Tech. Explanations - Kendrion Binder

kendrion.binder.at

Tech. Explanations - Kendrion Binder

BINDER

W= F(s)ds

∫s2

W

1Ω =1— A

2

L= • R

1V = 1A·Ω

s 1

kec

group

U=√R • P

W

1V =1— A

kgm

1N =1 s

2

1kp = 9.81N


P=— R

the technical technical

P U

— = I = —

R R

U 2

1W = 1V·A

1

1Hz =— s

background

background

power of partnership and magnetism

V

1Ω =1— A

Vs

1H = 1— A

control power line

high power line

atex line

classic line

elevator line

oscillating line

U 2

R=— P

Nm

1W =1— s

U=R•I

technical explanations


about us

The KENDRION ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPONENTS Group

(KEC Group) sees itself as a centre of excellence in the field

of electromagnetism.

KENDRION MAGNETTECHNIK GmbH develops and

manufactures a wide range of electromagnetic products in

the most diverse variations and designs for countless

technical applications. The company grew out of the

traditional operations of Binder, Thoma and Neue Hahn

and is now Europe’s leading manufacturer of electromagnetic

components.

Our many years of experience in the development and

manufacture of electromagnetic devices plus the skills and

commitment of our employees enable us to recognise the

needs of the market. And we turn those needs into highquality

products in cooperation with our customers.

We at KENDRION MAGNETTECHNIK achieve customerfocused

solutions in all corporate divisions. Those solutions

bring maximum benefits for customers and hence

considerably strengthen their position in their markets.

Project work is our focal point. We at KENDRION

MAGNETTECHNIK take this to mean the joint development

of devices together with our customers, taking into

account special operating conditions, special requirements

and high economic efficiency. Our objective is to provide

the market with the devices it needs. With optimised costsbenefits

ratios to secure the competitiveness of our

customers.

• Customer-centred market management,

• innovative product developments,

• lean, flexible logistics,

• high quality standards,

• affordable prices,

• and the power of magnetism

guarantee the success of

KENDRION MAGNETTECHNIK.

kendrion magnettechnik

--

your one-stop solution

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contents

1

2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

6

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.3.1

6.3.2

6.3.2.1

6.3.2.2

6.3.2.3

6.4

6.5

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Definitions of the solenoids referred to on our product data sheets

Force, stroke, linear work

Force

Stroke

Force–stroke relationship

Linear work

Voltage, current, power

Rated voltage U N

Rated current I N

Rated power P N

Coil ON time, total cycle time, cycle sequence, duty cycle

Coil ON time

Duty cycle

Coil OFF time

Total cycle time

Cycle sequence

Examples of duty cycle calculations

Switching frequency

Response and release times, operating modes, temperature terms, insulation classes

Response and release times

Operating modes

Temperature terms

Insulation classes

Electrical connection

Voltage and current data

Rectifiers

Electrical circuits

Measures to protect against voltage spikes when switching off

Measures for shortening response time and increasing linear force during response phase, and for reducing power consumption

Fast energisation and over-powering to shorten the response time t1

Over-powering to increase holding force

Economy mode to reduce power consumption

Input power and ambient temperature

Switching operations for DC solenoids

SI units and symbols used in equations

Testing of solenoids

Electromagnetic time constants (τ) and inductances

Operating conditions

Service life

Notes for DC and AC linear solenoids

Ordering information

Wiring recommendations

Class of protection

Technical data (permanent magnet solenoids, holding electromagnets and locking solenoids)

Technical data (inline vibrators, curved motion vibrator and vibrating solenoids)

Technical data (AC and 3-phase solenoids)

SI units and symbols used in equations

Page

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definitions

1. Definitions of the solenoids referred to on

our product data sheets

Solenoid

A linear solenoid with a plunger that performs a

limited longitudinal movement (stroke) or a limited

rotary movement (hinged armature) about a pivot.

A rotary solenoid with an armature that performs a

rotary movement (rotation) with a limited angle of

rotation.

Single direction linear solenoid (longitudinal stroke)

A device in which the linear movement from the initial

position to the end position is achieved by applying an

electromagnetic force and the return movement by

means of external forces.

We distinguish between pull and push versions

depending on the direction of the output power of the

plunger.

Single-acting spreader solenoid

A single direction linear solenoid that due to its design

and technical specification is primarily used for

releasing block or drum brakes.

Double-acting spreader solenoid

A linear solenoid consisting of two single-acting

spreader solenoids that is particularly suitable for use

in lift and escalator drives and in industrial brakes for

releasing block or drum brakes.

Latching solenoid

A device in which the linear movement of the plunger

from the initial position to the end position is achieved

by applying an electromagnetic force, and in which –

when the current is switched off – the plunger is held

in the end position by means of an integral permanent

magnet. Also known as a permanent magnet or

self-holding solenoid.

Control solenoid

A linear solenoid that due to its design and technical

specification is primarily used for operating valves in

hydraulic control and/or regulation systems.

Holding force

In DC solenoids this is the magnetic force at the end

position.

In AC solenoids this is the mean value of the magnetic

force at the end position fluctuating cyclically with the

alternating current.

Remanence force

This is the residual holding force after switching off

the power. This residual holding force can be attributed

to the residual magnetisation in magnetite. To minimise

this effect, linear solenoids are provided with release

shims, i.e. an air gap is intentionally created at the

end position.

Restoring force

This is the force required to return the plunger to the

initial position after switching off the power. (In rotary

solenoids this force corresponds to the torque.)

pull push pull + push

2-coil linear solenoid, without neutral position

(longitudinal stroke)

A device that functions according to the principle of

the single direction linear solenoid. The direction of

the linear movement from one end position to the

other or vice versa depends on the energisation. Here,

the end position in one direction is at the same time

the initial position for the opposite direction.

Valve solenoid

A linear solenoid that due to its design and technical

specification is primarily used for operating valves in

pneumatic and hydraulic control systems.

Rotary solenoid (rotary movement)

A device in which the limited rotary movement from

the initial position to the end position is achieved by

applying an electromagnetic force and the return

movement by means of an internally or externally

applied force.

Magnetic force F M

This force is the usable mechanical force generated in

the stroke direction reduced by the friction. It is

specified on our product data sheets and on the rating

plates. The magnetic force is reliably achieved at 90%

of the rated voltage and maximum coil temperature.

At the rated voltage the figures specified can be

increased by 20%.

Linear force F lin

This is the magnetic force that acts outwards, taking

into account the associated plunger weight component.

When the solenoid is installed horizontally, for example,

the linear force is equal to the magnetic force.

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the technical background

2. Force, stroke, linear work

F INU = inclined negative uplift = F W · sin

F DF = f · F W

F N = normal (perpendicular) force = F W · cos

2.1 Force

F M = magnetic force = F F - F DF

F F = force exerted on the plunger by the

magnetic field

F DF = dynamic friction force

F lin = linear force

F W = weight = m P · g

m P = mass of plunger

pulling or pushing upwards at an angle

g = 9.81—

m

stationary

2

s F M = F INU

f = coefficient of friction

moving

F lin = F M - F INU

F DF = f · F N

F lin = F M - F W

F DF = f · F W


pulling upwards

F W

or pushing upwards from below



F lin = F M

2.2 Stroke

F DF = f · F W

Solenoid travel s

The distance travelled by the plunger between its

initial position and its end position.

operating horizontally

Initial position s 1

The position of the plunger prior to the start of the

stroke and after completion of the return movement.

End position s 2

The designed, intended position of the plunger after

completion of the stroke.

pulling downwards or pushing downwards from above

F lin = F M + F W

F INU F M

F N

2.3 Force–stroke relationship

A graphic representation of magnetic force in

relation to solenoid travel.

We distinguish between three characteristic

relationships in moving towards the end position

(Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Force–stroke relationship

a = descending characteristic (from right to left)

b = horizontal characteristic

c = ascending characteristic (from right to left)

s = solenoid travel

= magnetic force

F M

2.4 Linear work

The integral of magnetic force F M with respect to

solenoid travel s.

s 1

W= ∫ F(s)ds

s 2

The linear work is made up of a potential linear

work component W 1 and a kinetic linear work component

W 2 (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2 Linear work with a proportionally varying

opposing force (e.g. spring)

F M = magnetic force

s = solenoid travel

s 1 = initial position

s 2 = end position

W 1 = static linear work component

= dynamic linear work component

W 2

ds

Similarly, in a rotary solenoid the linear work W is

the integral of the torque M with respect to the

angle of rotation.

1

W= ∫ M()d

2

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the technical background

3. Voltage, current, power

3.1 Rated voltage U N

The rated voltages of the majority of devices kept in

stock.

The rated voltage (U N ) of a linear solenoid is the

voltage for which it is designed. The values specified

on the product data sheets are based on a rated voltage

of 24 V. Other rated voltages can lead to deviations –

both upwards and downwards – from the specified

magnetic forces as a result of the different insulation

components in the energisation coils.

The permissible permanent voltage change for a

DC linear solenoid is +10% to -10% of the rated

voltage.

The rated voltage (U N ) is the operating voltage

specified on the product data sheets. The provisions of

VDE standards 0175 and 0176 apply.

The preferred voltages for DC linear solenoids are 12,

24, 48, 60, 110, 180 and 220 V. The data regarding

magnetic force and power consumption given on the

product data sheets generally applies to a voltage of

24 VDC. Different operating voltages can lead to

deviations from the figures in the tables due to the

changing copper factor. To ensure that the solenoid is

not too hot and that the magnetic force does not fall

below the value specified in the catalogue, a voltage

tolerance of +10% to -10% of the rated voltage is

permissible.

3.2 Rated current I N

In devices with a voltage coil, the rated current is

related to the rated voltage and a coil temperature

of 20°C, and the rated frequency if necessary.

Unless otherwise specified, the rated holding current

I HS is specified as the rated current for AC solenoids.

For three-phase solenoids this is as follows:

P HP IHS = U · √3

In devices with a current coil, the rated current is the

figure specified by the manufacturer.

Pull-in current I AS

In AC devices this is the current ensuing upon energisation

when the plunger is held in the initial position and

transient phenomena have decayed.

