Annual renewal fee in euros excl. VAT for the registrar (basic offer)

Figure 33 – Charges for .fr domain names

The median rates are now identical for all the extensions in the study, on the basis of

€12 per year, with the exception of the .eu TLD which continues to be a little more expensive

(€13.20 / year). Most providers align their rates on those for the most common extensions, among

other reasons, to make their offer clear. This means the rates for the .fr TLD are identical to those

of the .com extension in 67% of the offers studied (corresponding to 80% of the domain names

under management); they are lower in 22% of the cases (18% of the domain names) and higher for

11% of the service providers included in the study (managing only 2% of all the .fr domain names

in the sample).


78

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Chapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2010 (number of domain names per holder type and per

registrar), ICANN and WebHosting.Info (ICANN-accredited registrars).

This chapter analyses the market for registrars for the .fr ccTLD and for gTLDS, using various

econometric parameters (the HHI and CR indices).

Market for registrars of .fr domain names

In July 2011, among the 725 registrars of domain names .fr managing at least one domain, almost

all of them (713) manage domain names registered by corporate bodies, while only 518 of them

manage names registered by individuals. However, the number of registrars offering names to

individuals was slightly up over the year (+2%), while it continued to fall in the corporate market

(5%).

––

Market for individuals

The average number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per registrar is approximately

1,570 (against 1,350 in 2010), but with considerable discrepancies between the various registrars.

While some 30 registrars manage portfolios with over 1,000 names, nearly half of the registrars

manage fewer than 10 names. The individuals’ market, then, features a long tail of very small

registrars, alongside a few key players. Like last year, the number of registrars managing less than

10 domains fell however (by 4 points over one year), to the benefit of those managing between 10

and 100 domains (up 3 points).

The following table indicates the value of the concentration indices for the private individual market.

The indices of the "CRi" type (Concentration Ratio) represent the cumulative market share of the "i"

top players in the market. The main player represents more than 34% of the overall market (CR1),

the first four holding nearly three-quarters of the market (CR4) and the top ten having a market

share approaching 90% (CR10).

Changes in these ratios over the last year show that the market share held by the top four and

top ten players has grown less than that of the top registrar (+2 percentage points): this year,

once again, the concentration in the private individual market has therefore basically benefitted the

market leader at the expense of its direct competitors.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

79

The Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) is calculated as the sum of the squares of the market shares

of all the players involved. It can range from 0 (very competitive market) to 1 (a monopoly), and is

used by the competition authorities to study the potential consequences of mergers and takeovers.

In 2011, the HHI is close to 0.2 on the individual market, compared with 0.19 last year: this therefore

shows the market remains in the "concentrated" state and the trend towards concentration is

continuing. This phenomenon has existed for several years, the index having gradually increased

from 0.13 in 2007 to 0.2 four years later.

Market for the .fr extension in 2011 - Individuals

Parameter 2011 2010 Change

Number of registrars 518 507 2%

Number of domain names 814,306 685,075 19%

Ave. number of domain names par registrar 1,572 1,351 16%

Concentration index 2011 2010 Change

CR1 34.2% 32.0% 2.1

CR4 74.7% 73.9% 0.9

CR10 88.1% 88.2% -0.1

HHI 0.198 0.187 0.010

The market for individual holders remained "concentrated" (HHI ≥ 0.18)

and continued to concentrate in 2011

Table 6 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registered

by private individuals

––

Corporate market

With regard to the corporate market, the characteristics of the distribution of registrars in relation to

the number of domain names managed are very different from those of the private individual market:

the market share held by very small players (fewer than 10 names) is a minority, representing only

12% of the registrars (compared with 47% on the individual market). Conversely, over a third of the

service providers manage between 100 and 1000 names (against 10% for individuals). Over one

year, the market share of these service providers with 100 to 1000 domains has grown the most

(up 2 points) at the expense of portfolios with between 10 and 100 names (-2 points).

The concentration indices show that the corporate market is considerably less concentrated than

that for private individuals. The "Concentration Ratio" indices are all lower: CR1 is 26% as against

34%, CR4 is 51% against 75%, and CR10 is 70% against 88%. Similarly, the HHI for the corporate

market stands at 0.01, against 0.2 in the private individual market. However, the market for legal

entities is also becoming more concentrated over time, and this year reached the "moderately

concentrated" level (HHI of about 0.1).


80

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

It also worth noting that the top registrar gained 1.9 percentage points over the year, representing

most of the gains in market share realised by the top four or the top ten players (between 2.1

and 2.2 percentage points). The process of concentration is therefore mainly of benefit to the

market leader, with the following players more or less keeping their market share over the year. This

phenomenon is less marked than on the private individual market, where the competitors of the

leading service provider lost market share to its sole benefit.

Market for the .fr extension in 2011 – Legal entities

Parameter 2011 2010 Change

Number of registrars 713 754 -5%

Number of domain names 1,249,224 1,084,053 15%

Ave. nb of domain names per registrar 1,752 1,438 22%

Concentration index 2011 2010 Change

CR1 26.2% 24.3% 1.9

CR4 50.8% 48.6% 2.2

CR10 69.9% 67.8% 2.1

HHI 0.099 0.089 0.011

The legal entity market is becoming concentrated and reached the concentrated threshold in 2011

(HHI ≈ 0.1)

Table 7 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registered

by legal entities

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

81

––

Overall market (private individuals and legal entities)

The distribution of the registrars in relation to the number of domain names managed (including

private individuals and legal entities) is similar to that for the corporate market alone. The service

providers managing 100 to 1000 domains are growing year on year (+2 points) at the expense of

portfolios from 10 to 100 names (-2 points), reflecting the overall growth of the .fr extension.

Ranking of registrars in terms of the number of .fr domain names managed in July 2011

(individuals and legal entities)

1,000 domains and more: 89 registrars

12 %

From 1 to 9 domains: 73 registrars

10 %

In July 2011:

725 registrars managed

2,065,000 domain names

From 100 to 999 domains

282 registrars: 39%

From 10 to 99 domains: 281 registrars

39 %

Figure 34 – Ranking of registrars in relation to the total number of .fr domain names

The concentration indices for the overall market show intermediate values between those for

the individual market (concentrated), and the corporate market (moderately concentrated) when

considered separately. However, they are closer to the corporate market, the majority of French

domain names being held by legal entities. The changes in the HHI indicate that the overall market

remained moderately concentrated in 2011, while continuing its trend towards concentration (up

from 0.12 to 0.13 over one year).

The leading registrar has gained about two points on the global market since last year, i.e. more

than the gains of the top four and top ten players taken together. Growth in market share of the

leading provider seems to be to the detriment of the following players, as was the case in the

market for individuals alone.


82

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Global market share of the .fr extension in 2011

Parameter 2011 2010 Change

Number of registrars 725 765 -5%

Number of domain names 2,063,530 1,769,128 17%

Ave. nb of domain names per registrar 2,846 2,313 23%

Concentration index 2011 2010 Change

CR1 29.4% 27.3% 2.0

CR4 59.9% 58.3% 1.6

CR10 74.6% 73.6% 1.1

HHI 0.129 0.118 0.011

The global market is becoming more concentrated and was "moderately concentrated" in 2011

(HHI between 0.1 and 0.18)

Table 8 – Concentration indices for the overall market for .fr domain names

(private individuals and legal entities included)

The figure below shows the 30 largest registrars of .fr domain names ranked by numbers of names

managed, including both the individual and corporate markets. It can be seen that most of the

top registrars by volume are active in the individual market, with ratios of around 40% or higher.

Conversely, a dozen providers among the top 30 have almost entirely invested in the corporate

market (less than 10% of the individual market).

Growth rates over one year were highly variable: some players posted above-average increases

for the extension (17%) and even reaching 51%, while others saw their portfolios slightly decline.

Yellow Pages again was ranked three places higher in 2011 after having gaining two places last year,

reflecting the new offer to create and host web sites launched in late 2009 for small businesses.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

83

Top 30 registrars in terms of the number of .fr domain names managed in July 2011

OVH

1&1

Gandi

Amen

Online

PagesJaunes

NordNet

Namebay

EuroDNS

France Télécom

INDOM

LWS

ELB Multimedia

Melbourne IT

Key-Systems

Ascio

Web Intelligence

Cronon

Viaduc

Nameshield

Mailclub

Linkeo

Tucows

AB Connect

SFR

NFrance Conseil

CSC

Arsys

MarkMonitor

InterNetX

80,842

71,684

53,192

52,981

48,727

43,249

34,008

31,745

28,991

20,435

20,050

15,885

15,796

15,044

14,850

13,043

12,963

12,535

12,280

11,162

10,001

7,896

6,814

6,682

6,509

6,292

6,140

231,629

317,737

605,826

0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000

Number of domain names managed

Figure 35 – Main registrars ranked by the overall number of .fr domain names

Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names

––

Changes in the stock of domain names managed

The concentration indices (CR1, CR4, CR10 and HHI) all showed a peak at the end of 2000, which

seems to have been related to a promotion for the sub-domain ".nom.fr" in December of that year

(domain names offered free of charge for one year). The biggest market players would appear to

have reaped most of the rewards of this promotion, for their market shares rose and with them –

as a direct consequence – the concentration of the overall market. Mechanisms such as mergers

and takeovers among market operators may also have been involved. A considerable proportion of

the "free" names were not renewed afterwards, causing the various concentration indices to return

towards their normal levels.

The market then gradually concentrated until the end of 2003. The greater flexibility of the naming

charter in May 2004 (ending the "right to the name") immediately triggered a process of market

de-concentration. Conversely, a process of re-concentration can be observed when the .fr extension

was opened to individuals in June 2006: the process was due to the arrival of new registrars in the

market, selling to the general public and handling increasingly large portfolios of names.

The indices have not stopped rising since then: we are now seeing levels of concentration similar to

those observed during the late 2000 peak, but with other registrars in play. Those registrars which

had the majority of the market at the start of the decade have been caught up by newcomers who

have become active in this market much more recently, especially in the individuals segment after

the .fr domain became available to individuals in 2006.


