Government 2.0

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Government 2.0

Sosiaalinen media

kuntien hallintasuhteiden

hoitamisen välineenä

Ari-Veikko

Anttiroiko

Tampereen yliopisto

Esitelmä Sosiaalinen media ja kunnat -seminaarissa

Teknologiakeskus Frami, Seinäjoki 20.11.2009


Web 2.0

World Wide Web (WWW) or the Web, emerged in the 1980s and 1990s

essentially as the global publication and exchange network dominated

by organisational content creation and usage.

Since the late 1990s new online communities, social networking and

peer-to-peer content sharing started to change the logic of the Web.


Web 2.0 viittaa verkkopohjaisten yhteisöjen, verkostojen ja

palvelujen “toiseen sukupolveen”, joka fasilitoi käyttäjien

luovuutta ja merkityksenantoprosesseja sekä käyttäjien

välistä yhteistyötä, sisällön jakamista ja vuorovaikutusta.

Web 2.0

Sosiaalinen

verkostoituminen

ja

sisällön

jakaminen

Sosiaalinen media on alusta, jolla yksilöt ja ryhmät rakentavat yhteisiä

merkityksiä sisältöjen, yhteisöjen ja verkkoteknologioiden avulla. (Wikipedia)


Social Networking

Building and

functioning of

online social

networks for

people who share

some interests

and activities.

Social network services (SNS) = Internet or mobile device based

social spaces designed to facilitate communication, collaboration

and content sharing across networks of contacts (digizen.org).


Timeline of the launch and

SNS-based re-launch dates of

some major social network

sites

(Source: Boyd & Ellison 2007.)

1997

The idea of social networking cannot

be reduced to a web site, even if that

is the most visible manifestation of

their emergence. Rather, they are a

part of a generational habit related to

how people want to interact with each

other through new media.

The first site that combined all these

elements was SixDegrees, which was

established in 1997 and due to its

difficulties to become a sustainable

business, was closed in 2000. In the

last years of the 1990s a number of

community tools began supporting

various combinations of user profiles

and publicly articulated friends in such

sites as AsianAvenue, BlackPlanet

and MiGente. Likewise, shortly after

its launch in 1999, LiveJournal listed

one-directional connections on user

pages.

2003-

2004


Growth of

Web 2.0

Applications

has been

exponential

Social networking

Blogs

(Osimo 2008)


The most central features of social

network Web sites are user profile,

list of friends or contacts, private

messaging and public comments

feature

Most of the applications so far offer one or

More of the eight features or functionalities:

Functionalities

User’s s network in the focus

(1) finding people

(2) building directories and social networks

(3) inviting people to join user’s s network

(4) managing access to user’s s network

("permissioning

permissioning")

(5) connecting with people in user’s s network

using various media

(6) managing relationships across media

(7) collaborating with people within user’s

network

(8) content sharing with people in user’s

network added with other learning,

knowledge-finding and knowledge-

sharing functionalities

(Pollard 2006)


Web 2.0 utilises a range

of Web technologies

Web 2.0 applications utilise a range of Web

technologies and related functionalities such as filesharing,

photo-sharing, blogging, video blogging

(vlogging), video-sharing, music-sharing, instant

messaging, voice chat, discussion groups, and so on.

This field has become a world of services and

platforms hosted by such players as Microsoft,

Google and Yahoo (global portals for multi-modal

social network services), MySpace and Facebook

(social networking), Last.fm (personal music),

YouTube (video sharing), Wikipedia (reference work),

Second Life (virtual reality), and Flickr (photo

sharing), just to name few most well-known examples.


On the basis of the features of the Web 2.0 applications the most important operational

forms of this trend are:

Social networking: profile-based hosted services that allow people to create and maintain networks of

friends and contacts based on general social interests (MySpace, Facebook, Bebo, Friendster, hi5, Tagged,

Ning, Orkut, Netlog, PerfSpot etc.)

Special interest networks (SINs): varieties of interest communities and networks in the Web (43

Things, Hobeze, Minti, WetCanvas, WAYN, MyTripz, Dogster etc.), lifestyle and consumerist social networks

(Stylehive, Zebo, ALL Consuming etc.), activism and political movements (GoodTree, Care2, MySociety.org,

etc.) and confessional communities (e.g. MyChurch).

Blogging: people’s chances to create and share experiences and views with each other using blogs and e-

diaries (LiveJournal, Multiply, Blogger, WordPress, e-diary.uk.com etc.)

Media communities: producing, storing and sharing videos, webcam views, photos, music and other

content materials (YouTube, DailyMotion, EarthCam, Flickr, Slide.com, imeem, Last.fm, Woophy etc.)