Holding current I HS

In AC devices this is the current ensuing upon energisation

when the plunger is in the end position and transient

phenomena have decayed.

3.3 Rated power P N (rated input power)

The power consumption at rated current as specified by

the manufacturer.

Rated power P N

The rated power is the product of the rated voltage

(U N ) and the rated current (I N ) at a coil temperature of

20°C. The rated power is specified on the product data

sheets. If necessary, the rated current can be calculated

from the following equation:

P N

I N = ——

UN

Pull-in power P AP (input power for response)

In AC solenoids this is the apparent power ensuing

after transient phenomena have decayed when the

plunger is held in the initial position. The pull-in power

P AP for a rotary solenoid can be calculated from the

following equation:

P AP = √3 · U · I AS

Holding power P HP (input power for holding)

In AC solenoids this is the apparent power ensuing

after transient phenomena have decayed when the

plunger is in the end position. The holding power P HP

for a rotary solenoid can be calculated from the

following equation:

P HP = √3 · U · I HS

4. Coil ON time, total cycle time, cycle

sequence, duty cycle

4.1 Coil ON time

The coil ON time is the time between switching on and

switching off the energisation current.

4.2 Duty cycle

The duty cycle is the percentage relationship of coil ON

time to total cycle time. It is calculated using the

following equation:

coil ON time

duty cycle = _________ . 100

total cycle time

The calculation of the duty cycle is generally based on

the preferred total cycle value of 5 minutes given in

DIN VDE 0580 point 3.2.2.

For irregular total cycle times, the duty cycle is

determined by the ratio of the sum of the coil ON

times to the sum of the total cycle times over a longer

operating period.

The preferred duty cycle values according to DIN VDE

0580 point 3.2.3 result in the following maximum coil

ON times for a total cycle time of 5 minutes:

100% duty cycle no restriction

60% duty cycle max. 180 s

40% duty cycle max. 120 s

25% duty cycle max. 75 s

15% duty cycle max. 45 s

5% duty cycle max. 15 s Tab. 1

The maximum coil ON times may not be exceeded. If

the duty cycle has been calculated and the coil ON time

value exceeds the maximum permissible DIN VDE

value, the higher duty cycle in whose range the coil ON

time falls should be chosen. In DC solenoids, depending

on the coil ON time, it is permissible to increase the

linear work corresponding to the higher permissible

input power (Fig. 3).

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the technical background

Fig. 3 Linear work W in relation to duty cycle for DC

solenoids. Preferred duty cycle values to DIN VDE 0580

point 3.2.3.

4.3 Coil OFF time

The coil OFF time is the time between switching off the

energisation current and switching on again.

4.4 Total cycle time

The total cycle time is the sum of the coil ON time and

the coil OFF time. For DC linear solenoids the total

cycle time is max. 5 min = 300 s. This corresponds to

12 switching cycles per hour. The minimum total cycle

time is limited by the response and release times in

conjunction with the duty cycle. A total cycle time of

300 s results in maximum values for the coil ON times

which may not be exceeded (Tab. 1). If the permissible

coil ON time is exceeded, select a solenoid with the

next higher duty cycle. If the coil ON time exceeds

180 s, design the solenoid for a 100% duty cycle

(continuous duty), or in special cases adapt the coil ON

time calculated from the ON/OFF ratio by designing

the coil accordingly. For irregular total cycle times, the

duty cycle is determined by the ratio of the sum of the

coil ON times to the sum of the total cycle times over a

longer operating period.

4.6 Examples of duty cycle calculations

a) given: switching frequency = 80 S/h

coil ON time = 10 s

wanted: duty cycle

answer: total cycle time = 3600 : 80 = 45 s

duty cycle = 10 x 100 : 45 = 22.2

Select a solenoid with a 25% duty cycle!

b) given: switching frequency = 300 S/h

coil ON time = 5 s

wanted: duty cycle

answer: total cycle time = 3600 : 300 = 12 s

duty cycle = 5 x 100 : 12 = 41.7

Select a solenoid with a 60% duty cycle!

c) given: switching frequency = 6 S/h

coil ON time = 6 s

wanted: duty cycle

answer: total cycle time = 3600 : 6 = 600 s

duty cycle = 6 x 100 : 600 = 1

Select a solenoid with a 5% duty cycle!

d) given: switching frequency = 18 S/h

coil ON time = 200 s

It is not necessary to calculate the duty cycle here

because the permissible coil ON time of 180 s for a

60% duty cycle has already been exceeded (Tab. 1).

Therefore, a solenoid with a 100% duty cycle is the

only answer!

4.7 Switching frequency

The switching frequency, i.e. the maximum permissible

number of switching operations, is practically unlimited

for DC solenoids. The achievable number of switching

operations is determined by the response and release

times and also depends on the type of load. Tab. 2

shows the maximum ON and OFF times for various

numbers of switching operations. Using the response

times specified on the data sheets, the maximum permissible

number of operations per hour can be calculated

as follows:

max. permissible switching frequency (S/h)

= 3600 x 1000 : min. total cycle time (ms)

min. total cycle time (ms) =

response time (ms) x 100 : duty cycle

If the total of the response and release times specified

on the data sheets is greater than the minimum total

cycle time calculated, this newly calculated figure

(at least) should be entered into the above equation.

4.5 Cycle sequence

This is a single or cyclically recurring succession of total

cycle times.

Duty cycle (%) 5 15 25 40 60 100

Max. permissible coil ON time (s) 15 45 75 120 180 no restriction

No. of switching operations (S/h) 12 120 300 600 1200 3000

Total cycle time (s) 300 30 12 6 3 1.2

Tab. 1

Tab. 2

5

15

25

40

60

100

t on

15

45

75

120

180

t off

285

255

225

180

120

t on

1.5

4.5

7.5

12

18

t off

28.5

25.5

22.5

18

12

t on

0.6

1.8

3.0

4.8

7.2

t off

11.4

t on

0.3

10.2 0.9

9.0 1.5

7.2 2.4

4.8 3.6

no restriction

t off

5.7

5.1

4.5

3.6

2.4

t on

0.15

0.45

0.75

1.2

1.8

t off

2.85

2.55

2.25

1.8

1.2

t on

0.06

0.18

0.3

0.48

0.72

t off

1.14

1.02

0.9

0.72

0.48

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the technical background

Voltage

Release delay

Release time

Return time

Slow intermittent duty is the operating mode in

which the coil ON time is so short that the stabilised

coil temperature is not reached, and the coil OFF time

is so long that the solenoid cools down to its reference

coil temperature.

Current

Linear movement

Response delay

Travel time

Response time

5. Response and release times, operating

modes, temperature terms, insulation classes

5.1 Response and release times

Response delay (t 11 ) is the time between switching

on the energisation current and the plunger beginning

to move.

Travel time (t 12 ) is the time taken by the plunger to

move from its initial position to its end position.

Response (t 1 ) is the total of response delay plus

travel time.

Release delay (t 21 ) is the time between switching

off the energisation current and the plunger beginning

to move back.

Return time (t 22 ) is the time taken by the plunger

to move from its end position back to its initial

position.

Release time (t 2 ) is the total of release delay plus

return time.

The diagram above illustrates the characteristic oscillogram

with lines indicating voltage, current and movement

of a DC linear solenoid. This clearly shows the

composition of the response and release times. The

response times specified on the data sheets are reliably

reached at 70% of the magnetic force, the rated voltage

and with the solenoid at its operating temperature.

5.2 Operating modes

Continuous duty is the operating mode in which the

coil ON time is so long that the stabilised coil

temperature is reached.

Fast intermittent duty is the operating mode in

which coil ON time and coil OFF time alternate in a

regular or irregular sequence but the coil OFF times

are so short that the device cannot cool down to its

reference coil temperature.

5.3 Temperature terms

The ambient temperature (°C) is the average

temperature around the device.

The reference coil temperature (°C) of a solenoid

is the stabilised coil temperature in the non-energised

state for the intended application. In certain cases this

temperature may differ from the ambient temperature

if, for example, the solenoid is fitted to a part of a

machine operating at a higher or lower temperature.

Unless specified otherwise, the reference coil

temperature is +35°C.

The differential temperature (°C) is the difference

between the temperature of the device or a part

thereof and the temperature of the associated means

of cooling at the same time (or the surroundings in the

case of non-cooled solenoids).

The maximum stabilised coil temperature (°C) is

the maximum permissible temperature for the solenoid

or a part thereof. It is usually determined by the

thermal stability of the insulation used.

Air cooling is the case when the dissipation of heat

from the solenoid to the surrounding air is achieved by

way of, for instance, mounting the device on materials

with low or poor thermal conduction qualities, e.g.

wood, plastic.

Heat sink cooling is the case when the solenoid is in

contact with a metal surface enabling good thermal

conduction and most of the heat is dissipated via this

surface. In this situation the solenoid can be operated

with a longer coil ON time or, in certain circumstances,

with a higher voltage for the same coil ON time. The

relative humidity should be approx. 50% at 35°C.

Higher relative humidities are permissible at lower

temperatures.

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the technical background

Insulation maximum Temperature rise

class temperature (°C) limit (°C )

Y 90 50

A 105 65

E 120 80

B 130 90

F 155 115

H 180 140

Special reference coil temperatures

Our solenoids can also be used with special reference

coil temperatures when the permissible duty cycle is

multiplied by the corresponding conversion factor. This

does not change the linear work specified for a coil at

operating temperature. Use the diagram below to find

the duty cycle for a special reference coil temperature.

Reference coil temperature (°C)

Factor

Example: A solenoid with a duty cycle of 25% and

a stabilised coil temperature of 60°C is to be used.

With which duty cycle may the solenoid still be

operated? Using the diagram, we find that the

operational duty cycle is now only:

25% duty cycle x 0.67 = 16.75% duty cycle

Tab. 3

6. Electrical connection

6.1 Voltage and current data

The device is to be connected to the corresponding

power supply depending on whether it has been

designed as a DC, AC or 3-phase solenoid. Please refer

to the requirements regarding the electrical connection

as given on the product data sheet or the drawing in

each individual case. Various connection options are

possible, e.g. wires, terminals or plugs/sockets.

In devices of protection class I without a PE line, the PE

connection is to be guaranteed by the user according

to VDE 0100 point 3.5.

