1. It means that the application layer programs do not need to be concerned about the
protocols (and physical network) used at layers 1 to 3.
2. Application-to-application (or process-to-process) delivery is the delivery of a
packet from the process at the source host to the process at the destination host.
3. The transport layer has a packet size limitation. Also, smaller packets are easier to
retransmit in an error situation.
4. Connection establishment, data transfer, and connection termination.
5. The three-way handshake is the exchange of 3 packets between two parties during
6. The four-way handshake is the exchange of 4 packets between two parties during
7. The port number identifies the application sender or receiver for the transport
8. The server program uses a well-known port number; the client uses a temporary
9. A reliable service provides loss control, error control, sequence control, and duplicate
10. The sequence number of a packet is needed to order the packets at the receiver.
11. UDP and TCP.
12. TFTP and SNMP use UDP.
13. SMTP, HTTP, FTP and TELNET use TCP.
2 CHAPTER 3 TRANSPORT LAYER