84

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

––

Developments in the registration of new domain names

The graph below shows a comparison of changes in the HHI concentration indices of the stock of

.fr domain names and of new names registered each month. The snapshot concentration figure is

distinctly higher for new name registrations that for total name numbers, meaning that the overall

market is steadily becoming more concentrated month by month. If the market in terms of the

stock of domain names switched in the summer of 2009 to the "moderately concentrated" state,

for the past year it has oscillated between the "moderately concentrated" and "concentrated"

states in terms of creating new names.

Also worth noting is the high volatility of the HHI on the creation of names linked to the large-scale

promotional operations that temporarily modify the distribution of registrations of new domains

between the main market players. The change in the HHI on the stock has been little affected by

these one-off events and continues to be much more stable over time.

Change in HHI concentration indices on the stock of .fr domain names

and the monthly creation of .fr domain names

0,24

Value of HHI index (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index)

0,22

0,20

0,18

0,16

0,14

0,12

0,10

0,08

HHI on creations of domain names

HHI on the stock of domain names

0,06

Jun 2008 Sep 2008 Dec 2008 Mar 2009 Jun 2009 Sep 2009 Dec 2009 Mar 2010 Jun 2010 Sep 2010 Dec 2010 Mar 2011 Jun 2011

Moderately concentrated mkt Concentrated market

Non-concentrated

mkt

Months

Figure 36 – Changes in concentration indices for the registration market of .fr domain names

in terms of the stock of names managed, and new names registered

As far as the monthly registration of new domain names is concerned, the top player stands out

from the crowd by maintaining its fairly steady market share of 35% since late 2008. The next two

are around 15% each, and other competitors do not exceed the 5% mark. The direct result is

concentration mainly to the benefit of the market leader.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

85

The market for ICANN-accredited registrars

The rest of this chapter is devoted to ICANN-accredited registrars. This study is based on ICANN

public data 24 , as well as the statistics published by WebHosting.Info 25 .

There were 984 ICANN-accredited registrars as at 31 July 2011. From less than 400 in late 2004,

this number rose sharply in 2005 and 2006 before taking a more moderate pace. After a slight

decline in 2009, it has restarted to grow since 2010 (up 2% between July 2010 and July 2011).

The graph below shows the distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars by country. North America

takes the lion’s share with 70% of registrars, nearly 55% of them in the United States alone. France

ties for fifth place, with 18 accredited registrars or 1.8% of all the service providers in the world.

With two additional French accredited registrars, the country has gained two places compared

with 2010. In one year, the United States declined one point, unlike Canada and China, which

increased as a percentage. Three new countries now have an accredited registrar: Barbados,

Honduras and Morocco. There are ICANN-accredited registrars in 65 countries.

Distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars per country in August 2011

Other countries: 124; 13%

Spain: 13; 1%

Japan: 14; 1%

Australia: 16; 2%

United Kingdom: 18; 2%

South Korea: 18; 2%

France: 1.8%

of ICANN accredited

registrars in 2011

(against 1.6% in 2010)

India: 18; 2%

France: 18; 2%

Germany: 23; 2%

China: 26; 3%

United States: 545; 55%

Canada: 151; 15%

Figure 37 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars

The distribution of generic domain names in relation to the country of registrar once more shows

the United States well in the lead, with nearly 64% of the names. This figure has even risen two

points over one year after falling in 2009 and 2010. Among the top ten ICANN-accredited registrars

in terms of the number of domains registered, six are in fact American. The proportion of generic

names managed in France is roughly 1.9% of the total of such names, slightly up over the last year

(+0.1% since 2010). Conversely Australia lost ground over the past year (-1.2 point).


86

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar in August 2011

(according to WebHosting.Info, .com / .net / .org / .biz / .info)

Other countries: 6.1%

Japan: 1.2%

France: 1.9%

India: 2.5%

China: 3.9%

French registrars:

1.9% of generic domains

in 2011

(against 1.8% in 2010

and 1.4% in 2008)

Australia: 4.6%

Canada: 7.7%

Germany: 8.5%

United States: 63.6%

(+2 in one year)

Figure 38 – Distribution of generic domain names per country of registrar

The Go Daddy company is largely in the lead with roughly one third of the global market, far ahead

of eNom, Tucows, Network Solutions and 1&1 (which each held a market share ranging from 4%

to 9%). Go Daddy even gained 2.4 points this year: the American registrar has seen steady growth

for several years (up from an 18% market share in 2007 to 32% in 2011). Its closest competitors,

eNom, progressed over one year by 0.6% while Tucows and 1&1 have grown to a lesser extent; in

contrast, Melbourne IT and Network Solutions declined compared with 2010.

There is a small minority (2%) of ICANN-accredited registrars managing portfolios with more than a

million names, up to 40 million for Go Daddy. In contrast, almost half of the providers in the world

have less than 1,000 names each (46%).

The concentration indices indicate that the world market leader in generic domains (Go Daddy)

is a little more powerful than the market leader in the .fr domain (the CR1 is 32%, compared with

29%). The other indices, however, are lower on the global market, which appears to be a slightly

less concentrated than the .fr market except for the top player (CR4 of 53% against 60%, CR10 of

69% against 75% and HHI of 0.125 against 0.129). The global market for generic extensions is still

in the process of concentration and its status is now "moderately concentrated".

Unlike last year, the progress of the leader over the year was slightly higher for the generic extensions

than for the .fr TLD (up 2.4 points against +2 points). In addition, the CR4 index increased more in

one year that the CR1 index on the generic extension market, indicating that some challengers are

also making progress. This was not the case for the French extension market.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

87

With an HHI of 0.125 in 2010, the international market for generic names remains slightly less

concentrated than the .fr market (HHI of 0.129). This may be due to the formation of local markets

based on the cultures, languages, and legal conditions specific to each country, making it more

difficult for the major players to obtain complete coverage of the global market compared with the

.fr market, which is much more homogeneous in cultural, linguistic and legal terms. The difference,

however, between the global and French concentration indices decreased over the year.

World market for generic extensions (according to WebHosting.Info)

Parameter 2011 2010 Change

Number of registrars 880 883 0%

Number of domain names 124,783,275 120,821,830 3%

Nb of domain names per registrar 141,799 136,831 4%

Concentration index 2011 2010 Change

CR1 32.3% 29.8% 2.4

CR4 52.7% 49.7% 2.9

CR10 69.1% 66.9% 2.1

HHI 0.125 0.110 0.016

The global market for generic extensions is becoming concentrated

but in 2011 remained "moderately concentrated"

(HHI < 0.18)

Table 9 – Concentration indices for the world market in generic domain names

Among the French ICANN-accredited registrars, four managed more than 100,000 generic domains

and three others managed from 10,000 to 100,000 domains in August 2011. OVH passed the

one million milestone of generic names managed in 2010, and this year holds 17th position in the

ranking of ICANN accredited registrars with nearly 1% of the generic domains worldwide. Mailclub

rose in one year from over 1,000 to over 5,000 generic domains under management. It should be

noted, however, that these numbers are difficult to interpret because of sub-contracting activities:

registrars can hold domain names as sub-contractors for another accredited provider, in which

case the names are taken into account in the ICANN statistics for the initial service provider and

not for the reseller.


88

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Chapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market

■■

Data source: DN Journal.com, Sedo (annual report for 2010, quarterly report for Q2-2011, and website).

The purpose of this chapter is to review the secondary market in domain names, focusing in

particular on the .fr domain (numbers traded and prices charged).

The secondary domain name market worldwide (DN Journal.com)

The DNJournal.com website publishes a list of major transactions on the secondary market on all

the existing marketplaces 26 . The "social.com" domain name attained the highest price in the first

half of 2011, selling for $2.6 million. Another name also reached the one-million dollar mark over

that period ("domainname.com"). Among the extensions in the top 100, the .com gTLD is still well

ahead with 88 names (11 more compared with 2010). Only six transactions involved domains with

a national extension.

The extreme trading prices saw a sharp decline compared with last year: the highest sale price

dropped 50% and the average for the top 100 names dropped one third over the year ($160,000

approx.)

As in previous years, the German and UK extensions were the most frequently represented in the

top 100 most expensive national domain names traded between January and August 2011, with a

total of twenty national extensions. The extension marketed as .co, corresponding to Colombia but

sold very broadly, underwent strong growth this year with twelve sales in the top 100 against three

for the same period in 2010. The ranking also includes three domains under the French extension

"tada.fr" (€20,000), "pari.fr" (€13,500) and "perles.fr" (€12,500). Finally, three Internationalized

Domain Names (IDN) are included with German and Norwegian characters ("großhandel.de",

"gärtnerei.de", "klær.no"). The finance sector ("aktien.de", "deals.com.au", "finance.co",

"market.de") and games sector ("sportsbetting.in", "poker.org.uk") continue to be well represented

among the transactions.

The extreme trading prices for national extensions also dropped this year after rising in 2010: -15%

for the record sale and -40% for the average of the top 100 in one year.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

89

The most expensive national domain names sold between 1 January and 29 August 2011

(public transactions, source: DN Journal)

Domain name sold

deals.com.au; 100,000 $

business.co; 80,000 $

t.ag; 60,000 $

fr.cc; 50,000 $

namibia.de; 49,700 $

tuttoauto.it; 45,360 $

finance.co; 45,000 $

market.de; 42,600 $

sportsbetting.in; 42,300 $

poker.org.uk; 41,000 $

2.de; 40,310 $

internet.co; 40,000 $

weltreise.de; 39,600 $

coffeetables.co.uk; 37,500 $

diningtables.co.uk; 37,500 $

golfholidays.co.uk; 36,675 $

lista.pl; 35,733 $

nordgold.eu; 34,250 $

electricity.com.au; 34,000 $

Median price in the top 100

20,000 $

(-19% in one year)

aktien.de; 725,000 $

Extensions in the top 100

.de (24 domains)

.uk (13 domains)

.co (12 domains)

.au (6 domains)

.es, .eu, .it, .me, .tv (4 domains)

.ca, .fr, .in (3 domains)

.cc, .us (2 domains)

.ag, .at, .be, .ch, .gr, .ly, .nl, .no, .pl, .ru, .se, .za (1 domain)

0 $ 100,000 $ 200,000 $ 300,000 $ 400,000 $ 500,000 $ 600,000 $ 700,000 $ 800,000 $

Sale price (in US dollars)

Figure 39 – The most expensive country-code domain names sold on the secondary market

The ranking of the top 100 sales for generic extensions excluding the .com gTLD placed .net by far

in the lead (52,100 transactions), followed by the .org TLD (33 domains). The extensions .info, .biz,

.asia and .pro lag far behind.