The preferred rated voltages are given on the product

data sheets. The permissible permanent voltage change

at the connection of the active device should not

exceed +10% to -10% of the rated voltage.

6.2 Rectifiers

A solenoid for DC operation should be connected

directly to an AC supply via a rectifier or transformer

rectifier. On request, KENDRION can supply rectifiers in

the form of half-wave and/or bridge rectifiers, and

transformer rectifiers.

6.3 Electrical circuits

When the solenoid is switched on the AC side (Fig. 4),

the switch opening delay should be taken into account.

When the solenoid is switched on the DC side (Fig. 5),

the switch opening delay is very short, but this can

lead to a very brief overvoltage. The user must install

suitable protective measures and circuit components to

prevent unacceptably high overvoltages. KENDRION

can supply suitable circuit components on request.

6.3.1 Measures to protect against voltage

spikes when switching off

Converting the high breaking energy present with DC

switching into a form that is harmless for solenoids,

rectifiers and switches guarantees a safe and troublefree

circuit. Resistors, capacitors, varistors, diodes,

Zener diodes, etc. can be used to provide the necessary

protection. Here, the values of the ohmic resistance R

and the voltage spikes when switching off are in inverse

proportion to each other. As R increases, the breaking

time decreases. A value of R = 7 Rm is advisable.

With the circuit shown in Fig. 6, the voltage drop is

slowest when just one overvoltage protection device

with a diode is wired in parallel with the solenoid.

Higher ohmic resistances, on the other hand, lead to

a significantly shorter breaking time.

Fig. 8 clearly shows that higher permissible voltage

spikes (corresponding to the Zener voltage of the

Zener diode) shorten the release delay of the solenoid.

As already mentioned, the voltage spikes when

switching off (DC switching) can cause damage not

only to the device being switched but also to the switch

itself. Figs 9 and 10 show two overvoltage protection

options for the switch.

Fig. 6

D = diode

R = ohmic resistance

5.4 Insulation classes

DIN VDE 0580 (July 2000) allocates materials to insulation

classes according to their long-term thermal stability

as shown in Tab. 3 above. Our linear solenoids are

manufactured with class E, B or F insulation depending

on the particular model. If required, most devices can

also be supplied with class H insulation.

Fig. 4 Switching on the AC side

U

I 0 = —

R M

(R + R M ) · t

I = I 0 · e - ———

L M

Fig. 5 Switching on the DC side

Fig. 7 Overvoltage protection for solenoid and switching

contact by means of diode and ohmic resistance

L M = inductance of solenoid M

R M = ohmic resistance of solenoid M

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the technical background

Fig. 8 Overvoltage protection for solenoid by means of

diode and Zener diode

D Z = Zener diode

U Z = Zener voltage

U = supply voltage to solenoid

6.3.2 Measures for shortening response time and

increasing linear force during response

phase, and for reducing power consumption

Solenoids permit the following options in special cases

when the response time is to be shortened and the

linear force increased during the response phase, or

the power consumption is to be reduced.

6.3.2.1 Fast energisation and overvolting

to shorten the response time t 1

Here, either the time constant governing the rise in

current should be decreased (fast energisation) or the

quotient increased for the same time constant

(overvolting).

L M

Fast energisation: T = ———

R V + R M

Overvolting:

U

——

RM

6.3.2.2 Overvolting to increase holding force

The overvolting option mentioned above is also

suitable for special situations requiring a higher linear

force throughout the travel (during the response

phase). KENDRION can supply suitable overvolting

rectifiers which are in a position to supply the solenoid

with a higher voltage throughout the response time.

Besides shortening the response time to 30-40% of the

standard value, such rectifiers also increase (by up to

two times) the linear force during the response phase

(for devices with 100% duty cycle) (Fig. 12).

KENDRION single-phase overvolting rectifiers automatically

switch back from the higher voltage to the

standard voltage after the response phase. The higher

power consumption during the brief overvolting time is

normally no problem for the solenoid.

Fig. 9 Overvoltage protection for switch by means of

diode and ohmic resistance

R V

R M

L M

U

= series resistor

= ohmic resistance of solenoid

= inductance of solenoid

= supply voltage to solenoid

M

Fig. 10 Overvoltage protection for switch by means of

capacitor and ohmic resistance

R s = ohmic resistance

C = capacitor

D = diode

R M = ohmic resistance of solenoid

In the fast energisation option, connecting an ohmic

resistance in series with the solenoid increases the total

resistance and decreases the time constant.

In the overvolting option, a multiple of the rated

voltage is applied to the solenoid and this shortens the

switch closing time for the same time constant T as

when connected to the rated voltage. Fig. 11 illustrates

how fast energisation and overvolting influence the

response time t 1 . The values given are typical values

for guidance only.

Fig. 12 Influence of overvolting on the characteristic

response of the solenoid

a

b

c

W 1

W 2

F M

s

= with normal energisation

= holding force with normal energisation

= with overvolting rectifier

= normal linear work

= additional linear work gained due to overvolting

= magnetic force

= solenoid travel

Fig. 11 Shortening of response time by means of a)

fast energisation and b) overvolting

t 1N

U N

= closing time without shortening influences

= rated voltage of solenoid

10

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the technical background

6.3.2.3 Economy mode to reduce power

consumption

It is not always necessary to increase the linear force

during the response phase (see 6.3.2.2). There are

applications in which the holding force achieved at the

end of the response phase permits a decrease in the

power consumption and hence also the temperature of

the solenoid. Fig. 13 shows a circuit for such an

economy mode. Here, once the plunger has reached its

end position, a switch is actuated to connect a resistor

with the solenoid in series. This resistor is shortcircuited

by the switch during the response phase.

This results in the following designations:

plunger in initial position and during response time

P 1 = U · I 1 = I 2 1 · R M

Plunger in end position with power reduction

P 2 = U · I 2 = I 2 2 · (R M + R V )

U

R M

I 2 = ——— = I 1 · ———

R M + R V R M + R V

P 1 = input power s 1

R M = resistance of energisation coil

R V = series resistor

R V can be designed with a value of up to two times the

resistance of the solenoid. (The exact value must be

determined by experimentation.) Fig. 14 shows the

magnetic forces for various input powers.

6.4 Input power and ambient temperature

The input power values specified on the product data

sheets were determined for an ambient temperature of

20°C. However, the energisation coils designed for this

temperature can be operated in ambient temperatures

up to 40°C. In doing so, the maximum permissible

long-term temperature for the insulation used as given

in DIN VDE 0580 point 3.3 Tab. 1 is reached, but not

exceeded. The specified values for magnetic force and

linear work are reached at the operating temperature

and 90% of the rated voltage. The operating

temperature is the temperature during operation with

the specified data, increased by the reference ambient

temperature of +40°C.

The input power must be reduced for ambient

temperatures higher than 40°C. This also reduces the

linear work. In certain circumstances this also applies

when the solenoid is fitted to part of a machine that

reaches operating temperatures higher than 40°C. The

reduction in the input power can be achieved by way

of a special energisation coil or by operating the

solenoid with a lower voltage.

Fig. 15 shows the rated voltage, rated input power and

rated linear work in relation to the ambient

temperature for a DC solenoid.

input power adjusted to suit the ambient temperature.

For a guaranteed ambient temperature < 40°C, the

input power and hence also the linear work can be

higher than the corresponding rated value.

6.5 Switching operations for DC solenoids

The oscillograms shown in Figs 16 and 17 indicate the

typical current, voltage and solenoid travel conditions

for a DC solenoid in relation to time t when being

switched on and off. The two diagrams clearly show

the different behaviour depending on whether

switching is carried out on the DC or the AC side.

The response times specified on the product data

sheets are reliably achieved at 70% of the rated magnetic

force and at rated voltage with the solenoid at its

operating temperature.

Fig. 16 Switching behaviour with switching on DC side

Fig. 13 Circuit for economy mode

M

Fig. 14 Magnetic forces and holding forces for various

input powers P

Fig. 15 Operating modes for DC solenoids in relation to

ambient temperature

ϑ 13 = ambient temperature

U N = rated voltage

W N = rated linear work

= rated input power

P N

Line 1 shows the voltage (in %) in relation to the

ambient temperature with which a solenoid may be

operated when its energisation coil is designed for the

normal ambient temperature (as given on the product

data sheet).

Line 2 shows the permissible input power as a percentage

of the specified value when the solenoid must be

operated in an ambient temperature other than 40°C.

Line 3 shows the linear work of the solenoid for an

Fig. 17 Switching behaviour with switching on AC side

ED= coil ON time

I = current

U = voltage

s = solenoid travel

t = time

t 1 = response time

t 11 = response delay

t 12 = travel time

t 2 = release time

t 21 = release delay

t 22 = return time

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the technical background

Response delay (t 11 ):

is the time between switching on the energisation

current and the plunger beginning to move.

Travel time (t 12 ):

is the time taken by the plunger to move from its

initial position to its end position.

Release delay (t 21 ):

is the time between switching off the energisation current

and the plunger beginning to move back.

Return time (t 22 ):

is the time taken by the plunger to move from its end

position back to its initial position.

7. SI units and symbols used in equations

The SI units and symbols used in equations as given on

the product data sheets and in the technical data are

taken from DIN 1304. The most important variables

used in the design of the devices are listed on page 15.

8. Testing of solenoids

8.1 Test voltage

All KENDRION solenoids are tested to ascertain their

dielectric strength before leaving the factory. The test

voltages used are given in DIN VDE 0580 point 5.3.1.

8.1.2 Renewed voltage test

The voltage test carried out during routine testing

should not be repeated if it can be avoided. However,

if a second test is called for, e.g. as an acceptance

criterion, then this should be carried out with only 80%

of the test voltage given in Tab. 4 below.