Reference works: collecting and sharing generic or thematic knowledge on a peer-to-peer basis in online

forums (e.g. Wikipedia and other wiki applications).

Sharing knowledge and news: sharing experiential knowledge, opinions, evaluations and news

releases on a peer-to-peer basis in opinion, review and rating sites (Epinions.com, PublicOpinion etc.),

news 2.0 sites (Fark, reddit, Gabbr, Wikio etc.), use of RSS feeds (e.g. Sabifoo combines IM with RSS),

social bookmarking (Delicious) and sharing knowledge and evaluations through user-centric market places

and networks (eBay, book reviews in Amazon.com, user evaluations in travel web sites etc.).

Collective intelligence: WWW site or application, which combines content from different sources,

synthesises such content and utilises new presentation tools in presenting them to the public; these

include such applications as global multi-function portals (MSN, Google, Yahoo, AOL etc.), mashups (e.g.

Digg), map-based information presentation applications (e.g. EveryBlock, which presents crime statistics

and data on Chicago, New York and San Francisco), knowledge networks and follow-up sites (e.g. Public

Whip, which watches MPs voting patterns in the UK, or TheyWorkForYou.com, a site, which follows the

actions of British politicians) or facilitated consumer activism (e.g. MoneySavingExpert.com).

Communication services: opportunities to real-time communication through instant messaging (IM),

Voice over IP (VoIP), Internet Relay Chat (IRC) and other tools with a range of supporting SNS

functionalities (MSN, Yahoo, Google, ICQ, AIM, Jabber, Skype etc.).


Web 2.0 Applications and Services

Search and

aggregation

of resources

Wikis

Production and

dissemination of

knowledge

Communication

Portals

Mashups

Web feeds

Search

engines

Peer

evaluations

Knowledge

sharing

Messenger

Yahoo, 24eyes,

Hotmail, Google,

Swearch, GoodTree

etc.

Digg,

EveryBlock etc.

Wikipedia, Barewiki,

Quotiki, Qwika etc.

Discussion

forums

Self-expression

and discussion

Chat

Internet

calls

Windows Live Messenger,

Yahoo!, Google Talk,

Jabber, AIM, SMS.ac etc.

Blogs

RSS, Atom

FunAdvice, 7tipson,

Menuism, Fark etc.

GU Talk,

TOTSE,

2channel,

etc.

Videofrog,

XAT, etc.

Skype,

Jaxtr

Freewebs,

Spruz etc.

Blo gger,

Multiply,

TypePad,

LiveJournal,

WordPress,

Twitter etc.

Personal

www

sites

Web 2.0

Friends

MySpace, Facebook, hi5,

Netlog, Bebo, Friendster,

Tagged, PerfSpot, Xanga,

Orkut, MyDailyFlo g,

Stylehive, ZEBO, etc.

Second Life,

Habbo,

IMVU

etc.

Jaiku,

Dizzler, Hobeze etc.

Last.fm,

Playlist.com,

etc.

EarthCam,

Webcam.co m

etc.

YouTube,

DailyMotion,

LiveVideo etc.

Videos

Lifestyle

Visible Path,

LinkedIn, Spoke,

Xing etc.

Meshopolis, PayPerPost,

Auction Mapper, Weblo etc.

Flickr,

Slide.com,

Photobucket,

Woophy, etc.

Photos

Friendship

networks

Dating

Expertise

MyTripz, VCario us, WAYN etc.

Webcams

FanLete.co m etc.

DMusic.com,

WetCanvas,

DeviantArt,

etc.

Music

Marketing

Business

Art and

culture

Media

communities

Travel

Sports

Hobbies

Interest

networks

Freetime,

hobby and art

communities


Facebook


Multiply


Twitter


YouTube


LinkedIn


Wikipedia


Government 2.0 (Hallinto

2.0)

Web 2.0 = Second generation of

Web-based communities, networking

and hosted services, which aim to

facilitate creativity, collaboration,

sharing and interaction between users.

It does not refer to technology but to

the way software developers and endusers

use the Web.

Implications for e-government:

Government 2.0

Since the invention of the concept of Web 2.0 and

related discussions about new income-generation

logic of the Internet, version numbering has been

attached to various activities and organisations,

such as Enterprise 2.0, Media 2.0, News 2.0, Office

2.0, Education 2.0, University 2.0, Community 2.0

and Government 2.0.