The secondary domain name market worldwide (Sedo)

We show here some figures published by Sedo in its annual study of the secondary domain names

market in 2010 and in its report for Q2 2011 27 . These figures only cover domain names traded in the

secondary market through the Sedo platform: there are no overall statistics for the entire market.

Sedo is however one of the main players in the worldwide secondary market for domain names.

The secondary market for domain names posted strong growth in 2010 on the Sedo platform after

the slowdown observed last year. The number of transactions increased by 12% against 5% in

2009, standing at around 43,500 domain names. Average prices increased by 23% all extensions

combined, so that the financial volumes of trading leapt 39% over the year (against only 3% in

2009) to reach a total of 76 million transactions.


90

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

The .com domain accounts for 61% of the domain names sold on Sedo, followed by .de (Germany)

with 10% of the market share. There was less trading on the other extensions (less than 5%). The

French extension represented 2% of the total value of Sedo transactions in 2010 with over 1.8

million euros and very high annual growth (up 65% after +30% in 2009).

Volume of transactions on the Sedo platform by extension in 2010 (source: Sedo)

.de ; € 7,789,621

.com ; € 46,157,952

Extension

.net; € 3,563,334

.org; € 3,217,736

.uk; € 3,069,804

.fr; € 1,848,368

.eu; € 1,591,446

.info ; € 740,775

.es; € 498 549

.at; € 291,172

In 2010:

76 million euros of transactions on Sedo

(+39% in one year)

On the .fr : 1.8 million euros

(+65% in one year)

.biz ; € 242,244

0 € 10,000,000 € 20,000,000 € 30,000,000 € 40,000,000 € 50,000,000 €

Volume of transactions per extension (in euros)

Figure 40 – Volume of trading on Sedo by domain

In terms of average prices, the French extension remained the most expensive in 2010 as in 2008

and 2009, with an average price of nearly €5,000 against €3,000 the previous year. This sharp

increase is largely due to a special sale conducted in January 2010 under the French extension

(when "credit.fr" was sold for €587,500). The .com extension was also the subject of a record

transaction in November of that year, when "sex.com" sold for $13 million. All extensions taken

together, the average price of trading on the Sedo platform in 2010 stood at €1,750 per domain.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

91

Average price of domain names sold on the Sedo platform per extension in 2010

(source: Sedo)

.fr ; 4,916 €

.com ; 2,387 €

Extension

.org ; 1,678 €

.uk ; 1,497 €

.net ; 1,214 €

.de ; 1,135 €

.es; 1,056 €

.at; 749 €

.biz ; 664 €

.info ; 595 €

.eu; 524 €

In 2010:

Average sale price on Sedo of €1,750

(+23% in one year)

On the .fr : 4,900 euros

(+66% in one year)

0 € 1,000 € 2,000 € 3,000 € 4,000 € 5,000 € 6,000 €

Average price per extension (in euros)

Figure 41 – Average price of domain names sold on Sedo, by extension

Quarter after quarter, the .fr extension is leading the major generic and national TLDs in terms of the

average price of transactions on Sedo; only the .com gTLDs occasionally reached an equivalent

level. Between the second quarter of 2010 and of 2011, the average price for the French extension

oscillated between €1800 and €2500, with peaks in Q3 2010 (€3800) and in Q4 2010 (nearly

€6,000) for a few large sales ("albumphoto.fr", "europoker.fr", "everest.fr", and "microcredit.fr").

Although mean price figures can be distorted by a few transactions at record prices, median prices

are more reliable indicators of behaviour in ordinary sales. During Q2 2011, the median price at

which .fr domain names changed hands was around $1500, much higher than the medians for the

other domains (the .com followed with a median price of $700). The median price for the French

extension jumped 60% year on year, while those for other extensions posted more limited growth

(37% for the .com).


92

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

Median price of domain names sold on the Sedo platform in the second quarter of 2011

per extension (source: Sedo)

.fr ; 1,445 $

.com ; 700 $

.net ; 600 $

Extension

.org ; 550 $

.co ; 525 $

.info ; 496 $

.biz ; 429 $

.me ; 219 $

0 $ 200 $ 400 $ 600 $ 800 $ 1,000 $ 1,200 $ 1,400 $ 1,600 $

Median price per extension (in US dollars)

Figure 42 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo by extension

These figures underline the vitality of the secondary market which has taken off fast since 2008,

especially for the .fr domain. This is perhaps due to the French TLD catching up somewhat with

other extensions, a higher proportion of the interesting names having changing hands ever since, a

phenomenon detected earlier for domains such as .com or .de. Another explanation, which does

not exclude the first, could be that French users have become more mature in their perception of

the intrinsic value of .fr domain names, and are therefore willing to pay more to acquire them.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

93

Secondary market for .fr domain names (Sedo)

The following statistics only cover public trading in .fr domain names on the Sedo platform, not the

confidential transactions.

The annual number of transactions on Sedo for .fr domain names saw strong growth between

2007 and 2009 (tripling in 2008, +35% in 2009). It then stabilized in 2010 to 337 transactions per

year (-3%), even though the sale price and therefore the total financial volume continued to grow

strongly.

Change in the monthly number of transactions involving .fr domain names performed on the Sedo platform

since 2004 (according to Sedo, excluding confidential transactions)

70

60

2009

348 transactions

2010

337 transactions

2011

(30/06)

141 tr.

Monthly number of transactions

50

40

30

20

2005

26 transactions

2006

31 transactions

2007

89 transactions

2008

258 transactions

10

2004

11 tr.

0

Jun

2004

Dec

2004

Jun

2005

Dec

2005

Jun

2006

Dec

2006

Jun

2007

Dec

2007

Jun

2008

Dec

2008

Jun

2009

Dec

2009

Jun

2010

Dec

2010

Jun

2011

Months

Figure 43 – Monthly figures for transactions in .fr domain names on Sedo

In terms of trading volume on the secondary market, the French extension also posted continued

growth from 2004 (€10,000) to 2010 (over 1.1 million euros). The outstanding figure reached in

2010 (+43% year on year), however, was largely related to the record sale of "credit.fr" in January,

the total amount of transactions should return to lower values for 2011.

The average rates prevailing on the .fr second market jumped between 2009 and 2010 from €2,300

to approximately €3,300 per domain name because of the sale of "credit.fr". They should reach a

more reasonable value in 2011: over the first half of the year, the average price for .fr domain names

exchanged stood at €2,000.


94

PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

The median sales price on Sedo between January and June 2011 stood at €1,000 for the .fr TLD,

up sharply (it stood at €600 for 2010). If 9% of the names exceeded €5,000, a majority were sold

at more affordable prices: 45% of them traded for less than €1,000 and 46% between €1,000

and €5,000. Compared with the same period the previous year, small transactions made public,

however, declined sharply (from 25% to 6% of trading for sales less than €500) in favour of more

expensive transactions, primarily those between €1,000 and €5,000 (which rose 12 points over

the year). If we consider all the transactions including those that have not been made public, the

decline in sales below €500 is smaller, of about 5 points.

Transaction prices for .fr domain names performed on the Sedo platform between January and June 2011 in Euros

(source: Sedo, excluding confidential transactions)

From January to June 2011:

141 transactions

Average price: €1,967

(against €3,344 in 2010

as the result of one exceptional sale)

Median price of €1,000

(against €600 in 2010)

€5,000 and more

13 transactions

9 %

Less than €500

8 transactions

6 %

From €500 to €999

55 transactions

39 %

From €1,000 to €4,999

65 transactions

46 %

Figure 44 – Prices of .fr domain names sold on Sedo

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FOUR: REGISTRARS

95

Among the most expensive transactions made on the Sedo platform in the first half of 2011 under

the .fr TLD, we find once again the terms related to online games ("pari.fr", "gamer.fr", "joueur. fr").

The most expensive transactions involving .fr domain names performed on the Sedo platform

between January and June 2011 (source: Sedo, excluding confidential transactions)

Domain names sold

pari.fr ; 13,500 €

perles.fr ; 12,500 €

horizon.fr ; 10,000 €

cartouches.fr ; 9,900 €

zynga.fr ; 7,500 €

colorier.fr ; 6,500 €

gamer.fr ; 6,500 €

lookbook.fr ; 6,000 €

maillotdebain.fr ; 6,000 €

ligue.fr ; 5,500 €

joueur.fr ; 5,100 €

creditentreprise.fr ; 5,000 €

erv.fr ; 4,500 €

poeleabois.fr ; 4,000 €

testdepaternite.fr ; 3,750 €

cartedevoeux.fr ; 3,500 €

jetravaille.fr ; 3,500 €

halal.fr ; 3,350 €

glo.fr ; 3,323 €

tada.fr ; 20,000 €

0 € 5,000 € 10,000 € 15,000 € 20,000 € 25,000 €

Sale price (in euros)

Figure 45 – The most expensive .fr domain names sold on Sedo

The breakdown by category of .fr domain names for sale on the Sedo marketplace in September

2011 once again shows that names for the Business-Economy, IT, Leisure, and Shopping sectors

took the lead. Nearly 14,000 names were on sale in the Business-Economy category, compared

with only some 3,000 ranked as Adult.


PART FIVE

TECHNOLOGIES


98

PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

Chapter 15: DNS Servers

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database 1 July 2011 (number of domains per server and number of servers

per domain), operating statistics for authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC (monitoring data and traffic

analysis via the DNSwitness software platform).

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the DNS servers that appear in the registrations

of .fr domain names (number of servers per domain name, number of domain names per server,

and characteristics of servers), as well as data (number and type) on the requests received by the

authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC.