9. Electromagnetic time constants ( )

and inductances (L)

The electromagnetic time constants (ms) for the initial

and end positions of the plunger are specified on the

product data sheets in order to determine the inductances

of DC linear solenoids. These time constants allow the

inductances to be calculated for various duty cycles and

rated voltages according to the following example:

Given:

Wanted:

Answer:

solenoid type LHS060...

duty cycle = 100%

rated voltage = 24 VDC

inductance LIP (H) for initial position of

plunger inductance LEP (H) for end posi

tion of plunger

input power P20 = 26 W

(specified on data sheet)

According to Ohm’s law, the resistance of the energisation

coil can be calculated from the input power as follows:

2 2 2

R = ——

U

= ———

24 [V ]

= 22 Ω

26 [W]

P 20

Inductance at initial position:

L IP =

Inductance at end position:

L EP =

- -3

IP · R = 4[ms] · 10 · 22 [Ω] = 88mH

EP · R = 4,3 [ms] · 10 · 22 [Ω] = 95mH

Make sure that the time constants are entered in milliseconds

(ms) for these calculations, i.e. time constant

values specified in seconds (s) must be multiplied by

10 -3 .

-3

10. Operating conditions

Our AC and DC linear solenoids are designed for the

following operating conditions:

10.1 An ambient temperature of 35°C. The minimum

ambient temperature is -5°C.

10.2 The Relative humidity of the air depends

on the ambient temperature and is approx. 50% at

35°C. Higher relative humidities are permissible at

lower temperatures. Consideration should be given to

the formation of condensation water.

10.3 Please adhere to our installation guidelines

when putting the devices into operation.

11. Service life

The service life of devices and associated wear parts

depends on the installation and operating conditions,

e.g. mounting position, load etc.

12. Notes for DC and AC linear solenoids

12.1 Installation

Connect the plunger to the machine part by means of

an interlocking, non-rigid link that allows sufficient

play.

12.2 Mounting position

Our DC linear solenoids can be mounted in any position.

The force transfer is preferably in the axial direction.

12.3 Putting into operation

The supply voltage must match the rated voltage as

given on the rating plate. The user is responsible for

observing the instructions and requirements described

in DIN VDE 0580 (July 2000).

Switching

frequency

Z

2

6

12

30

120

300

600

1200

3600

100% duty cycle

max.

coil ON time coil OFF time

s

s

no restriction

no restriction

40% duty cycle

max.

coil ON time coil OFF time

s

s

720

1080

240

360

120

180

48

72

12

18

4.8

7.2

2.4

3.6

1.2

1.8

0.4

0.6

25% duty cycle

max.

coil ON time coil OFF time

s

s

450

1350

150

450

75

225

30

90

7.5

22.5

3

9

1.5

4.5

0.75 2.25

0.25 0.75

Tab. 4

12.4 External forces

Make sure that the magnetic forces are always higher

than the external forces (adjust force–stroke characteristic

if necessary).

12.5 Fuse projection

According to Ohm’s law (P = U x I), the current consumption

[A] is calculated from:

P N IN = — [A]

U N

where PN = rated power (W), UN = rated voltage (V).

Therefore, the appropriate fuse can be selected according

to the current calculated.

12

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the technical background

12.6 Unauthorised modifications to solenoids

Unauthorised modifications or changes of any nature are

prohibited because they can lead to operational malfunctions.

Such unauthorised modifications shall invalidate

our guarantee.

12.7 Low Voltage Directive and VDE standards

Electromagnets belonging to this range of products fall

under the remit of the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC.

Our products are manufactured and tested to DIN VDE

0580 (July 2000).

13. Ordering information for DC and AC linear

solenoids (see product data sheets)

Please provide the following information in your

purchase orders:

a) Type

b) Voltage in VAC or VDC

c) Travel s [mm], magnetic force F [N] plus force–stroke

characteristic

d) Duty cycle (%) or ON time and OFF time [ms/s]

e) Number of switching operations

f) Dimensions of installation space available

g) Details of operating conditions

h) IP protection class required (dust protection, water

protection)

Wiring recommendations for the operation of

electromagnetic devices supplied by Kendrion

Magnettechnik in accordance with the Gesetz

über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit

von Geräten (EMVG – Electromagnetic

Compatibility of Devices Act).

According to the Act, the electromagnetic compatibility

must be guaranteed with regard to immunity to external

electromagnetic fields and line-conducted interference.

Furthermore, the emission of electromagnetic

fields and line-conducted interference must be limited

when

operating the device.

Owing to the fact that the properties of electromagnetic

devices depend on wiring and operation, a declaration

of conformity with respect to maintaining the

applicable EMC standards is only possible in conjunction

with the wiring, but not for the individual devices.

Therefore, wiring recommendations are provided to

ensure

conformity with the standards.

Where no special details regarding CE conformity for

electronic accessories are specified on the product data

sheets, the conforming limiting values can be found in

the following sections.

Interference immunity to EN 61000-4:

EN 61000-4-2 Electrostatic discharge:

All electromagnetic devices meet the requirements of at

least severity level 3 without additional measures.

Electronic accessories meet the requirements of at least

severity level 2.

EN 61000-4-3 Electromagnetic fields:

All electromagnetic devices meet the requirements of at

least severity level 3 without additional measures.

Electronic accessories meet the requirements of at least

severity level 2.

EN 61000-4-4 Transient interference (bursts):

All electromagnetic devices meet the requirements of at

least severity level 3 without additional measures.

Electronic accessories meet the requirements of at least

severity level 2. Short-term, minor voltage increases can

occur with devices 33 43302C00, 33 43303A00 and

series 32 17350... in severity level 3 but these do not

result in any operational malfunctions.

EN 61000-4-5 Surge voltages:

All electromagnetic devices meet the requirements of at

least severity level 3 without additional measures.

Electronic accessories meet the requirements of at least

severity level 2.

EN 61000-4-8 Power frequency magnetic fields, EN

61000-4-9 Pulse magnetic fields, EN 61000-4-10

Damped oscillatory magnetic fields:

As the working magnetic fields of the electromagnetic

devices are much stronger than the interference fields,

the operation of the devices is not affected.

All devices meet the requirements of at least severity

level 4. Electronic accessories meet the requirements of

at least severity level 3.

EN 61000-4-11 Voltage dips and interruptions:

a) solenoids and hydraulic valve solenoids, electromagnetic

clamps, latching solenoids and other electromagnetically

engaged systems:

The electromagnetic devices switch over to the no-load

switching state at the latest after the switching times

specified on the product data sheets – according to DIN

VDE 0580 (July 2000). The switching time depends on

the triggering and the power conditions (e.g. generator

effect of a motor as it runs downs). Voltage interruptions

or voltage drops shorter than the release delay to DIN

VDE 0580 (July 2000) do not cause any movement of

the plunger. However, the release delay depends on the

device and the respective opposing force. Generally,

voltages dropping below the long-term permissible tolerance

can lead to the holding force falling below the

rated value. The user must make sure that a voltagerelated

decrease in the holding force or the release of

the solenoid cannot lead to consequential damage. The

operation of the electromagnetic devices and the

electronic accessories is maintained when the

aforementioned consequential damage is avoided.

b) Proportional and vibration solenoids:

Voltage fluctuations and interruptions can lead to

deviations in the vibration amplitude or the plunger

position, provided they cannot be compensated for by

upstream controllers.

The phase-shift control 33 43303... does not operate

as a controller. Just how far the current controllers

33 435... and 33 403... can compensate for voltage

fluctuations depends on the solenoid used, the momentary

required value and the magnitude of the voltage

dip. The user must employ appropriate means to

prevent consequential damage as described under a)

above.

c) Latching solenoids, permanent electromagnetic

clamps and other electromagnetically released

systems:

Short-term voltage interruptions and drops can have

an effect only on the unlatching or opening function.

The function may not be available from time to time.

The user must ensure that consequential damage cannot

ensue.

If the opening function is actuated permanently, the

solenoid can switch over to the no-load state as described

under a) above. The user must employ appropriate

means to prevent consequential damage.

Radio interference suppression to EN 55011:

The electromagnetic devices and electronic accessories

belong to EN 55011 group 1. We distinguish between

the field-based radiated interference and the lineconducted

interference.

a) Radiated interference:

When operating with a DC voltage or a rectified

50/60 Hz AC voltage, all devices comply with the

class B limiting values. Electronic accessories conform

to at least class A.

b) Conducted interference:

When operating with a DC voltage, the electromagnetic

devices comply at least with class A limiting values.

When using the electronic devices 33 403..., 33 435...

and 33 902..., use a filtered DC voltage (residual ripple

< 10%). You are recommended to employ capacitors

with a capacitance of at least 2200 µF/ADC and a

rated voltage of 40 V at 24 VDC or 25 V at 12 VDC.

These should be fitted as close as possible to the consumer.

If devices with electronic accessories are operated

in a 50/60 Hz AC system, additional suppression measures

as shown in Fig. 18 are necessary to achieve

class A limiting values.

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the technical background

Fig. 18 Radio interference suppression

You are recommended to use radio interference suppression

capacitors or units sized depending on the

electrical connection data of the electromagnetic devices

and also on the mains conditions. The radio interference

suppression should be installed close to the consumer.

Interference upon switching the electromagnetic devices

is generally due to the inductive load. Depending

on requirements, the breaking voltage can be limited

by inverse-parallel diodes, or by voltage limiters, e.g.

varistors, Transil diodes, resistance diodes, etc.

However, these influence the switching times of the

devices. Please refer to the technical details of the

devices for the

appropriate characteristics.

14. Class of protection

The class of protection is specified by a code consisting

of two letters (IP) and two digits, which vary according

to the degree of protection. IEC 60529 specifies the

classes of protection. These cover protection against

contact, ingress of foreign matter and moisture. The

first digit describes the level of protection with respect

to contact and ingress of foreign matter. The second

digit describes the level of protection with respect to

ingress of water. The individual classes of protection

are shown in the adjacent table. If the class of protection,

for example, of the electrical connection deviates

from that of the solenoid, the classes of protection are

stated separately, e.g. housing IP 54, terminals IP 00.