HALLINTO 2.0

Fokuksessa kuntalaiset

Vuorovaikutteisuus

“Massojen viisaus”

Kollektiivinen äly

Sisällön jakaminen

Yhteistyö

Avoin innovaatio

Kuntalais- ja käyttäjäkeskeisyys

Ubiikkisuus ja monikanavaisuus


Web 2.0

muutos

hallinnossa

- Edistää tiedon jakamista

- Luo uusia yhteistyömuotoja

- Laventaa julkisen hallinnan suhde- ja toimijakenttää

- Käyttäjien mukaantulo palvelutuotantoon ja palvelujen kehittämiseen

- Verkostojen, vapaaehtoistyön ja sponsoroinnin hyödyntäminen

-Andrea Di Maio Gartnerilta kirjoittaa: “the current global financial

turmoil bolsters the case for government adoption of social

networks as technology-budget cuts make tapping into societal

resources, such as voluntary groups, philanthropists, associations

and social network groups essential to complement weaker

government action in some critical areas.'' (Domain-b.com 2008.)


PSU –malli (Production, Sharing, Utilisation)

JULKINEN

YKSITYINEN

Hyödyntäminen

Sisältötuotanto

Hyödyntäminen

Jakaminen

Sisältötuotanto


USER ROLES

(Osimo

2008)


Sosiaalisen median

hyödyntämisen

kehitysvaiheet

julkishallinnossa

Maturity level

Transformational

Government 2.0

Redesigned

Government 2.0

Interactive

Government 2.0

Enhanced

Government 2.0

Emerging

Government 2.0

Full transformation of networking and

governance logic utilising Web 2.0

Collective intelligence and reconfiguration of

public services along social network approach

Mashups and utilisation of the tools of social

networking and media communities

Extranets, RSS feed and organisation

blogs

Contact information, feedback channels

and discussion forums

Utilisation of IT tools


Anglo-American

countries have special

strengths due to their

innovative NPMoriented

reforms.

Another factor that

has some relevance

here is that in the US

there are a lot of Web

2.0 developers and

people who are

used to operate in the

Web 2.0 environment.

In the UK social

networking is said to

be the most popular

phenomenon when

compared with their

European neighbours.

There are some

similar development in

Canada and New

Zealand too.

Kansainvälisiä esimerkkejä

Nordic countries have inherent strengths in

Government 2.0 due to their transparency

and citizen-centric traditions, as exemplified

by active development of Government 2.0 by

Sweden and Denmark.

Web 2.0 in government in Asia: Japan,

South Korea, Singapore, Philippines,

India etc.


In the beginning of 2007 Sweden attracted attention in e-government field due

to its announcement of establishing a ”virtual embassy” to Second Life (SL).

Virtual Embassy was opened in May in the same year. Virtual embassy

building – named as Second House of Sweden – is almost an accurate replica

of the House of Sweden in Washington D.C. It is a forum that provides access

to information on Sweden, but at least so far neither passports nor visas are

available in this new virtual forum. The most important function of this virtual

Embassy is to express the innovativeness and progressiveness of Sweden as

the applier of technology. Related to this, it serves to promote positive image

of the country.

Virtual Embassy of

Sweden in Second Life


Virtual Embassy of

Sweden in Second Life

In the beginning of 2007 Sweden

attracted attention in e-government

field due to its announcement of

establishing a ”virtual embassy” to

Second Life (SL). Virtual Embassy

was opened in May in the same

year. Virtual embassy building –

named as Second House of Sweden

– is almost an accurate replica of

the House of Sweden in

Washington D.C. It is a forum that

provides access to information on

Sweden, but at least so far neither

passports nor visas are available in

this new virtual forum. The most

important function of this virtual

Embassy is to express the

innovativeness and

progressiveness of Sweden as the

applier of technology. Related to

this, it serves to promote positive

image of the country.


Web 2.0 related initiatives can also be found in the Great Britain, where there

has been discussions about government’s need to increase its visibility in

Web 2.0 forums. The main purpose is to provide government information as

widely as possible to all citizens and user groups. For example, results of food

inspection, crime statistics and various kinds of price comparisons could be

available as much as possible in some popular thematic Web sites. There are

also activist groups, such as MySociety.org (http://www.mysociety.org/).

Another indication of this trend is that some Irish County Councils and several

other Irish, Northern Ireland, and UK government agencies have published

press releases using the Nooked hosted online RSS publishing service.

Government 2.0 in

the UK and Ireland


Web 2.0 related initiatives can also

be found in the Great Britain, where

there has been discussions about

government’s need to increase its

visibility in Web 2.0 forums. The

main purpose is to provide

government information as widely

as possible to all citizens and user

groups. For example, results of

food inspection, crime statistics

and various kinds of price

comparisons could be available as

much as possible in some popular

thematic Web sites. There are also

activist groups, such as

MySociety.org

(http://www.mysociety.org/).