In July 2011, the AFNIC database contained 47,946 separate DNS servers, i.e. 12% more than a

year earlier. This increase is slightly lower than the year’s growth in the number of .fr domain names

(+17%). Specifically, the AFNIC database contained more than 12,000 new servers, while 7,000

had been withdrawn in relation to the figures for July 2010.

Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name

The distribution of the number of DNS servers associated with .fr domain names shows that a very

great majority of the names (more than 83%) only specify two DNS servers - the minimum required

– in their configuration. Some names specify three servers (14%), but configurations offering greater

redundancy are much rarer. These figures have changed little since 2010. The maximum number of

servers is 8, and the mean once again this year is 2.2 servers per name.

Number of .fr domain names per DNS server

Nearly half of the DNS servers found in the AFNIC database only support a single .fr domain

(representing some 23,500 servers) and approximately 13% manage two. At the other end of the

scale, 15% of the DNS servers handle more than ten names: in particular these include registrars’

servers which their customers’ domain names point to by default. In 2011, five servers even

managed portfolios with more than 100,000 .fr domain names.

In the year, as last year the proportion of servers hosting a single zone grew (+0.5 point), while

that for the servers hosting the most zones dropped once again (-0.4 point). Among the new DNS

servers that appeared in 2011, 64% only supported a single .fr domain, when this ratio was 49%

for all the DNS servers hosting the zones delegated for the .fr TLD. This means a large proportion

of the new DNS servers may be managed directly by small companies or individuals.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

99

Characteristics of the DNS servers for .fr domain names

The extensions most used in the names of DNS servers for domains in the .fr zone are the .com

and .net TLDs in proportions close to 30%, followed by the .fr extension itself (representing about

20% of the servers). The .com, .nl (Netherlands) and .uk (United Kingdom) extensions increased

slightly in 2011.

Requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC

The information for the .fr zone is made available through a set of authoritative DNS servers for

the zone. Some of them are managed direct by AFNIC, others are managed by entities separate

from AFNIC on its behalf (Internet Systems Consortium, Netnod, Packet Clearing House, SIDN).

In addition, some authoritative servers use Anycast technology, which improves the performance

and resilience of the DNS infrastructure by means of a cloud of servers geographically distributed

around the world.

Geographical distribution of DNS servers for .fr and .re as at 31 December 2010

(Source: AFNIC)

Figure 46 - Geographical location of the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr TLD


100

PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

AFNIC uses monitoring tools to ensure that the authoritative servers for which it is responsible are

functioning properly. The figure below shows changes in the average number of DNS requests

received per second by the authoritative servers managed by AFNIC. The graph shows strong

seasonal characteristics (a fall at the start of the summer and end-year holidays). In addition, after

a steady growth of 2700 requests per second in 2008 to 3,700 in 2010, the traffic received by this

set of servers appeared to decrease in 2011 (3,000 requests per second on average over the first

half of the year). This decrease could be explained by better use of DNS caches by the recursive

servers of ISPs and server operators such as Google Public DNS.

It should be noted that requests received by the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain only

account for some of the occasions on which Internet users access .fr domain names. This is

because of the use of "cache" functions in recursive DNS servers, meaning that sometimes when

a .fr domain is accessed this does not give rise to a specific request to an authoritative server.

In addition, the figures given here do not take into account requests received by authoritative .fr

domain servers not directly managed by AFNIC.

Number of requests received per second since 2008 by the subset of authoritative DNS servers

in the .fr zone managed by AFNIC

6,000

Number of requests received per second by these servers

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

Ave. Apr – Dec 2008

2,700 requests/sec

Average 2009

3,100 requests/sec

Average 2010

3,700 requests/sec

Ave. start of 2011

3,000 requests/sec

0

May

2008

Jul

2008

Sep

2008

Nov

2008

Jan

2009

Mar

2009

May

2009

Jul

2009

Sep

2009

Nov

2009

Jan

2010

Month

Mar

2010

May

2010

Jul

2010

Sep

2010

Nov

2010

Jan

2011

Mar

2011

May

2011

Jul

2011

Figure 47 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers

for the .fr domain

AFNIC has also developed software to detect and analyse DNS traffic, which forms an integral

part of the DNSwitness software platform 28 , and is available under a GPL licence. This software

component, known as DNSmezzo, was used in July 2011 to observe the traffic received by two

authoritative DNS servers for the .fr TLD managed by AFNIC. The analysis of the traffic shows that

most of the requests were for IPv4 addresses (type "A"), followed by mail servers (type "MX"). IPv6

addresses ("AAAA") constitute about 7% of the requests, while the authoritative DNS servers ("NS")

represent approximately 2%.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

101

Compared with the analysis performed in September 2010, the number of requests for mail servers

fell sharply (-20 points). The capture of the traffic taking place over a limited period (less than 24

hours), this finding should not be interpreted as an overall change. A massive issue of spam during

the data capture of 2010, for example, could have temporarily boosted the number of DNS queries

on mail servers.

The capture also contained a small percentage of requests for the DS ("Delegation Signer") resource

record: three per thousand in 2011, when there were none in 2010. This record is used in the

hierarchical validation process of DNSSEC keys (Domain Name System Security Extensions), and

its presence in the traffic analysis is a consequence of the deployment of DNSSEC in the .fr zone

on 14 September 2010.

Types of requests received by authoritative DNS servers in the .fr zone managed by AFNIC

in July 2011 (1.5 million requests analyzed)

IPv6 address (AAAA)

7.2 %

Other types

3.4 %

Authoritative server (NS)

1.6 %

E-mail server (MX)

13.2 %

IPv4 address (A)

74.6 %

Figure 48 – Type of requests received by an AFNIC-run authoritative DNS server for the .fr domain

Furthermore, analysis of this traffic shows that 1.5% of the requests received by the authoritative

servers analysed were conveyed via the IPv6 protocol, against 1.2% in 2010 and 0.7% in 2009.

While still low, the percentage of traffic received in IPv6 should continue to grow over time with the

gradual introduction of the IPv6 protocol in recursive DNS servers. The study also revealed that the

percentage depended on the geographical location of the instances of DNS servers in the Anycast

clouds: the servers located in France seemed to get more traffic via IPv6.


102

PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

Chapter 16: Use of IPv6 addresses

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database in June 2011 and a search for IPv6 addresses in the DNS using the

DNSwitness software platform.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the use of the IPv6 protocol in the .fr domain,

by identifying the number of domain names for which at least one server has an IPv6 address for

various services (DNS, e-mail, Web).

Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses

The DNSdelve software, which is the active component of the DNSwitness software platform, can

automatically collect different types of information from the DNS zones. The software can be used

to identify the domain names present in a zone that are IPv6-compatible for various services.

For each "afnic.fr" type domain name present in the AFNIC database, DNSdelve was used to test

for the presence of IPv6 addresses for the following three types of server:

••

DNS servers specified by registrations of the "NS" type resource records associated with the

"afnic.fr" type of domain name,

••

mail servers specified by the "MX" type resource records of registrations associated with the

domain name "afnic.fr",

••

Web servers which might be associated with the "afnic.fr" type of domain name, under the

naming conventions "afnic.fr", "www.afnic.fr" and "www.ipv6.afnic.fr".

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

103

IPv6-compatible .fr domain names

The following figure shows the percentage of .fr domain names for which DNS, mail or web servers

announce at least one IPv6 address in the DNS in June 2011. Nearly 40% of the .fr domain names

are IPv6-compatible for the DNS and more than 8% are IPv6-compatible for mail servers, the

proportion being lower for web servers (nearly 2%). These figures have significantly increased over

the past year for all the services observed, against a background of strong growth in the .fr TLD,

which must be mentioned when working with percentages.

45%

Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names in September 2010

and June 2011 per service

40%

39%

2010 2011

39,7%

Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names

35%

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%

8,3%

6,4%

6,7%

0,9%

1,8%

0,3%

0,08% 0,2%

DNS Web E-mail At least one service All services

Service associated with the domain name

Figure 49 – Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names

The change over time of IPv6 compatibility shows that it increases in steps, as and when the major

registrars and hosting companies deploy IPv6 within their infrastructure. For example, the IPv6

compatibility of DNS servers rose sharply in October 2010 (from 7% to 15%) and in February 2011

(from 18% to 38%), and the mail servers in November 2010 (from 0.3% to 7%). The change is

slower among web servers, the IPv6 compatibility of which is still low at present.

When an IPv6 address is published in the DNS for a given domain name, the DNSdelve software can

also be used to test whether the corresponding server is actually accessible in IPv6. The analysis

conducted in June 2011 showed that 82% of the web servers advertised as being IPv6-compatible

were effectively accessible with this protocol, as were 85% of the e-mail servers advertised as

being IPv6 compatible. These figures are a clear improvement for the e-mail servers (up 14 points),

but show a decline for web servers (down 16 points).


104

PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

International comparisons

Few registries provide statistical data on the deployment of IPv6 in their extension. For several

years the IAjapan association has provided statistics on the DNS, messaging and web servers

that are IPv6-compatible under the .jp TLD 29 . In September 2011, 76,000 domain names in the

extension announced an IPv6 address for their DNS servers, and 40,000 for their web servers, as

well as 42,000 for their mail servers. Since the .jp zone contains about 1.23 million domain names,

the percentages of IPv6-compatible names for the Japanese extensions stands at 6.2% for DNS

servers, 3.3% for web servers, and 3.4% for e-mail servers. The .fr TLD this year therefore seems

to be far ahead of the .jp zone in terms of DNS servers (39% against 6.2%) and to a lesser extent

for mail servers (8.3% against 3.4%); conversely, it is lagging in terms of web servers (1.8% against

3.3%).

Another indicator to consider is the percentage of requests received by the authoritative DNS servers

for a domain via the IPv6 protocol. This statistic provides information mainly on the deployment

of IPv6 in the recursive name servers of Internet service providers and companies, but gives no

indication of its deployment on the computers of Internet users.

In July 2011, 1.5% of the requests received by two authoritative servers for the French zone used

the IPv6 protocol. The ratio is slightly higher for the Japanese extension: in March 2011, 1.5% to

2% of the requests used IPv6 (based on the latest data available).