1st digit

Protection against intrusion of external particle matter

0 no protection

1 protection against ingress of solid foreign bodies, dia. > 50 mm

2 protection against ingress of solid foreign bodies, dia. > 12 mm

3 protection against ingress of solid foreign bodies, dia. > 2.5 mm

4 protection against ingress of solid foreign bodies, dia. > 1 mm

5 protection against harmful deposits of dust

6 complete protection against ingress of dust

2nd digit

Protection against penetration of liquids

0 no protection

1 protection against drops of condensed water falling vertically

2 protection against drops of liquid falling at an angle ≤ 15° to the vertical

3 protection against drops of liquid falling at an angle ≤ 60° to the vertical

4 protection against liquids splashed from any direction

5 protection against water jets projected by a nozzle from any direction

6 protection against water from heavy sea on ship’s decks

7 protection against immersion in water under stated conditions of pressure and time

8 protection against indefinite immersion in water under stated conditions of pressure

14

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the technical background

15. Technical data on permanent magnet

solenoids, holding electromagnets and locking

solenoids

Permanent magnet solenoids (self-holding

solenoids)

Devices with a permanent magnet holding system,

without a plunger, i.e. with an open magnetic circuit,

for holding ferromagnetic workpieces, and an energisation

coil which when energised neutralises the permanent

magnetic field at the holding surface and enables

the workpiece(s) to be detached.

Holding electromagnets

Devices with an electromagnetic holding system,

without a plunger, i.e. with an open magnetic circuit,

for holding ferromagnetic workpieces.

Ferromagnetic

The magnetic properties of substances with permeability

µ r » 1.

Open magnetic circuit

All the parts of a holding solenoid influenced by the

magnetic flux f, which are supplemented by the workpiece

(plunger).

Magnetic poles N (north) S (south)

The places at which the magnetic flux flows into or out

of the holding solenoid.

Holding force F H

The force perpendicular to the holding surface that is

required to detach a workpiece when the device is

switched on. The figures given on the product data

sheets relate to the total holding surface.

Displacement force F D

The force parallel to the holding surface that is required

to move a workpiece when the device is switched on.

This force amounts to 20-30% of F H depending on the

characteristics of the workpiece surface.

Air gap δ L

The average distance between the holding surface of

the solenoid and the bearing surface of the workpiece.

This variable depends on the form and roughness of

the opposing surfaces as well as any intervening nonmagnetic

substances (e.g. electroplating, paint, scale).

Remanence

The residual holding force between holding solenoid and

workpiece when the device is switched off without pole

reversal. Depending on the workpiece, this force is

equal to 20-40% of F H .

Pole reversal

The decay of any remanence between holding surface

and workpiece by way of a time- or current-metered

opposite pulse. In type 17 1.1 the plunger is released

by a spring-operated pin.

Demagnetisation

The reduction of the field strength H in the workpiece.

This takes place with polarity reversal as the amplitude

decreases.

Input power PN

(rated input power)

The power consumption at rated current as specified by

the manufacturer.

Duty cycle

The relationship of coil ON time to total cycle time, usually

expressed as a percentage. Holding electromagnets are

normally designed for a 100% duty cycle.

Operating temperature

The temperature rise calculated according to VDE 0580

plus the reference coil temperature. Unless stated otherwise,

the reference coil temperature should be taken as

35°C.

IInsulation class

The allocation of the winding insulation to a certain

maximum stabilised coil temperature.

Preferred rated voltage

The rated voltage of the majority of devices kept in

stock.

Class of protection

The designation of the type of shielding of the device

against external influences.

a open magnetic circuit

A 1 /A 2 magnetic holding surface

c workpiece

N, S magnetic poles

δ L air gap

F H holding force

F D displacement force

D optimum workpiece thickness

Magnetic flux φ

Every permanent magnet solenoid or holding electromagnet

generates a magnetic field at the holding surface

between the north and south poles.

The provision of a workpiece closes the open magnetic

circuit and the usable magnetic flux φ is reinforced.

The number of perpendicular flux lines per cm 2 that

penetrate a surface A determines the flux density or

the magnetic induction B.

φ= B · A

The larger the magnetic flux φ penetrating the workpiece

for a constant holding surface, or the larger the

magnetic induction B, the higher is the holding

force F H .

( )

B 2

F H = —— · (A 1 + A 2 )

5000

The holding force is governed by the unfavourable

resistance within the magnetic circuit. Therefore, the

maximum achievable holding force of a workpiece

depends on:

1. the size of the bearing surface

2. the properties of the material

3. the roughness of the bearing surface

4. the coverage of the magnetic holding surface

expressed as a percentage

5. the air gap δ L

Workpiece and bearing surface

The bearing surface is the face with which the workpiece

makes contact with the holding solenoid. It is not always

equal to the size of the workpiece. The holding force

per unit area of a holding solenoid is approximately

equal over the entire holding surface. The maximum

achievable holding force is determined by the workpiece,

primarily by the size of the bearing surface.

Fig. 1

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the technical background

Workpiece and material

The components of the holding solenoid that conduct

the magnetic flux are made from soft iron with a high

permeability. Thanks to the good permeability of these

parts, the maximum achievable holding force depends

on the permeability of the workpiece and other factors.

The microstructure and composition of the materials

vary. Additions of carbon, chromium, nickel, manganese,

molybdenum, copper, etc. reduce the permeability. In

addition, hardened workpieces bring about a decrease

in the holding force. The higher the hardness, the more

unfavourable is the permeability (Fig. 2).

The curves plotted in Fig. 3 show that for a certain

field strength H, as given by the holding solenoid, the

achievable magnetic induction varies for different

materials.

B = f (H)

Workpieces with different magnetic characteristics

result in different holding forces for the same holding

solenoid. Here, it is the saturation induction of a material

that influences the maximum achievable holding

force.

Fig. 2

Relationship between holding force and material.

Technically pure iron is used with the correction factor fw =

1.

a Armco

e Malleable cast iron

b St37 steel f 20 Mn Cr 5

c St60 steel g Grey cast iron

d Cast steel h HSS (RC 64)

Fig. 3

Magnetisation characteristics of common materials

a Armco

e Malleable cast iron

b St37 steel f Grey cast iron

c St60 steel g HSS (RC 64)

d Cast steel

H magnetic field strength (A/cm)

B induction (T, tesla)

Workpiece and roughness

Workpieces that are to be held by a magnetic force are

seldom 100% flat. The causes of this "roughness" are,

for example, material deformations during manufacture,

burrs on arrisses, irregularities and cavities in cast

parts, unevenness due to machining, etc. The insufficient

bearing of a workpiece on the holding solenoid

results in air gaps that can lead to a further reduction

in the holding force. The air gap δ L has a permeability

µ = 1. Fig. 5 shows the influence of the air gap. The

results of taking into account the size of the air gap

and the influence of the material of the workpiece are

plotted in Fig. 6.

Fig. 4

Relationship between holding force FH and surface quality

(air gap δ L ) using the average correction factor f δ (surface

quality to DIN standard).

Fig. 5

Relative holding force FH in relation to air gap δ L .

Fig. 6

Influence of material and air gap δ L on

holding force F H.

a Armco

e Malleable cast iron

b St37 steel f Grey cast iron

c St60 steel g HSS (RC 64)

d Cast steel

Note on calculations

Owing to their properties and form, also their magnetic

properties, the workpieces have a major influence on

the maximum achievable holding force F H max . This

means that after selecting the holding solenoid, the

maximum holding force varies for different

workpieces.

Calculation of correction factor fd from workpiece

thickness d and optimum workpiece

thickness D:

correction factor f d

workpiece thickness d (mm)

= –> max. = 1

workpiece thickness D (mm)

f d =

d

D

16

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the technical background

The workpiece thickness D is specified in the holding

force diagrams on the product data sheets. Thicker

workpieces do not result in an increase in the holding

force. And for thinner workpieces there is an approximately

linear decrease in the holding force.

Calculation of the max. holding force F Hmax for

100% coverage

F Hmax = F H · fδ · f w · f d

F H

f δ

f w

f d

holding force in N

correction factor for air gap δ L

correction factor for material

correction factor for workpiece thickness

If the workpiece simply rests on the magnet and a

lateral force is applied, the displacement force F D must

be taken into account.

FD =

F Hmax

4

Reducing the input power P

A reduction in the input power can be achieved without

unnecessary power consumption by connecting a

regulating transformer at the rectifier on the primary

side. The voltage reduction limits the temperature rise

in the holding solenoid. The simultaneous decrease in

the holding force prevents stressing or simultaneous

lifting of several thin workpieces. The holding force F H

of the individual types of device decreases according to

the holding force diagram (Fig. 7).

Fig. 7

Holding force F H plotted against input voltage V, based on

100% coverage of magnetic holding surface.

Fixing and grouping

Using several holding solenoids

a) A non-rigid fixing is required for every holding solenoid

so that each one can adapt to uneven surfaces

(Fig. 8).

b) Every holding solenoid should be spring-mounted

below a transverse rail to dampen the stroke acceleration

so that in the case of uneven bearing surfaces the

difference between the loads carried by the individual

magnets does not vary too greatly (Fig. 9).

Fig. 8 Fig. 9

Fig. 8

Fig. 9

Individual fixing

Ideal fixing for group of magnets

Set up a grid when providing solenoids across a larger

area (Fig. 10).

Take into account the following aspects:

max. and min. plate dimensions, a x b (mm)

workpiece thickness d (mm)

max. and min. plate weight (kg)

material correction factor f w

surface quality correction factor f δ

safety factor for stroke acceleration of transverse rail v

(m/s) taking into account max. holding force per solenoid

F H (N)

Fig. 10

Surface grid for equipping a transverse rail (e.g. for

conveying thin sheet metal)

Note: Bar-type solenoids are recommended for thin

sheet metal. When using round solenoids the concentric

pole configuration results in the sheet metal deflecting

at the edges, even with a small overhang, and between

the magnets, and this leads to a roll-off effect.

Temperature rise

The power input to the energisation coil leads to a temperature

rise in the holding solenoid. Depending on the

particular device, this lies between 20 and 40°C,

although this does not take account of any heat being

dissipated to the fixings.

Therefore, the true temperature rise in practice is considerably

lower.

Furthermore, the maximum stabilised coil temperature

of the energisation coil is not reached when the operating

voltage is 10% greater than the rated voltage at

the ambient temperature of 35°C as specified in VDE

0580 cl. 19. However, additional heat sources can occur

due to the work being carried out and the ambient conditions.

