The Charge for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability - The Smart ...

arch.uiuc.edu

The Charge for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability - The Smart ...

Not Just Maintaining

Kristine Chalifoux – Director of Management and Operations

Smart Energy Presenter’s Design Assistance name ∙ Professional Center (SEDAC), Title (eg. University architect/energy of Illinois specialist..) at Urbana Champaign

Smart Energy Design Providing Assistance effective Center strategies (SEDAC), for public and University private buildings of Illinois Illinois at Urbana Champaign

Providing effective strategies for public and private buildings in Illinois


Presentation Overview

▪ Maintenance and Energy

▪ Utilities and Benchmarking

▪ Maintenance Programs

▪ Recommended Tips

▪ Take away: Regular Maintenance cost less over the

long term.


Maintenance

and Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Maintenance and Building Energy

▪ ~40-50% of building energy

and energy costs are from

heating, cooling, fans, and

pumps and much higher when

adding in lighting.

▪ Some utility budgets exceed

maintenance salaries

▪ Building Operator is in control

of equipment operation,

maintenance, and

replacement.


Maintenance

and Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Building Energy Example

▪ Newer School (~200,000 sf)

with BAS

▪ Exhaust Fans weren’t

scheduled

▪ Estimated $7,000 in savings

from scheduling off when

school was unoccupied.

▪ Maintenance goes beyond

fixing broken equipment.

Maintenance is making

sure the building systems

are running in the best

means possible.


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Utility Bills

▪ What are your utility costs or

budget?

The first step to excellent

maintenance is knowing what

you are using.


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Utility Bills

▪ Usually finance

department is in charge of

these.

▪ Don’t be shy to ask for

them.

▪ You can typically download

from the internet.

▪ Why look at these?


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Utility Bills - Tracking

▪ Many methods for this

▪ Spreadsheet

▪ Third Party Software

Energy Insights (ComEd)

▪ Portfolio Manager


Utility Bills

Benchmarking

the Building

Certifications

Recommended

Tips


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Utility Bills - Tracking

▪ One step further is to track weather

▪ Use Cooling and Heating Degree Days

▪ Represent intensity of weather for the day/month/year

▪ Available at degreedays.net

▪ Use closest weather station

▪ Add to spreadsheet


Utility Bills - Tracking

▪ One step further is to track weather

▪ Use Cooling and Heating Degree Days

▪ Represent intensity of weather for the day/month/year

▪ Available at degreedays.net

▪ Use closest weather station

▪ Add to spreadsheet

Utility Bills

Benchmarking

the Building

Certifications

Recommended

Tips


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Utility Bills – Tracking – Benefits

▪ Comparing current usage to historic usage may help

to notice malfunctioning equipment, equipment off

schedule, etc.

▪ Better estimating of utility budgets.

▪ Verify energy savings projects.

▪ May want to investigate submetering.


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Utility Bills – Tracking – WHY?

▪ Begin to compare usage

Electricity Consumption (kWh)

400,000

350,000

300,000

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

-

500

400

300

200

100

0

100)

200)

300)

400)

Cooling Degree Days (CDD)

Electricity Consumption

Cooling Degree Days


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Benchmarking

▪ Once you know your consumption you can begin to

compare to other buildings.

▪ Compare on a per foot basis.

▪ Usually seen as kBtu per square foot per year

▪ Can also compare electricity or natural gas use per square foot.

▪ Know how much room there is to improve


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Benchmarking - Tools

▪ ENERGY STAR’s Target Finder

▪ Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey

(CBECS)


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Target Finder

▪ Uses similar buildings

types in the same areas

▪ Input zip code, facility

characteristics, and

annual energy

consumption

▪ Receive a score of how

you compare

▪ If your score is higher

than 75 you could qualify

as an ENERGY STAR

building


School Benchmarking


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Benchmarking – Motivation

▪ Comparing current usage to historic usage may help

to notice malfunctioning equipment, equipment off

schedule.

▪ Comparing to other buildings can help quantify your

potential for energy savings / reduction.


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Performance and Maintenance

▪ Performance of the building is heavily influenced by

maintenance.


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Various Maintenance Approaches

US DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program: Operations

and Maintenance Best Practices:

▪ Reactive

(“run it until it breaks”)

▪ Preventative

(“follow the schedule”)

$18/hp

$13/hp

▪ Predictive

(“test when to replace”) $9/hp

▪ Reliability Centered

Maintenance (hybrid)

$6/hp


Cost of Deferred Maintenance

Graphic from Stonegate Property Inspections, LLC


Maintenance – Where do you stand?

▪ Reactive. No action or effort is made to maintain

equipment as it was originally designed.

▪ Disadvantages

▪ Increased cost due to down time

▪ Increased labor, mostly from overtime

▪ Possible secondary damage

▪ Inefficient use of staff resources

▪ Highest long-term cost

▪ Advantages:

▪ Low immediate cost

▪ Less staff

▪ Preventative. Actions performed based on a

predetermined time/use schedule. (Time based

maintenance)

▪ Disadvantages

▪ Catastrophic failures still occur

▪ Labor Intensive

▪ Sometimes unneeded maintenance

▪ Advantages:

▪ Increased equipment life

▪ Reduced Failure

Energy Savings

▪ Flexibility allows for adjustment

▪ Estimated 12% to 18% cost savings over reactive

▪ Predictive. Measurements taken to detect when to

perform maintenance

▪ Disadvantages

▪ Increased short-term cost in diagnostic equipment

▪ Increased short-term cost in staff training

▪ Savings potential not readily seen by management

▪ Advantages:

▪ Increased equipment life

▪ Decrease in long-term cost (labor and parts)

Energy Savings

▪ Better worker morale and safety

▪ Estimated 8% to 12% cost savings over preventative

▪ Hybrid. Combination of 3 other approaches but

with root cause analysis to solve on going

problems.