IPv4 exhaustion

IP addresses are allocated to end-users in a hierarchical process. The global pool of IPv4 addresses

is managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA, the technical function overseen by

ICANN). From this pool, IANA delegates address blocks to Regional Internet Registries (RIRs, such

as AFRINIC for Africa, ARIN for North America, LACNIC for Latin America and the Caribbean,

APNIC for Asia Pacific and RIPE for Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East), as and when they

are needed. These regional registries are responsible for allocating IP addresses in their geographic

zone, and in turn allocate address blocks (prefixes) in their own pool to entities who request them

depending on their needs (Internet Service Providers, large corporations, etc.).

The global pool managed by the IANA has been exhausted since 3 February 2011. The address

pools managed by the regional registries are now steadily decreasing since they are no longer

supplied by the global pool. When they have no more than one block of about 17 million addresses,

the regional registries need to change their method of allocation to enable the distribution of the

remaining addresses is more equitable (by allocating a very small number of IPv4 addresses, and

only to entities that already have IPv6 addresses).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART FIVE: TECHNOLOGIES

105

The regional pool of IPv4 addresses in the Asia-Pacific region has been exhausted since 15 April

2011, and the Asian registry has therefore switched to the "IPv4 endgame" method of allocation

since that date. According to the forecasts by Geoff Huston 30 , other regional pools in turn should

expire between 2012 and 2014, depending on the region. In Europe, the IPv4 address pool currently

contains just under four blocks of 17 million addresses, and the date of exhaustion is scheduled

for June 2012.

One of the major advantages of IPv6 is that it uses IP addresses encoded on sixteen bytes instead

of four in IPv4. The number of IPv6 addresses is therefore considerably higher than that of IPv4

addresses, which should resolve the shortage of addresses for many years. Various technical

solutions might allow operators and Internet service providers to continue to offer their services via

IPv4 on a temporary basis (private addresses and network address translation [NAT]), but the most

effective long-term solution is implementation of the IPv6 protocol by all the stakeholders in the

technical infrastructure of the Internet. This topic is also addressed in an In-Depth Study by AFNIC

on this issue, entitled "IPv6 passport to the future Internet", available at:

http://www.afnic.fr/data/divers/public/afnic-dossier-ipv6-2011-05.pdf

World region

Date of forecast or

effective exhaustion

Address pool available

in September 2011 (blocks

of 17 million addresses)

APNIC (Asia-Pacific) 15 April 2011 0.96

RIPE NCC (Europe and Middle East) 4 June 2012 3.92

LACNIC (Latin America and the Caribbean) 12 March 2014 4.27

AfriNIC (Africa) 20 May 2014 4.38

ARIN (North America) 26 July 2014 5.91

Table 10 – Exhaustion of IPv4 addresses by world region (forecasts by Geoff Huston)


PART SIX

USES


108

PART SIX: USES

Chapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web

■■

Data source: output from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2011 and exhaustive analysis of the HTTP headers

returned by Web servers using automated scripts; random sampling of the AFNIC database, and manual browsing

of the websites associated with the domain names in the sample.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on the uses of .fr domain names on the Web:

response from the server (no response, success or redirected site), and type of site (professional

site, personal site, parked site, etc.).

Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names

An automatic analysis of HTTP headers returned by web servers was performed on all the .fr

domain names present in the AFNIC database in July 2011. For each "afnic.fr" type domain name,

a script sends an HTTP request of the "HEAD" type to the web server address "www.afnic.fr" then

waits for the response. The HTTP response received was then analysed for various parameters:

••

the HTTP return code,

••

any redirection ("Location:" header),

••

the server software used ("Server:" header).

The figure below shows the kinds of HTTP return code received. For the entire .fr domain, the

requests were successfully returned in six cases out of ten; they resulted in a redirect in nearly a

quarter of the domain names, and 10% of them did not produce any response within the set time

limit.

These results changed little compared with the study last year: redirects and non-responses

increased slightly (+1 point) at the expense of success (-2 points over one year). This can be

explained by the fact that some of the newly registered domain names link to a holding page or are

not used on a temporary basis, while their holders develop the required content.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

109

In all, the proportion of domain names leading to an effective site (direct or by redirect) now stands

at 85% of the French domain, like last year, representing an increase of 8 points since 2009. This

proportion reflects the high utilization of the extension, which seems to be much less subject to

purely defensive registration strategies than the others.

Category of the HTTP response code returned by web servers associated

with .fr domain names active in July 2011

No response from Server: 10%

(+1 in one year)

Server error: 1%

(-1 in one year)

Client error: 4%

85% of names lead

to an effective website

(as in 2010 and against 77% in 2009)

Redirection: 24%

(+1 in one year)

Success: 61%

(-2 in one year)

Figure 50 – Categories of response codes returned by Web servers associated

with .fr domain names


110

PART SIX: USES

The figure below indicates which extensions were used by redirecting websites. The extensions

most frequently used for redirects are the .com gTLD (35% of cases), the .net TLD (26%) and the .fr

TLD (20%). In addition, the redirect is located on the same server in 15% of the cases (URL with the

same hostname and relative URL), the other extensions forming a large minority. In all, therefore,

35% of the redirections remained within the .fr zone.

Over one year, the .com gTLD was up two points at the expense of the .net TLD (-1 point). Redirects

to the same server also showed a slight increase (+2 points).

Extension used by HTTP redirects returned by web servers associated

with .fr domain names active in July 2011

Other redirects: 4%

Relative URL: 5%

(+1 in one year)

35% of redirects remain

under the .fr extension

URL using the same

Domain name: 10%

(+1 in one year)

.com: 35%

(+2 in one year)

.fr: 20%

.net: 26%

(-1 in one year)

Figure 51 – Extension used for redirects associated with .fr domain names

The servers most frequently used for redirects by .fr websites correspond to the holding pages of

registrars and hosting companies, to platforms for sponsored links or to servers for the personal

pages of general public Internet Service Providers. We can also see SEO strategies based on

multiple domain names referring to the same main site, this year mainly in the insurance, online

games, e-commerce, tourism and real estate sectors.

Apache freeware is still in the lead for software most frequently used by web servers associated

with .fr domain names, with more than 80% of the sites, followed by the Microsoft IIS server with

6%. Over the year, Apache further increased its lead by 3 points on the French domain, to the

detriment of IIS

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

111

Types of website associated with .fr domain names

A random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names was extracted from the AFNIC database on 1 July

2011. These 1,000 domain names were then analysed by staff who visited their associated websites

during August 2010 (addresses of the www.afnic.fr type).

The website types distinguished in this study were as follows:

••

no response from server: the web server associated with the domain name did not respond,

or sent an HTTP error message,

••

site suspended: a message on the site indicates that it is temporarily unavailable,

••

site empty: the web page returned is either empty or matches the default page of a content

management platform,

••

holding page: the site has been parked with a registrar, hosting company or web agency,

••

sponsored links: the site uses commercial links of the "Pay Per Click" kind, such as those of

Google AdSense, Microsoft adCenter, NameDrive, Sedo or Yahoo! Search Marketing,

••

business site: the site appears to be business-related (firms, associations, public bodies, or

indeed self-employed individuals),

••

personal site: the site is personal in character (personal blog, family website, community website,

photo-sharing website, etc.),

••

type unknown: it was not possible to determine the website’s place in this classification

(password protected access to the website’s content, for example).

On ranking the random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names by type of website, we found that

business websites account for almost half (49%), with personal sites far behind (less than 1%)

Holding pages represent 21.5% of the domain names considered, and nearly 4% point to pages of

sponsored links. Lastly, 13% of the names generated no response from the associated web server,

and 7% of the websites were empty. The confidence interval of 95% is plus or minus three points

for the percentage of professional sites, with lower values for the other ratios.

The results have changed little since last year's study: the variations are generally less than two

points and not representative compared with the confidence intervals of the study. Only the empty

sites appear to be making more marked progress (3 points over one year), which could correspond

to newly created sites waiting for meaningful content.

A priori, the very small percentage of personal sites (less than 3%) may seem surprising, when the

proportion of private holders continues to grow and is approaching 40% for the .fr zone. There are

several possible explanations. First of all, some of the sites sampled were being used for business

purposes although registered by individuals (sites belonging to professional artists, freelance

consultants, etc.). This shows that the practical reason why some individuals have an .fr domain

name may be to have a site connected with their work rather than one just for personal or family

purposes. Secondly, the recent popularity of social networks may have made some individual

holders of .fr domain names less keen to set up their own website but rather to have a profile on a

social network instead – in which case they may be using their domain name to give themselves a

personalised e-mail address.


112

PART SIX: USES

Type of web sites related to .fr domain names active in August 2011

(analysis of a random sample of 1,000 domain names)

Site of unknown type: 0.9%

Site closed: 0.9%

Personal site: 3.7%

Sponsored link page: 3.7%

Site empty: 7.4%

In August 2011:

53% of the sites

have specific content

(+2 in one year)

25% of the sites are parked

(-3 in one year)

No response from server:

12.8%

Professional site: 49,1%

Holding page: 21.5%

Figure 52 – Types of website associated with .fr domain names

The identification of site characteristics associated with the domain names of the sample shows

that 10% of the names were parked pending sale at the time of the study, a figure that dropped

over the year (14% in the 2010 study). In addition, 6% of sites with specific content took the form

of a blog and only 1% of these were pornographic in nature.

Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names active in August 2011

(analysis of a random sample of 1,000 domain names)

Characteristic

Domain name for sale

Site under construction

Blog type site

Porn or erotic website

Percentage

10% of sites parked, or 3% of all domain names

4% of sites with specific content

6% of sites with specific content

1% of sites with specific content

Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

113

Chapter 18: AFNIC and the ecosystem of domain name

stakeholders in France

■■

Data source: Linkfluence Study on the presence of AFNIC and domain names in the French social web (2011).

In early 2011, the Linkfluence company conducted a study commissioned by AFNIC to draw up

a map of the "Internet ecosystem" in France. Which communities in the French social web are

involved in the issue of domain names? How are they organised and what is their "distance" from

AFNIC? What lessons can be learnt?