Thermal expansion

The temperature rise leads to an increase in the volume

of the device. To calculate the linear thermal expansion

of the parts of the holding electromagnet made from

magnetic soft iron, use the following equation:

I · ∆t · 11,5 · 10

-6

∆I = I · ∆t · α st

∆I = increase in length

I = length of device

∆t = temperatur rise

α st = coefficient of linear thermal expansion for

steel

These changes should be taken into account for large

devices and demanding installation conditions.

Connections and switching procedure

The devices are operated with a DC supply. Provided

the ripple factor does not exceed 50%, the supply will

not have any noticeable influence on the holding force.

Therefore, no special smoothing is required.

When working with workpieces with

a thickness ≤ 1 mm, finer filtering is required because

otherwise vibrations can occur. The power consumptions

given on the product data sheets are based on 20°C

and rated voltage. The device connection options vary,

e.g. lead wires, open terminals.

www.kendrionmt.com 17


the technical background

The devices may only be connected to DC supplies no

higher than those specified on the rating plates.

Relatively high voltage spikes can occur when switching

off groups of holding electromagnets. The magnitude

of the spikes depends on the rated voltage of the devices

and the breaking time of the switch S (contactor).

They can reach max. 0.6 kV for a 24 V supply, max.

2 kV for 110 V, and max. 4 kV for 230 V. Such voltage

spikes can damage semiconductor elements, even ruin

them completely. Connecting a resistor in parallel can

reduce the magnitude of the spikes. The current then

drops to zero via the shunt resistor R par according to

the function:

R + R par

L

i = I · e - · t

R par = resistor connected in parallel

The chronological progression of the voltage u is then

as follows:

R + R par

R par - · t

u = i · R par = · U · e L

R

Therefore, the peak voltage behaves with respect to

the operating voltage in the same way as the shunt

resistor behaves with respect to the resistance of the

energisation coil. The energy stored in the magnetic

circuit is converted into heat at the shunt resistor. In

practice, a shunt resistor with a value of five times that

of the resistance of the energisation coil is used. When

using an ohmic resistor, the input power to the device is

increased by that of the resistor.

A zinc oxide varistor can be used instead of an ohmic

resistor.

External magnetic fields

Permanent magnet solenoids may not be subjected to

any other strong magnetic fields.

External heat sources

The heat generated by the device itself plus heat from

any external sources may not lead to a temperature

exceeding 80°C in the permanent magnet solenoid (or

exceeding 120°C in a holding electromagnet).

Note for users

Use a pole piece for increasing the holding force in the

case of discrete or linear workpiece contact.

Make sure that the pole face quality and the operating

temperature relationships are ideal. If several holding

systems are used together, ensure that all devices are at

the same height and take into account the deflection on

long, thin workpieces.

The products are manufactured and tested to DIN VDE

0580 (July 2000).

16. Technical data on inline vibrators, curved

motion vibrator and vibrating solenoids

Vibrating solenoids are electromagnetic systems

that perform cyclic, sine wave-form oscillations. They

function according to the principle of an oscillator with

a pair of eccentric weights operating at the mains

frequency.

The oscillation frequency f is the frequency with

which the device vibrates. In the normal case operating

frequency = mains frequency.

The maximum air gap a max of a vibrating solenoid

is the average air gap occurring during operation at

which the permissible temperature rise of the energisation

coil is not exceeded.

Vibrators are oscillating devices that are capable of

vibrating irrespective of the installation position.

The vibration amplitude s of a vibrating solenoid is

the difference between the maximum and minimum

sizes of the air gap during operation.

Sprung amplitude, sprung component, sprung

mass and sprung load relate to the part capable of

oscillating with which a useful effect is achieved.

Unsprung amplitude, unsprung component,

unsprung mass and unsprung load relate to the

part not capable of oscillating with which no useful

effect is achieved.

The optimum load for inline vibrators is the vibrating

conveyor weight that permits the installation of a standard

device.

The rated power P S (rated input power) is the power

consumption at rated current and rated air gap.

Preferred voltages are the voltages of the standard

devices, e.g. 230 VAC, 50 Hz.

The reference coil temperature is the stabilised coil

temperature in the non-energised state for the intended

application. (This is important when vibrating devices

are mounted on other devices with a temperature

differing from the ambient temperature.)

The insulation class specifies the maximum temperature

for the insulation of the windings

Class of protection designates the degree to which

the device is protected against external influences, e.g.

device IP 40, connection IP 64.

18

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the technical background

Design directive

Kendrion vibrating solenoids and vibrators are manufactured

and tested according to DIN VDE 0580 (July 2000)

“Provisions for electromagnetic devices”.

The classes of protection are based on IEC 60529 and are

specified on the data sheets.

CE

The electromagnetic products from Kendrion

Magnettechnik are components for incorporation and

operation in electrical equipment and devices. They therefore

do not fall within the remit of the Low Voltage

Directive 73/23/EEC.

The user must ensure conformity with the EMC Directive

89/336/EEC by using corresponding switching devices or

controls. When using the recommended Kendrion accessories,

conformity with the EMC Directive is stated on the

respective data sheets.

Types

Vibrating solenoids, vibratory drives

OSR series (Fig. 1)

Maintain operating air gap (1-3 mm)

Vibrator

Armature plate

Permanent magnet

Vibrating element

The magnetic system of the vibrating solenoid is encapsulated

in a plastic housing. It consists of two energisation

coils and the two halves of the solenoid, the undersides of

which are connected by a permanent magnet. The magnetic

circuit is completed by the object to be vibrated,

which represents the armature, via the air gap. If the

object to be vibrated is made from a non-magnetic material,

a corresponding armature plate must be included.

The permanent magnet incorporated in the solenoid premagnetises

the system and this creates a constant attraction

between the solenoid and the armature.

When an AC voltage is applied to the energisation coil,

the force effect of the electromagnetic alternating field is

superimposed on the force effect of the permanent magnet.

The frequency of the resulting force matches the frequency

of the AC voltage applied, which moves the

armature in the same rhythm. In order to achieve the

desired vibratory motion, the sprung load, i.e. the object

to be vibrated, must be fixed to a base plate by rubbermetal

connections, compression springs or leaf springs

(see type OSR501002).

Vibrators/Linear drives

Types OLV504... (Fig. 2)

Device socket

Device plug

Bearing Permanent magnet Coil Spring

Mounting flange

Armature

The solenoid of the linear vibrator consists of a round

steel housing. The energisation coil and the armature,

which is guided concentrically via a non-magnetic shaft

and held in the central position by two springs, are

fitted inside the solenoid. A permanent magnet with

guiding poles, which is located between the two energisation

coils, pre-magnetises the system. The resulting

forces acting on the armature are balanced by the

arrangement of the guiding poles. When an AC voltage

is applied to the energisation coil, the force effect of

the electromagnetic alternating field is superimposed

on the force effect of the permanent magnet. The

frequency of the resulting force matches the frequency

of the AC voltage applied, which moves the armature

and the shaft in the same rhythm. The linear vibrator

can be used as a vibratory drive and, fitted with an

additional weight on the armature shaft, as a vibrator.

Inline vibrators

Type OMW516002 (Fig. 3)

Armature plate

In the inline vibrator the solenoid and its energisation coil

are fixed to a base. Mounted above this is the armature

plate, with pole faces separated by an air gap and parallel

with those of the solenoid. Leaf springs positioned at an

angle (approx. 20°) connect the armature plate to the

base. An attracting force prevails between the armature

and solenoid. When an AC voltage is applied to the energisation

coil, the force effect of the electromagnetic alternating

field is superimposed on the force effect of the

permanent magnet (type OMW516004). The frequency

of the resulting force matches the frequency of the AC

voltage applied, which moves the armature in the same

rhythm. The angled arrangement of the leaf springs

causes the armature plate, and the vibrating conveyor

attached to this, to perform a curving oscillatory movement

and therefore convey loose materials in one

direction.

In the case of larger or relatively wide vibrating conveyors

it is better to use several smaller inline vibrators rather

than a single large one.

Curved motion vibrator

Type OAB513001 (Fig. 4)

Sprung component

Unsprung component

Leaf spring

Base

Solenoid

(energisation coil + frame)

The solenoid of the curved motion vibrator, fixed rigidly to

the base of the device, consists of two annular shells which

enclose the energisation coil. The armature, comprising

two annular permanent magnets with opposite poles

arranged axially and two pole discs in each case, is

located between leaf springs fixed on opposite sides of the

base of the device. The system is pre-magnetised by the

two permanent magnets. In the stationary condition one

annular pole of the solenoid is located between each pair

of pole discs of the armature. When an AC voltage is applied

to the energisation coil, the unlike poles of armature

and solenoid attract. The frequency of the curving armature

movement matches the frequency of the AC voltage

applied.

www.kendrionmt.com 19


the technical background

The curved motion vibrator can be used as a vibratory

drive and, fitted with an additional weight on the

armature shaft, as a vibrator.

Fig. 4: Curved motion vibrator (OAB513001)

1 Solenoid

2 Energisation coil

3 Armature

4 Permanent magnet

5 Spring

6 Base

Vibrating solenoids

OAC... series (Fig. 5)

Sprung load

Sprung

component

Unsprung

load

Unsprung

component

Vibrating

solenoid

Armature plate

∆L = air gap

Vibrating solenoids are primarily incorporated in

spring–mass systems that constantly exploit the

resonant frequency proximity of the entire vibrating

system (drive and sprung device). The vibrating

solenoid generates directional, linear oscillations in

the sprung device.

Coil and bobbin are encapsulated in casting resin.

They are therefore not susceptible to moisture and

dust and thus suitable for rough conditions.

The direction of the oscillations is achieved by the

geometrical arrangement of the springs, which means

that, for conveying, a certain oscillating angle is

always necessary. The effective amplitude here corresponds

to twice the amplitude of the oscillating frequency

of the whole system. Vibrating solenoids can

be infinitely regulated via the operating voltage. They

reach the full conveying power immediately after

being switched on and there are no troublesome

imbalance effects upon starting and stopping. This is

particularly important for metering, packaging, etc.

Tuning

a) Explanation of symbols used

f o = natural frequency Hz

f a = operating frequency

= mains frequency

Hz

c = spring constant N/mm

c s = spring constant of rubber

buffer in shearing direction N/mm

d = spring thickness mm

m F = weight of unsprung component

of oscillator with 2 eccentric weights kg

m N = weight of sprung component

of oscillator with 2 eccentric weights kg

m R = resultant weight

m .

m R = N m F

kg

m N + m F

s F = vibration amplitude of unsprung mm

component

s N = vibration amplitude of sprung mm

component

s = total vibration amplitude

s = s F + s N

mm

a = air gap mm

1N = 0.102 kg

b) General

All vibrators must be detuned for reasons of amplitude

stability, i.e. the natural frequency f o of the device must not

be equal to the operating frequency f a . As a rule, the

detuning amounts to 10-20%. All vibrators used for

conveying purposes must be tuned subcritically, i.e. the

natural frequency f o of the system must be greater than

the operating frequency f a .

The resonance curve is damped by the loose materials

being conveyed (Fig. 6). Both subcritical and supercritical

tuning results in the amplitude being reduced from a (A) to

b (B).

Subcritical tuning

Supercritical

tuning

Damped curve

1

Fig. 6: Vibration amplitude s plotted against the ratio of operating

frequency f a to natural frequency f 0 .

Notes:

- to DIN VDE 0580 (July 2000) ICS29.020.53.020.01

(valid as manufacturer’s Declaration of Conformity)

- directives 98/37/EC and 73/23/EEC

- CCC certificate for China not required

We reserve the right to make changes to the

product design.

Tuning a pair of eccentric weights

All vibrators work on the principle of a pair of eccentric

weights, i.e. both the sprung load and the unsprung load

perform oscillations. This must be taken into account in

the tuning. In vibrating devices in which the tuning is

achieved by selecting suitable springs, the following

equation applies when calculating the necessary spring

constant:

2

f

c = m 0

r where f 0 ≈ 10 . . . 20% > f 25

a

The resulting weight mr is made up of the weight of the

sprung component mN plus the weight of the unsprung

component m F .

m N · m F

m r =

mN + m F

If the unsprung load is considerably larger than the

sprung load (factor of 50), the spring constant required

can be calculated as follows:

c = m N

2

f 0

25

c · mF

where f 0 ≈ 10 . . . 20% > f a

In vibrating devices with a predefined spring configuration,

tuning can be achieved by adapting the sprung

load. The following equation applies:

m N =

2

f 0 mF -c

25

where f 0 ≈ 10 . . . 20% > f a

If the unsprung load is considerably larger than the

sprung load (factor of 50), the sprung load can be

calculated as follows:

m N =

c · 25

2

f 0

where f 0 ≈ 10 . . . 20% > f a

As the sprung and unsprung loads always consist of two

components, to calculate these weights, or rather the

bearing weights, the component weights of the device

(m plunger and m frame ) are given in Table 1.

m N = m plunger + m bearing

m F = m frame + m attachment

The strokes of the individual loads behave inversely to

their weights.

s N

s F

=

m F

m N

In order that a favourable sprung amplitude is achieved

with vibratory drives, the ratio

unsprung load should be >12

sprung load

20

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the technical background

17. Technical data on AC and 3-phase solenoids

Installation and operating guidelines

AC and 3-phase solenoids may not be overloaded

because otherwise there is a risk of the delayed

switching procedure resulting in damage to the energisation

coil through an excessive temperature rise, or

the upstream fuse being tripped. On the other hand,

the devices should be operated with at least two-thirds

of their magnetic force to avoid premature wear of the

pole faces due to excessive impacts.

The strokes specified on the product data sheets may

not be exceeded. Make sure that the stroke does not

increase due to, for example, wear (i.e. distance travelled

by plunger from initial to end position). Once the

making procedure has been completed, the pole face

of the plunger must lie flat on the pole face of the

solenoid body (frame).

If a plunger stopper is necessary or unavoidable before

the end of the stroke, a sprung element must be fitted

between this and the end position of the plunger in

order that the plunger can still reach its end position.

During installation, pay special attention to the play of

the plunger. The direction of force of the load to be

actuated must coincide exactly with the axis of movement

of the plunger. A rigid joint between the plunger

and the part of the machine to be actuated is undesirable.

Instead, an articulated connection, e.g. with lugs or

similar, is essential.

For a 3-phase linear solenoid the current is as follows:

I H =

P H

U · √ 3

Supply voltage and fuse protection

Three-phase solenoids can be connected in the conventional

way at the motor terminal box in a delta or star

configuration by rearranging the jumpers.

If the device can be connected to several supply voltages,

pay attention to the labelling of the terminals.

I A =

P A · 1000 P A · 1000

A or I A =

U

√ 3 · U

P A = pull - in power

kVA

U = rated voltage

V

It is advantageous to use fuses with a thermal trip. (Ask

your supplier about the breaking current allocation of

such elements.) Powerful energy sources must be available

owing to the high pull-in power and the supply

lines must be of such a size that no inadmissible voltage

drop can take place when switching on.

Fig. 1 shows the most common AC solenoid systems

available on the market today. In recent years the

system shown in Fig. 1a has been used primarily as a

vibrating solenoid (see OAC series). Vibrating solenoids

are used wherever the harmonic vibration of a mechanical

part of an assembly is desirable. Typical applications

are vibrating sorting systems, feeders, vibrating

conveyor belts, special pumps, vibratory plant for the

building industry, massage appliances, etc. The electrical

connection to the AC mains supply is either direct or via

a half-wave rectifier. Accordingly, the mechanical amplitude

is either 50 or 100 oscillations per second.

Input power (rated input power) is the power

consumption at the rated current. The pull-in power

(input power during response) is the apparent power

ensuing after transient phenomena have decayed when

the plunger is held in its initial position.

For a 3-phase linear solenoid the power is as follows:

P A = √ 3 · U · I A

R s

R w = R 20

R XL

Holding power (input power while holding) is the

apparent power ensuing after transient phenomena

have decayed when the plunger is in the end position.

For a 3-phase linear solenoid the power is as follows:

P H = √ 3 · U · I H

the rated current for devices with a voltage coil is

based on the rated voltage and 20°C coil temperature at

the rated frequency. Unless stated otherwise, this is

taken to be the rated holding current I H .

R s

R W

R XL

= apparent resistance

= ohmic resistance

= inductive resistance

Magnetic force upon change of frequency

( )

f1

[ 2

]

∆F M = · F M - F M F M = magnetic force

f2

Inductance calculation

R XL = L · ω —> ω = 2π f

R XL = L · 2 π f

f = mains frequency

Fig. 1 The most common AC solenoid systems available

on the market today.

L =

R XL V ·s

2πf

[ = Ω · s = H ]

A

www.kendrionmt.com 21


the technical background

The clapper-type armature shown in Fig. 1b is used

almost exclusively in the design of relays, where it

actuates the contact bridges via L-shaped levers.

Clapper-type armatures have only a small stroke and a

low work capacity.

Diverse AC solenoid systems have been developed

over the course of time to comply with particular

specifications. The best known, and certainly also the

most efficient, types are shown in Fig. 1. Of course,

this illustration does not claim to be exhaustive

because besides these conventional designs a large

number of special assemblies have been built for

specific purposes. One particular feature is common

to all AC solenoids apart from very small, low-power

versions. The active iron parts, i.e. frame and plunger,

are made from laminations. The intention

behind this is to minimise the eddy current losses

caused by the alternating magnetic field. Eddy current

losses occur in the form of heat and reduce the work

capacity of the solenoid. Hysteresis losses and losses

in the cage winding are further sources of heat. For

these reasons, an AC solenoid cannot achieve the

work capacity of a DC solenoid operating under the

same conditions, i.e. identical copper and iron

weights and same operating temperature.

The kinetic energy that occurs when an AC solenoid

responds gradually increases with the length of the

stroke. Furthermore, it is also influenced by the type

of load - constant weight, linear spring, etc. - and by

the degree of utilisation. This results in a maximum

operating stroke, taking into account the work capacity.

In the interests of an economic service life and

proper functioning, it is not advisable to exceed this

maximum stroke. Special features in 3-phase solenoids

such as a spring-mounted frame and air-damping

enable the destructive deformation energy to

be kept within acceptable limits.

In accordance with the current-stroke dependency of

the AC solenoid, it is necessary to position the plunger

parallel with the frame. Every residual air gap and

hindrance to the response procedure due to, for

example, sluggish operation in the plunger guides,

increases the thermal load on the device and can lead

to burn-out of the coil.

The force transfer can only be in the axial direction.

The response procedure may not be delayed.

In contrast to this, the superiority of the AC solenoid

is undisputed where large strokes and short switching

times are required. Furthermore, an AC solenoid can

be connected easily and directly to any AC mains

supply, whereas a DC solenoid will in most cases

require a rectifier between supply and solenoid.

The magnetic field in the air gap of an AC solenoid is

also the seat of the energy and has the ability to

convert magnetic energy into mechanical energy as

the plunger responds. The degree of efficiency, i.e.

the ratio of the mechanical energy to the mains

energy consumed, depends on the stroke. Tests have

resulted in figures of about 3.5% for long and about

23.5% for short strokes. The magnetic leakage of

the various AC solenoid systems is essentially determined

by the geometric form of the plunger and the

magnetic circuit.

This influences the form of the force-stroke characteristic

to a large extent. It is possible to control the

characteristic to a certain extent through local repositioning

of the working air gap.

22

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the technical background

18. SI units and symbols used in equations

Symbol Meaning SI unit Name

SI base units

l length m metre

m mass kg kilogram

t time, time-span, duration s second

I electric current A ampere

T, Θ temperature, K kelvin

thermodynamic

temperature

Geometry

A, S area m 2 square

(surface, cross-sectional) metre

a distance, clearance, m metre

spacing

,, plane angle rad radian

b, w width m metre

d, , t thickness, m metre

layer thickness, diameter

L air gap m metre

h height m metre

l length m metre

r radius m metre

s distance covered, path m metre

V, τ volume m 3 cubic metre

τ p pole pitch m metre

Time

a acceleration m/s 2

angular acceleration rad/s 2

f frequency Hz hertz

g local gravitational m/s 2

acceleration

n rotational speed s -1

angular velocity rad/s

T, τ time constant s second

t time, time-span, duration s second

v velocity m/s

Symbol Meaning SI unit Name

Mechanics

E modulus of elasticity, N/m 2

Young’s modulus

F force N Newton

G, F W weight N Newton

J moment of inertia, kgm 2 kilogramsecond

moment of area square

metre

M torque Nm newtonmetre

m mass kg kilogram

P power W watt,

1 J/s = 1 W

p pressure Pa pascal

ρ density kg/m 3

σ direct, tensile, compressive N/m 2

and bending stress

W energy, work J joule

η degree of efficiency 1

, f coefficient of friction 1

Heat

coefficient of resistance 1/k

T temperature, K kelvin

thermodynamic

temperature

t Celsius temperature °C

∆T=∆t temperature difference, K kelvin

=∆ϑ excess temperature

Electricity

C electric capacitance F farad

G electric conductance S siemens

I electric current A ampere

P actual power W watt

R electric resistance ohm

S, P s apparent power W watt

U voltage, electric V volt

potential difference

X reactance ohm

Z impedance ohm

Symbol Meaning SI unit Name

Magnetism

B magnetic flux density, t tesla

magnetic induction

Φ magnetic flux Wb weber

H magnetic field strength, A/m

magnetic energisation

L inductance, self-inductance, H henry

mutual inductance

www.kendrionmt.com

23


kendrion magnettechnik worldwide

Kendrion Magnettechnik GmbH

August-Fischbach-Strasse 1

78166 Donaueschingen

Germany

Tel. +49 (0) 77 1 80 09-0

Fax +49 (0) 77 1 80 09-63 4

www.kendrionmt.com

info@kendrionmt.com

Engelswies Works

Fred-Hahn-Strasse 33

72514 Inzigkofen-Engelswies, Germany

Tel. +49 (0) 75 75 20 8-0

Fax +49 (0) 75 75 20 8-1 90

www.kendrionmt.com

info@kendrionmt.com

Kendrion Binder Magnete

Ges.m.b.H.

8552 Eibiswald 269, Austria

Tel. +43 (0) 34 66 42 32 2-0

Fax +43 (0) 34 66 42 72 2

office@kendrion.com

Kendrion Binder Componentes,

S.L.

Parque Industrial “El Poligono”

c/.Rio Arba, 25

50410 Cuarte de Huerva /

Zaragoza, Spain

Tel. +34 9 76 46 30 40

Fax +34 9 76 46 30 42

guadalupe.cabrera@kendrion.com

Technical offices (Germany)

Kendrion Magnettechnik GmbH

Technisches Büro West

Bottroper Strasse 15

46244 Bottrop

Tel. +49 (0) 20 45 41 34 34

Fax +49 (0) 20 45 40 64 26

www.kendrionmt.com

wilhelm.martin@kendrion.com

Kendrion Magnettechnik GmbH

Technisches Büro Nord

Delmer Bogen 71

21614 Buxtehude

Tel. +49 (0) 41 61 73 37 77

Fax +49 (0) 41 61 60 07 39 3

www.kendrionmt.com

reinhard.lenser@kendrion.com

Representatives (Germany)

VOR-Steuerungstechnik

Friedrich Rudolph GmbH

Wichernstrasse 9

50389 Wesseling

Tel. +49 (0) 22 36 94 27 88

Fax +49 (0) 22 36 84 27 86

info@vor.de

www.vor.de

Claus Kähne

Industrievertretungen GmbH

Kurmainzer Str. 199a

65936 Frankfurt

Tel. +49 (0) 69 34 05 90 20

Fax +49 (0) 69 34 05 90 27

kaehne.gmbh@t-online.de

RUG

Regler- und Gerätebau GmbH

Karl-Ehmann-Str. 50

73037 Göppingen

Tel. +49 (0) 71 61 85 70

Fax +49 (0) 71 61 85 72 9

jurenka@r-u-g.de

Antriebstechnik Laipple GmbH

Burgstrasse 84

73614 Schorndorf

Tel. +49 (0) 71 81 97 94 92

Fax +49 (0) 71 81 97 94 93

antriebstechnik-laipple@t-online.de

Winfried Kerner GmbH

Ingenieurbüro

Kiebitzweg 11

85375 Neufahrn

Tel. +49 (0) 81 65 52 45

Fax +49 (0) 81 65 62 12 8

www.kerner-gmbh.de

kerner-gmbh@t-online.de

Hans-Christian Pilder

Wirtschaftsingenieur

Ablers 119

88175 Scheidegg

Tel. +49 (0) 17 17 23 13 31

Fax +49 (0) 83 81 94 87 62

www.kendrionmt.com

kendrion@pilder.de

Representatives (worldwide)

Austria

Kendrion Binder Magnete

Vertriebs. GmbH

Estermannstrasse 27

4020 Linz

Tel. +43 (0) 7 32 77 63 83

Fax +43 (0) 7 32 78 35 58

www.kendrion-binder.at

office@kendrion-binder.at

Belgium, Luxembourg

Bintz technics N.V.

Brixtonlaan 25

1930 Zaventem

Tel. +32 (0) 2 7 20 49 16

Fax +32 (0) 2 7 20 37 50

www.bintz-technics.be

info@bintz.be

Canada

VL Motion Systems Inc.

1105 Goodson Cres.

Oakville, Ontario L6H4A7

Tel. +01 905 842 0244

Fax +01 905 844 1293

vince@vlmotion.com

Denmark

Lind Jacobsen & Co. A / S

Blokken 62

3460 Birkerød

Tel. +45 (0) 45 81 82 22

Fax +45 (0) 45 82 10 22

www.lind-jacobsen.dk

strong@lind-jacobsen.dk

Desim Elektronik APS

Tasingevej 15

9500 Hobro

Tel. +45 (0) 70 22 00 66

Fax +45 (0) 70 22 22 20

www.desim.dk

desim@desim.dk

Farstrup & Benzon A/S

Engholmvej 1, Saunte

3100 Hombaek

Tel. +45 (0) 49 70 40 33

Fax +45 (0) 49 70 40 32

www.safeline.dk

f&b@safeline.dk

Finland

SKS-mekaniikka Oy

Martinkyläntie 50

P.O. Box 122

01721 Vantaa

Tel. +358 (0) 98 52 66 1

Fax +358 (0) 98 52 68 20

www.sks.fi

mekaniikka@sks.fi

Moeller Electric Oy

Sahaajankatu 24

00811 Helsinki

Tel. +358 (0) 9 25 25 21 00

Fax +358 (0) 9 25 25 21 77

www.moeller.fi

info.fin@moeller.net

France

Binder Magnetic

1, Allée des Barbanniers

92632 Gennevilliers Cedex

Tel. +33 (0) 1 46 13 80 80

Fax +33 (0) 1 46 13 80 99

info@binder-magnetic.fr

Italy

SPII S.p.A

Via Don Volpi 37

21047 Saronno (VA)

Tel. +39 (0) 2 96 22 921

Fax +39 (0) 2 96 09 611

www.spii.it

info@spii.it

Netherlands

Solar Electro B. V.

Effect 5

6921 RG Duiven

Tel. +31 (0) 26 3 65 29 11

Fax +31 (0) 26 3 65 23 90

www.solarelektro.nl

algemeen@solarelektro.nl

GTI Electroproject B.V.

Grote Tocht 102

1507 CE-Zaandam

Tel. +31 (0) 75 68 11 11 1

Fax +31 (0) 75 63 54 00 3

Norway

Industrielementer AS

Postboks 43

1556 Son

Tel. +47 (0) 64 95 81 32

Fax +47 (0) 64 98 29 29

www.industrielementer.no

post@industrielementer.no

siv. ing. J.F. Knudtzen A/S

Billingstadsletta 97

1396 Billingstad

Tel. +47 (0) 66 98 33 50

Fax +47 (0) 66 98 09 55

www.jfk.no

firmapost@jfk.no

South Africa

Magnete Service Binder

P.O. Box 44051

2104 Linden

Tel. +27 (0) 11 46 2-32 08

Fax +27 (0) 11 46 2-33 04

info@binder.co.za

Spain, Portugal

Binder Magnete Iberica S.L.

Apartado de Correos 116

Costa Zefir 99

43892 Miami-Playa (Tarragona)

Tel. +34 9 77 17 27 07

+34 9 77 81 04 29

Fax +34 9 77 17 01 82

www.binder-es.com

binder@binder-es.com

Sweden

Industrikomponenter AB

Industrivägen 12

17148 Solna

Tel. +46 (0) 8 51 48 44 00

Fax +46 (0) 8 51 48 44 01

www.inkom.se

info@inkom.se

Uno Gunnarsson / Höör AB

Box 64

24322 Höör

Tel. +46 (0) 4 13 24 54 0

Fax +46 (0) 4 13 23 18 3

Moeller Electric AB

Granitvägen 2

55303 Jönköping

Tel. +46 (0) 86 32 30 00

Fax +46 (0) 86 32 32 99

Switzerland

Kendrion Binder Magnet AG

Albisstrasse 26

8915 Hausen a/A

Tel. +41 (0) 17 64 80 60

Fax +41 (0) 17 64 80 69

www.kendrion.ch

binder.magnet@kendrion.com

United Kingdom

Kendrion Binder Magnete

(U.K.) Ltd.

Huddersfield Road, Low Moor

Bradford, West Yorkshire,

BD12 0TQ

Tel. +44 (0) 12 74 60 11 11

Fax +44 (0) 12 74 69 10 93

www.kendrion-binder.co.uk

sales@kendrion-binder.co.uk

USA

Gradframe Inc.

950 E. Baldwin Road

Palatine IL 60074

Tel. +01 847 991 1788

Fax +01 847 991 1788

gradframe@aol.com

This publication is for information

purposes only and should not be

regarded as a binding presentation of

the products, unless we expressly

confirm otherwise.

We reserve the right to make changes

to the specification, form, price and

availability of the products described

herein at any time without prior notice.

Each product may be used only for its

intended purpose.

We reserve to make changes to the

product design.

© 05/05 · Kendrion Magnettechnik GmbH · KMT - 902013/0505/-/UK-pdf

www.kendrionmt.com

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