Another indication of this trend is

that some Irish County Councils

and several other Irish, Northern

Ireland, and UK government

agencies have published press

releases using the Nooked hosted

online RSS publishing service.

RSS (Really Simple Syndication) is a

Web-feed format used to publish

frequently updated content, such as

blog entries, news headlines or

podcasts. RSS contains usually a

summary of content from a Web site,

making it easy for people to keep up

with their favourite Web sites.


In the USA there are many governments that already utilise some aspects of

Web 2.0. The same goes with political life, of which a good example is the

lively discussion around last presidential elections in YouTube. At the state

level a good example is the State of Virginia, which uses RSS feeds not only

for alerts, but also as a monitoring service that keeps citizens informed of new

resources and services added to the portal (RSS in Government 2008).

Another example is an American company, Government Futures, which has

been established with the idea of bringing the core idea behind Web 2.0, the

wisdom of masses, to government.

Government 2.0 in

the USA


What is Delicious?

Delicious is a social bookmarking service

that allows users to tag, save, manage and

share web pages from a centralized source.

With emphasis on the power of the

community, Delicious greatly improves

how people discover, remember and share

on the Internet.


Developments and trends in East and SE Asia

- Local and regional SNSs and mobile social networking in Asian countries

- Features: real-name registration, invitation-only memebership, reviews and

recommendations, tracking access log, less customisable web design

- Some SNSs (e.g. Multiply) are popular especially in Asia

- Success of Gorotto-Yacchiro SNS (City of Yatsushiro in Kyushu; inspired by

mixi), Chiyoda ward of Tokyo and Nagaoka at Niigata Prefecture, Japan

- South Korea: u-cities and mobile applications

(popular SNS e.g. Cyworld)

- China has blocked

many SNSs

- Government 2.0 applications

are still few

Government 2.0 in Asia


Sosiaalinen media kunnan hallintasuhteiden hoitamisessa

Kunta 2.0

Patient Opinion

- Personointi

- Web 2.0

sovellukset

- Liitynnät

vertaistuen ja

yhteisöjen

sivustoille

YouTube

Digg

Mashupit

GIS/data ym. yhdistelmäpalvelut

Sisällöt, kollektiivinen

äly ja vertaistuki

Facebook

Yhdistelmätieto

WordPress

Mediasisällöt

Live Chat

Verkostoituminen

Twitter

Mielipiteet, tarinat

Perinteiset

verkkopalvelut

Delicious

RSS

Kuulumiset

Keskustelu

Uutisotsikot

Web-merkkaus

Kaupungin portaali

Lyhytviestintä Dialogi Blogit Verkosto- ja

sisältöpalvelut

Yhdistelmäpalvelut

Massojen

viisaus

Kuntalainen 2.0


Hallinto 2.0:aan liittyvät jännitteet

When the training video prepared in 2006 by the British Government was published in YouTube,

many users criticised that public administration is reaching its tentacles to the realm of civil society.

Youtubers presented such comments as ”all governments suck.” or “Government propaganda here.

Ooook, Youtube is no longer safer place ...”.

Such comments indicate a wide freedom of speech, but they also indicate problems in public

governance and in stakeholder relations of public administration.


Kehitystrendejä

- Käyttäjälähtöinen

innovaatiotoiminta

ja LivingLabtoiminta

- Mobiili sosiaalinen

media tekee tuloaan

- Ubiikin kaupungin

(ubiquitous city)

idean kytkentä

sosiaaliseen

mediaan

- Hallinnon roolin ja

orientaation

uudistuminen:

käyttäjälähtöisyys ja

vertaistuki

Käyttäjäinnovointi


Mobiilisuus

lisääntyy


Sosiaalisen

verkon

lähestymistapa

Charles Leadbeater: Remixing

Cities: Strategy for the City 2.0


Julkisen palvelun

uudistaminen:

käyttäjät ja

vertaistuki


Hallinto 2.0 merkitsee

julkisen hallinnon alan

ja luonteen uudelleenmäärittämistä.

Hallinto 2.0 on visio

kansalais- ja yhteisökeskeisestä

hallinnosta,

joka hyödyntää

sosiaalisen verkon

lähestymistapaa ja

Web 2.0 välineitä

hallintasuhteiden

hoitamisessa.


Kiitos!

Dosentti A.-V. Anttiroiko

Tampereen yliopisto

kuaran@uta.fi

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