Communities identified

As may be logically expected, AFNIC is central to an initial community of domain name professionals:

Internet 'governance' agencies, registrars, "domainers" and information sites dedicated to the

issue.

The community has strong ties with three main sets of stakeholders: marketing and communication

professionals, 'technologists' and the members of a community called "Agora" in reference to the

role it plays in terms of content production and expression.

Agora consists of stakeholders from the conventional and specialized media, civil society and the

legal sector. It also includes major influencers, known as "opinion makers".

On the edge of Agora there are various members of political parties, which – significantly – do not

directly involve the community of domain name professionals.

As might be expected on an issue as technical as this, the Technologists community occupies

a large part of the map and borders all the others in that it includes people from a wide range of

backgrounds, from Open Source enthusiasts to those of the "Social Revolution" and the "Tech

Revolution".


114

PART SIX: USES

AFNIC and domain names

in the French social web

Figure 53 – Presence of AFNIC and domain names in the French social web

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

115

The main lessons

The most striking feature, on studying the map of the French social web dealing with domain

names, is the eccentric position of AFNIC.

Although it is central to the community of domain name professionals, but relatively far from

the "centre" of the map, AFNIC has everything to gain from creating ties with the communities

of marketing and communication professionals, technologists, and all those involved in Agora,

including influencers and members of the political sphere.

The aim would be, first, to build relationships with these communities in order to explain the ways

in which they are affected by the issues related to domain names, and then make them aware of

benefits they could derive from such ties.

A few months from the presidential elections, the remoteness of the political players and the

community of domain name professionals is relatively symptomatic. It is a safe bet, however, that

since the French social web is constantly changing, the inter-relations between the communities

and their members have already changed.

On its behalf, AFNIC has "heard" the message, and in 2011 developed its activities in terms of its

presence on the social web including Facebook and via Twitter, in addition to the redesign of its

website.


116

PART SIX: USES

Chapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France

■■

Data source : AFNIC, WIPO.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide statistics on disputes concerning domain names in France:

disputes concerning the .fr extension, and disputes concerning other extensions when one of the

two parties is located in France.

Disputes over .fr domain names

Further to the law no. 2011-302 dated 22 March 2011 which modified certain aspects of the legal

framework for domain names in France, several changes came into force on 1 July 2011. A new .fr

naming policy, compliant with the current legislation, has defined the new rules for allocating and

managing domain names under the French extension. By the end of 2011, AFNIC will have set up

a new procedure for dispute resolution in accordance with the new legal framework.

Disputes concerning .fr domain names may be handled by means of various procedures, allowing

for a graduated response:

••

the opportunity for a third party to contact the administrative contact of a domain name with

restricted publication (i.e. personal information are not published in Whois directory), without

disclosing their identity or guaranteeing that this person will respond,

••

occasional post-registration checks to ensure that the name complies with the naming policy,

either at AFNIC’s initiative or at the request of a third party with a legitimate reason for enquiring,

without disclosing who is involved (Article 16 of the Charter),

••

Dispute resolution procedure based on third–party claims to resolve obvious breaches of the

provisions of the Decree of 6 February 2007 (Decree / Order covering French TLD management),

without disclosing who is involved (the PREDEC procedure) which was suspended on

15 May 2011,

••

disclosing, at the request of a third party, the name and other details of an individual holder registered

under restricted publicity, if a protected mark has been reproduced exactly or nearly

so (typosquatting, dotsquatting, etc.),

••

disclosing a name holder's contact details following a court judgement,

••

blocking by AFNIC of domain names (Article 19 of the Charter),

••

ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) procedure by expert's decision, administered by the

Arbitration and Mediation Centre of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) which

was suspended on 15 April 2011,

••

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) by online recommendation, administered by the Paris

Centre for Mediation and Arbitration (CMAP),

••

legal proceedings before the competent court.

The details of these various procedures are available online on the AFNIC website 31 .

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

117

The figures below show the development in the number of ADR procedures instituted and cases

dealt with directly by AFNIC each month. The PREDEC procedure was regularly used from its

inception in July 2008 until its suspension in May 2011. The average frequency of use was about

six procedures initiated per month over the past year. The procedures for lifting anonymity (at the

request of a third party or further to a court order) were also used on a regular and stable basis

over time (thirty procedures per month). The use of eligibility checks has greatly expanded over the

past year compared with previous years (almost 40 per month). Updates of the Whois database are

much less frequent and more episodic.

Change in number of procedures performed by AFNIC

for disputes involving .fr domain names

140

120

PREDEC procedure

Adoption of

PREDEC

Closure of

PREDEC

Number of procedures initiated each month

100

80

60

40

Update of Whois database

Lifting of anonymity

Eligibility check

20

0

Mar

2006

Jun

2006

Sep

2006

Dec

2006

Mar

2007

Jun

2007

Sep

2007

Dec

2007

Mar

2008

Jun

2008

Sep

2008

Dec

2008

Month

Mar

2009

Jun

2009

Sep

2009

Dec

2009

Mar

2010

Jun

2010

Sep

2010

Dec

2010

Mar

2011

Jun

2011

Figure 54 – Changes in the number of litigation procedures dealt with by AFNIC

concerning .fr domain names

Procedures of the ADR type are much less numerous (three per month over the past year), and are

virtually all dealt with at the WIPO. It should also be noted that these figures are for those litigation

procedures known to AFNIC; they do not necessarily include all the cases brought in connection

with the .fr domain.

The number of .fr domain names involved in an alternative dispute resolution procedure slightly

increased over the year: on average between July 2010 and July 2011 some twenty domain names

held by individuals were involved in an ADR procedure, and around thirty domain names held by

corporations.


118

PART SIX: USES

With respect to the PREDEC procedures (used to resolve cases of clear violations of the Decree

dated 6 February 2007), between August 2010 and June 2011 AFNIC handed down decisions

concerning 92 .fr domain names. They include well-know names of companies or brands

(Banque Populaire, Caisse d’Épargne, Carrefour, Française des Jeux, La Poste, LCI, Leclerc,

Les Échos, Microsoft, MSN, Orange, Rhodia, Solvay, TF1, Tour Eiffel, Veolia), as well as the

names of municipalities (Allauch, Bessières, Creil, Galluis, Longjumeau, Loos, Ploërmel, Vitry) or

politicians (Arnaud Montebourg, Martine Aubry). Some names reflect attempts at dotsquatting

(registration of a domain name preceded by the existing characters "www"): "wwwbanquebcp.fr"

and "wwwmicrosoftstore.fr".

Finally, the names blocked by AFNIC oscillated around 200 for corporations and for private

individuals. In the case of legal entities, they fell sharply in the summer of 2010, when their number

varied between 1,000 and 2,500 for several years.

UDRP disputes handled by WIPO

The figures given below come from statistics provided by the Arbitration and Mediation Centre of

WIPO (the World Intellectual Property Organisation) on UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy)

procedures 32 . They only relate to procedures of this kind brought before the body in question, given

that disputes over the various domains can also be handled by means of other procedures and by

other bodies, such as the Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre for the .fr extension, or ADNDRC

(the Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre), CAC (the Czech Arbitration Court), and the

NAF (National Arbitration Forum) in the case of generic domains.

The overwhelming majority of domain names involved in UDRP procedures handled by WIPO is

logically under the .com extension, the leader in terms of the numbers of domains registered, with

nearly 3,000 names involved in a dispute settlement procedure in 2010. It is followed by the .net,

.org and .info extensions (between 100 and 300 domains each). As for the .fr extension, only 61

domain names were subject to a WIPO UDRP procedure in 2009 (compared with 43 in 2009). The

changes over time in the number of names involved in this procedure vary considerably from one

year to the next, with marked peaks in 2000, 2005 and 2009 for the .com extension.

The ratio of the number of domain names involved in UDRP procedures at WIPO for every 100,000

registered domain names was slightly up for the .fr TLD between 2009 and 2010 (from 2.7 to 3.2),

after sharp drop the previous year. However, it remained well below the value posted in 2008 (7.5

contentious domains per 100,000). The French extension almost tied with the .com gTLD ahead of

the other generic extensions (.net, .org, .info, .biz and .mobi).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

119

If we look at the breakdown, for .fr domain names, of the UDRP procedures handled by WIPO in

2010, in terms of the final decisions given by the experts at the conclusion of those procedures, it

can be seen that in a great majority of cases the complainant’s case was upheld: more than the half

of the procedures ended with the transfer of the domain name in question. The claim was denied in

11% of the cases, with the defendant keeping the domain name. In 6% of the cases the procedure

was filed without further action, for example after the parties came to an amicable arrangement.

Compared with the figures for 2010, cases of transfer have increased dramatically this year (up 15

points after a rise of 10 points already in the previous year), to the detriment of cases filed without

further action. It can be seen that, year after year, UDRP procedures have proven to be more

favourable to plaintiffs, probably because they deepen their knowledge of the applicable case law

and target their claims better.

The domain names under the .fr TLD giving rise to an UDRP decision at WIPO in the first half of

2011 mostly involved large French companies (Cristalleries de Saint-Louis, Dassault, Française

des Jeux, Galliano, Michelin, Nexity, SFR, etc.) or current events (such as the "Guerlain" case, the

"Mediator" case).

The figures below give a breakdown per country of origin of the claimants and defendants involved

in UDRP procedures handled by WIPO between 1999 and 2011. The USA has by far the greatest

share in both figures, due to its predominance on the Internet (41% of claimants and 37% of

defendants). France accounts for some 11% of the claimants and 3% of the defendants: it would

appear therefore that French firms are more often victims than perpetrators of cybersquatting

activities. The percentage of claimants located in France has even slightly increased since the 2010

study (+0.3 points), while falling in the United States (-1 percentage point).

This figure of 11% of complaints concerning generic extensions by French organisations should be

compared with that of 2.6% for names registered in France under these extensions. The contrast

highlights the tendency of French firms to take legal action rather than conduct defensive registrations

beforehand. They can accordingly be seen to register fewer names than their counterparts in other

countries, but to be more vigilant over infringements of their trademarks in the sphere of domain

names.