▪ Disadvantages



Significant start up cost, training, equipment, etc.

▪ Savings potential not readily seen by management

Advantages:





Most efficient approach

Lower cost by reducing unnecessary maintenance

Reduced likelihood of sudden failures

Usually incorporates root cause analysis

Comparison of Four Maintenance Programs (Piotrowski 2001)

O&M Best Practices Guide, Release 3.0

Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips


25,000

Monthly Gas Usage

Therms

Heating Deg Days

2,000

Gas Use (therms)

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

• HDD line is a

relative indicator of

gas use

• Notice pretty good

seasonal

dependency

0

Feb-07 Aug-07 Feb-08 Aug-08 Feb-09 Aug-09 Feb-10 Aug-10

1,500

1,000

500

0

Heating Degree Days

Electricity (kWh)

300,000

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

Monthly Electricity Usage

On-Peak kWh Off-Peak kWh Cooling Degree Days

• 2008 had summer

school

• Some anomalies in

2007

• Fairly high spring

and fall baseload

0

Feb-07 Aug-07 Feb-08 Aug-08 Feb-09 Aug-09 Feb-10 Aug-10

500

400

300

200

100

0

Cooling Degree Days


Gas Use (therms)

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

Monthly Gas Usage

Therms

Heating Deg Days

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

Heating Degree Days

Electricity (kWh)

0

Feb-07 Aug-07 Feb-08 Aug-08 Feb-09 Aug-09 Feb-10 Aug-10

Monthly Electricity Usage

300,000

On-Peak kWh Off-Peak kWh Cooling Degree Days

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0

500

400

300

200

100

0

Then, things

go crazy.

Cooling Degree Days

0

Feb-07 Aug-07 Feb-08 Aug-08 Feb-09 Aug-09 Feb-10 Aug-10


Economics of Maintenance

▪ It is estimated that O&M programs targeting energy

efficiency can save 5% to 20% on energy bills without

significant capital investment (PECI 1999)

▪ Tune-ups typically translate to energy savings of 5% to

15% (E SOURCE)

▪ Cost of tune-up (ENERGY STAR)

▪ $0.01-$0.10/sf newer bldg

▪ $0.10-$0.50/sf older bldg

▪ US DoE Forrestal Bldg.

▪ Steam trap maintenance

▪ program saved $250,000/yr


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Chiller Tune-Ups = 5% of cooling costs

▪ To maintain efficiency in O&M

▪ Maintain economizers

▪ Test at least twice a year

▪ Damper operation

▪ Adjust air temperature sensors

▪ Clean and replace air filters

▪ Inspect and clean evaporator and condenser coils

▪ Measure and correct and refrigerant charge

▪ Fix leaks in cabinet and supply ducts

▪ Rest condenser water temperature

▪ Stage multi-chiller operation to improve part-load performance

▪ Other:

▪ Raise thermostat settings

▪ Reduce run hours

▪ Reset chilled water temp

▪ Clean evaporator and condenser tubes

▪ Minimize use of reheat

▪ Don’t cool unused space


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Boiler Tune-Ups = 6% SAVINGS

▪ To maintain efficiency in O&M

▪ Boiler tune program once per year

▪ Insulate piping and central storage tank

▪ Blowdown to remove accumulated dissolved solids

▪ Excessive blowdown wastes water, energy, and chemicals

▪ Water treatment program to prevent scale and corrosion

▪ Clean and inspect boiler water and fire tubes

▪ Use expansion tank to temper boiler blowdown drainage

▪ Install meters on boiler system make-up lines and recirc water

loop

▪ Consider summer shutdown


Maintenance and

Energy

Utilities and

Benchmarking

Maintenance

Programs

Recommended

Tips

Steam Trap Maintenance 15-30% Failed

▪ To maintain efficiency in O&M

▪ Test traps and replace as failed

▪ Sight method (visually observe steam escaping)

▪ Sound method (ultrasonic measuring equipment)

▪ Temperature method (thermography) least reliable

▪ Automatic diagnostics (self-diagnosing steam trap)

▪ Checklist for possible trap failure

▪ Abnormally warm boiler room

▪ Condensate received venting steam

▪ Condensate pump water seal failing prematurely

▪ Boiler operating pressure difficult to maintain

▪ Vacuum in return lines difficult to maintain

▪ Water hammer in steam lines

▪ Higher than normal energy bill

▪ Inlet and outlet lines to trap nearly the same temperature


Summary

▪ Know how much energy you are using

▪ Compare energy use to others

▪ Plan maintenance

▪ Tune-up equipment


Presentations will be available at:

presentations.sedac.org

Web site: www.sedac.org

Contact: info@sedac.org

1-800-214-7954