120

PART SIX: USES

Classification of UDRP procedures handled by WIPO between 1999 and July 2011

according to country of plaintiff (source: WIPO)

Australia: 1.6%

Other countries: 12.2%

Sweden: 1.7%

Canada: 1.9%

Denmark: 2.1%

The claimant was French

in 11.2% of the UDRP procedures

handled by WIPO

Netherlands: 2.4%

Italy: 3.5%

Spain: 4.3%

United States: 40.8%

Switzerland: 5.2%

Germany: 5.5%

United Kingdom: 7.5%

France: 11.2%

Figure 55 – Main countries of origin of claimants involved in WIPO proceedings

If French players are less often defendants than claimants, their weight in litigation as defendants

(3.3%) remains higher than the weight of the names registered in France for generic extensions

(2.6%). This difference might lead one to suspect that there are professional cybersquatters to be

found in France. In addition, cases of disputes in which the defendant is Chinese are continuing

to rise (+0.9 points accumulated since 2009), indicating a growing concentration of cases of

cybersquatting of domain names in China.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SIX: USES

121

Classification of UDRP procedures handled by WIPO between 1999 and July 2011

according to country of defendant (source: WIPO)

Other countries: 23.5%

The defendant was French

in 3.3% of the UDRP

procedures handled

by WIPO

Russia: 1.5%

Germany: 1.5%

India: 1.7%

Netherlands: 2.3%

Australia: 2.6%

United States: 36.7%

France: 3.3%

South Korea: 3.4%

Canada: 4.2%

Spain: 4.3%

China: 6.8%

United Kingdom: 8.1%

Figure 56 – Main countries of origin of defendants involved in WIPO proceedings

As far as the language used in UDRP proceedings at WIPO is concerned, English is very predominant

(nearly 9 cases in 10). In 2010, less than 4% of UDRP cases used the French language, down

0.6 points year on year. There was also a reduction in the number of procedures held in Spanish

(-1.3 point) in favour of English (+2.2).


PART SEVEN

CONCLUSIONS


124

PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS

Chapter 20: Market review and prospects

The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of the past year and offer an analysis of the trends

and prospects for the French domain name industry with a particular focus on the .fr extension.

Review of the year

Further to the decree of 6 February 2007 concerning the allocation and management of domain

names on the Internet and after a call for applications published in January 2009, AFNIC was

designated as the Registration Office for the .fr extension on 2 March 2010 by the French Minister

of Industry. However, before a priority issue of constitutionality, on 6 October 2010 the Constitutional

Council ruled that Article L. 45 of the French Electronic Communications and Telecommunications

Act establishing the legal framework for assigning domain names in France, was not consistent

with the French Constitution, to the extent that the article did not take into account issues related

to the Freedom of Communication and Freedom of Trade, deferring the effects of its decision until 1

July 2011. A proposed amendment to replace the article to make it consistent with the Constitution

was subsequently proposed in December 2010 as part of the law adapting French legislation to the

law of the European Union on occupational health, labour and electronic communications. This law,

which in article L. 45 (et seq.) defines the new legal framework for extensions corresponding to the

country, was passed by both houses between January and March, and finally promulgated on 22

March 2011, less than six months after the decision of the Constitutional Council – a sign that the

legislature recognized the importance of the issues related to domain names. It concerns all French

Internet extensions except those of French Polynesia and New Caledonia. The implementing decree

was published in the Official Gazette on 3 August 2011.

Since the new article of the law implied a change in the methods of resolving disputes, the procedures

previously in effect were suspended on 15 April 2011 for the ADR procedure at WIPO, and on 15

May 2011 for the PREDEC procedure. AFNIC then developed and published a new naming policy

and a new procedure for resolving disputes concerning the .fr TLD, applicable since 1 July 2011.

Under the terms of the new law, on 1 July 2011 AFNIC also opened the "fundamental terms" to

market players, including the names of municipalities, which had previously been blocked and

whose registration is now possible, subject to prior review (claimants must demonstrate a legitimate

interest and use of the domain name in good faith). Nearly 2,500 applications for over 800 different

domain names were received on the opening day, the most popular terms being "internet", "email",

"webmaster", "employment", "mail" and "enterprise". By late September 2011, more than 7,000

applications had been filed, evidence of interest in the release of these terms. In addition, since 1

July, each day on its website AFNIC publishes the list of domain names registered the day before.

In terms of communication, in November-December 2010 AFNIC set up a new online campaign

to develop awareness of the .fr TLD, targeting prescribers involved in advising companies and

individuals to register their domain names (web agencies, communication agencies, intellectual

property consultants, etc.).

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS

125

Regarding the technical infrastructure, over the past year AFNIC has deployed the DNSSEC protocol

to secure DNS exchanges, thereby avoiding cache poisoning attacks, first on 14 September 2010

by signing the .fr and .re extensions and on 19 April 2011, by opening a DNSSEC interface for

registrars enabling them to forward the signature elements for the domain names they manage.

AFNIC also took part in the IPv6Day by setting up a dedicated team for the web community to

benefit from its expertise in IPv6 integration.

Furthermore, in order to assess the quality of its services, AFNIC carried out a new satisfaction survey

of its registrars during the last quarter of 2010. The results indicate that 95% of the respondents

were satisfied, and 9% were very satisfied.

Finally, the two millionth .fr domain name was filed on 18 April 2011 to accompany the launch of a

home manicure service, "manucure-saint-maur.fr".

Outlooks

Launched in 1986, the .fr TLD turned 25 on Sept. 2, 2011! A program of events will accompany

the anniversary until the spring of 2012: new corporate branding with new logos for the AFNIC

and the .fr TLD, in particular to reflect the values of technology, convenience and innovation, plus

a new website, the publication of a magazine tracing the history of the .fr TLD, the organization in

September 2011 of a contest showcasing the best .fr experience, a gala evening on the first floor

of the Eiffel Tower in October 2011, and finally a series of ".fr digital communication awards" to be

held in late spring 2012.

The .fr TLD and the other extensions managed by AFNIC (those of Mayotte, Reunion Island, Saint

Pierre and Miquelon, the French Southern and Antarctic Territories, and Wallis and Futuna) will be

opened to Europe as of 6 December 2011 in accordance with the Act of 22 March 2011 after a

public consultation in the summer of 2010. European companies and individuals residing within the

European Union will have access to all of these extensions.

AFNIC also plans to open the .fr extension to internationalized names (IDNs). At a workshop held

in early 2011, a large majority of the participants voted for a standard enabling the use of the

characters required to write the most commonly used major and regional languages in the West,

and for a secure opening giving priority to holders of domain names already registered in ASCII for

which there is an accented version. Another development planned concerns the registration and

renewal of .fr domain names for periods of more one year.

On 20 June 2011, ICANN launched the process for the new extensions begun three years earlier.

The schedule is particularly tight: applications for the new gTLDs may be submitted from 12 January

to 12 April 2012. ICANN will then assess the applications and publish the initial results in November

2012 for an operational start of the new extensions at the end of 2013.

More than a hundred projects have already been announced, including from cities, regions and

cultural communities (such as .paris, .aquitaine or .bzh) brand names (.canon) or centres of interest

(.shop, .bank, etc.), and ICANN is preparing to receive hundreds of applications.


126

PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS

In a few years this could completely upset the landscape of the Internet as we know it, with

hundreds of new extensions in addition to the 300 and more existing to date.

AFNIC has positioned itself very clearly in the market for new gTLDs as a provider of solutions and

technical operator for registries. AFNIC provides support for project leaders for new extensions in

the process of submitting their application to ICANN, and in the operational management of the

extension as of its allocation by ICANN.

Worth citing among the many projects in which AFNIC is involved is that of .paris, for which AFNIC

was selected in September 2009 as technical support for the project by Paris City Hall.

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


PART SEVEN: CONCLUSIONS

127

About AFNIC

AFNIC, a French non-profit association, was created in December 1997 at the initiative of the

public authorities to manage the .fr and .re extensions. These two internet top-level extensions

correspond to French territories (France and Reunion Island).

The members of AFNIC include corporations and individuals. Its board consists of ten members,

five of whom are appointed by public authorities (two by INRIA for historical reasons, two by the

French Industry Ministry and one by the French Research Ministry). The other five members are

elected from among registrars (two), users’ representatives (two) and the International College

(one).

AFNIC works to encourage growth of the .fr domain by establishing flexible rules and facilitating

automation of the registration process, while still making sure that all parties are in a position to

insist on their rights. This objective is allied to a cost-conscious charging system which has enabled

AFNIC to cut its fees to €4.80, under a third of the €15 charged in 2002.

Thanks to its expertise in DNS and Internet technologies, AFNIC is also committed to an active

programme of Research and Development with a view to maintaining that expertise and extending

it as the Internet continues to make massive technological strides. That R&D effort directly benefits

AFNIC’s customers and members through the services which depend on the outcome of such

endeavours.

Finally, AFNIC has decided to capitalise on its core business, the technical management of Internet

extension registries, in order to become involved in the programme to create new extensions

initiated by ICANN in 2008. It supports several projects in this capacity, both in the application

phase with ICANN and in the subsequent management of the extensions when they have been

delegated. The City of Paris, among others, has chosen AFNIC as its technical manager for the

coming .paris domain.

As a neutral, independent body, AFNIC can legitimately assume the role of prime contractor for

a monitoring platform enabling all the stakeholders to benefit from the results of studies that they

could not consider carrying out on their own.


ANNEXES


130

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 – Broadband Internet access ratios for European companies..........................................................18

Figure 2 - Development of web sites by European companies........................................................................19

Figure 3 – Number of domain names per extension..........................................................................................20

Figure 4 – Changes in the "adjusted" number of domain names, per type of extension...............................22

Figure 5 – Breakdown of generic domain names per country..........................................................................23

Figure 6 – Breakdown of extensions for domain names registered in France................................................26

Figure 7 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names...........................................................................31

Figure 8 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals.............................................................32

Figure 9 – Renewal of .fr domain names............................................................................................................33

Figure 10 – Correlation between the creation of .fr domain names and start–ups in France.......................34

Figure 11 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals)....................................................................36

Figure 12 – Length of .fr domain names.............................................................................................................38

Figure 13 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names (tag cloud generated by Wordle).................40

Figure 14 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names.......................................................43

Figure 15 – Proportion of business names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names.......................45

Figure 16 – Location of .fr domain names registered by individuals residing abroad....................................49

Figure 17 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants

(Metropolitan France)...........................................................................................................................................51

Figure 18 – Number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals per 1,000 inhabitants

(Overseas Territories)...........................................................................................................................................52

Figure 19 – Annual growth rate in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

(Metropolitan France)...........................................................................................................................................53

Figure 20 – Annual growth rates in the number of .fr domain names registered by private individuals

(Overseas Territories)...........................................................................................................................................54

Figure 21 – Location of .fr domain names registered by legal entities located abroad.................................55

Figure 22 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies

(Metropolitan France)...........................................................................................................................................57

Figure 23 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies

(Overseas Territories)...........................................................................................................................................58

Figure 24 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities

(Metropolitan France)...........................................................................................................................................59

Figure 25 – Annual percentage increase in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities

(Overseas Territories)...........................................................................................................................................60

Figure 26 – Total number of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France).............................................................62

Figure 27 – Total number of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories).............................................................63

Figure 28 – Comparison of age pyramids for individual holders of .fr domain names,

and the French population...................................................................................................................................66

Figure 29 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names...........................................................70

Figure 30 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)..........................................72

Figure 31 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas Territories)..........................................73

Figure 32 – Distribution of registrars of .fr domain names outside France.....................................................74

Figure 33 – Charges for .fr domain names.........................................................................................................77

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


LIST OF FIGURES

131

Figure 34 – Ranking of registrars in relation to the total number of .fr domain names.................................81

Figure 35 – Main registrars ranked by the overall number of .fr domain names............................................83

Figure 36 – Changes in concentration indices for the registration market of .fr domain names

in terms of the stock of names managed, and new names registered............................................................84

Figure 37 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars.....................................................................85

Figure 38 – Distribution of generic domain names per country of registrar...................................................86

Figure 39 – The most expensive country-code domain names sold on the secondary market....................89

Figure 40 – Volume of trading on Sedo by domain............................................................................................90

Figure 41 – Average price of domain names sold on Sedo, by extension.......................................................91

Figure 42 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo by extension.........................................................92

Figure 43 – Monthly figures for transactions in .fr domain names on Sedo....................................................93

Figure 44 – Prices of .fr domain names sold on Sedo.......................................................................................94

Figure 45 – The most expensive .fr domain names sold on Sedo....................................................................95

Figure 46 - Geographical location of the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr TLD......................................99

Figure 47 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers

for the .fr domain................................................................................................................................................100

Figure 48 – Type of requests received by an AFNIC-run authoritative DNS server for the .fr domain........101

Figure 49 – Percentage of IPv6-compatible .fr domain names.......................................................................103

Figure 50 – Categories of response codes returned by Web servers associated

with .fr domain names........................................................................................................................................109

Figure 51 – Extension used for redirects associated with .fr domain names...............................................110

Figure 52 – Types of website associated with .fr domain names...................................................................112

Figure 53 – Presence of AFNIC and domain names in the French social web..............................................114

Figure 54 – Changes in the number of litigation procedures dealt with by AFNIC

concerning .fr domain names............................................................................................................................117

Figure 55 – Main countries of origin of claimants involved in WIPO proceedings........................................120

Figure 56 – Main countries of origin of defendants involved in WIPO proceedings.....................................121


132

TABLE OF TABLES

Table 1 – French Internet statistics, 2011...........................................................................................................17

Table 2 – IDN national extensions accepted by ICANN in 2011........................................................................25

Table 3 – Extreme .fr domain names...................................................................................................................39

Table 4 – Use of years in .fr domain names........................................................................................................41

Table 5 – Annual change in the ages of individual holders of .fr domain names............................................67

Table 6 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registered

by private individuals............................................................................................................................................79

Table 7 – Concentration indices for the market for .fr domain names registered

by legal entities.....................................................................................................................................................80

Table 8 – Concentration indices for the overall market for .fr domain names

(private individuals and legal entities included).................................................................................................82

Table 9 – Concentration indices for the world market in generic domain names..........................................87

Table 10 – Exhaustion of IPv4 addresses by world region (forecasts by Geoff Huston)..............................105

Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names...................................................112

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


134

TABLE OF NOTES

1

ARCEP, Dissemination of communication and information technologies in French society – 2010

Results, Annual survey carried out for ARCEP and CGIET by CREDOC,

http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=8571&tx_gsactualite_pi1%5buid%5d=1340&cHash=c8fe56b984

2

Eurostat, Statistics on the information society,

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/information_society/introduction

3

ARCEP, Quarterly observatory of the electronic communications markets in France – 1st quarter

2011 - final results, http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=10926

4

WebHosting.Info, Country-wise Total Domains, http://www.webhosting.info/

5

Security Space, Web Server Survey, July 1st, 2011,

http://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/data/201106/domain.html

6

ISC, Internet Domain Survey, http://ftp.isc.org/www/survey/reports/current/

7

AFNIC, Statistics - Detailed data on domains,

http://www.afnic.fr/fr/ressources/statistiques/donnees-detaillees-sur-les-domaines/

8

French Ministry for Education, List of most frequently used words in the French language as

drawn up by the lexicologist Étienne Brunet, http://eduscol.education.fr/cid50486/vocabulaire.

html

9

Olivier Bacquet, Dubois Buyse spelling scale, http://o.bacquet.free.fr/db2.htm

10

Christophe Pallier, List of French words, April 2004,

http://www.pallier.org/ressources/dicofr/dicofr.html

11

The challenge of crosswords, OGD of common nouns,

http://ledefi.pagesperso-orange.fr/Dictionnaires.htm

12

Beaucarnot Généalogie, Ranked list of French surnames, 1 January 2006,

http://www.beaucarnot-genealogie.com/contenu/noms-de-famille/accueil-noms-de-famille/6-palmaresdes-noms-de-famille-francais/

13

GeoPatronyme.com, Names most used in France,

http://www.geopatronyme.com/cdip/national2.htm

14

Wikipédia, List of most common first names in France,

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liste_des_pr%C3%A9noms_les_plus_courants_en_France

15

QuelPrenom.com, http://www.quelprenom.com/

16

INSEE, 2008 populations of legal entities in the overseas departments and local authorities,

http://www.insee.fr/fr/ppp/bases-de-donnees/recensement/populations-legales/france-departements.asp

17

INSEE, Official Geographic Code, http://www.insee.fr/fr/methodes/nomenclatures/cog/

18

Wikipédia, CAC 40, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAC_40

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


TABLE OF NOTES

135

19

L’Expansion.com, The top 1000 French groups and their subsidairies in terms of sales (industry,

services and trade), http://lexpansion.lexpress.fr/classement/economie/

20

Wikipédia, Map of brand names, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartographie_des_marques

21

INSEE, Estimated population on 1 January by region, department, sex and age, 1990 2009,

http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=estim-pop®_id=99

22

INSEE, Demographics of companies and plants 2010 – non-agricultural market sector,

http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?reg_id=0&ref_id=fd-sidemo2010

23

ICANN, Accredited Registrars, http://www.icann.org/en/registrars/accredited-list.html

24

WebHosting.Info, Largest ICANN Registrars, http://webhosting.info/registrars/top-registrars/global/

25

DNJournal.com, Year To Date Domain Sales Charts,

http://www.dnjournal.com/ytd-sales-charts.htm

26

Sedo, Market trends, http://www.sedo.com/fr/ressources/tendances-du-marche/

27

AFNIC, DNSwitness, http://www.dnswitness.net/

28

Internet Association Japan, Measurement of IPv6 readiness: DNS Deployment,

http://v6metric.jp/en/html/st04/

29

Geoff Huston, IPv4 Address Report, http://www.potaroo.net/tools/ipv4/

30

AFNIC, Dispute Resolution, http://www.afnic.fr/fr/resoudre-un-litige/

31

WIPO, Domain Name Dispute Resolution Statistics,

http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/statistics/


136

GLOSSARY

ADR

Alternative Dispute Resolution procedure

ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line

AFNIC

Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération

Anycast

Addressing and routing technique used to redirect data to the "nearest" or the "most effective"

server according to routing policy.

ARCEP

Autorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes - French Regulatory

Authority for Electronic Communications and Post

CMAP

Centre de Médiation et d’Arbitrage de Paris - Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre

CR

Concentration Ratio, a commonly accepted measure of market concentration

DNS

Domain Name System

DNSSEC

Domain Name System Security Extensions

EPP

Extensible Provisioning Protocol, a protocol for exchanges among registries and registrars

FDI

Forum des Droits sur l’Internet - Internet Rights Forum

HHI

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a commonly accepted measure of market concentration

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

IDN

Internationalized Domain Name

INSEE

French acronym for the National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut National de

la Statistique et des Études Économiques)

French Domain Name Industry Report2011 Issue


GLOSSARY

137

IP

Internet Protocol

IPv6

Internet Protocol - version 6

PREDEC

Procédure de résolution des cas de violations manifestes des dispositions du décret du 6 février

2007 - Dispute resolution procedure for obvious breaches of the Decree dated 6 February 2007

Registry

Body (association, company, etc.) in charge of managing the database of a TLD, or of IP

addresses for a specified region

SME

Small and medium-size enterprises

TLD

Top Level Domain

UDRP

Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy

URL

Uniform Resource Locator

VSE

Very Small Enterprise

Whois

Service for searching registry databases for information on a domain name or IP address

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organisation


Immeuble International - 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex - France

Phone: +33 1 39 30 83 00 - Fax: +33 1 39 30 83 01

Siret : 414 757 567 00022 - APE : 6311Z - TVA n° FR 72 414 757 567

Copyright 2011 AFNIC

Every quotation or reproduction must mention the source:

"French Domain Name Industry Report - 2011 Edition - www.afnic.fr"

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines