Myanmar - Regional Climate Change Adaptation Knowledge ...

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Myanmar - Regional Climate Change Adaptation Knowledge ...

Organisers:

Event partners:

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange on

climate change adaptation in agriculture

1


1. Major crop agricultural

industries and

production systems

Myanmar : Seven States

– hilly regions

• Seven Divisions – plain

areas

1. Northern Mountain

2. Western Mountains:

2000-5800 m

3. Shan Plateau: >2000 m

4. Central Basin

5. Coastal Strips

• Country area 6 7 6 , 5 5 7 Km 2 ,

stretches from N-S and lies

between latitudes 9° 32' N to

28° 32'N and longitudes 92°

10' E to 101° 11'E.

• Population at 57.5 Millions,

• Growth rate of 1.75 %, 135

nationalities

Agro-Ecological Zones:

Deltaic, Central Plain: Rice,

Oilseeds and Pulses

North and North-East Hilly :

Corn, Soybean, Fruit trees,

Vegetables

Coastal: Rubber and Oil palm

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

2


• About 70 % of the total population - rural areas - engaged in

agriculture, livestock and fishery sector

• In 2007-08, Agricultural sector employs 61.2 % of the total labor

force - accounts for 35.6% of GDP - 13.3% of total export earnings

• Rice – majority (39.7% of total sown area) - followed by pulses, oil

seed crops, sugarcane, rubber and vegetables

• The structure of the country economy has undergone little

transformation with agriculture sector still providing the largest

share of the gross domestic product.

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

3


Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change

Technological advances - second half of the 20th century - weather

and climate -key factors in determining agri. productivity

Agriculture - one of the most vulnerable sectors affected by Climate

Change

Related phenomena - fluctuations in temp., rainfall, water availability,

pests, disease, extreme weather events, - substantially affect -

potential of agricultural production Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

4

on climate change adaptation in agriculture


2. Current and emerging climate-related threats/risks to food security

Type of Hazards

Hydro-meteorological Hazards

Coastal regions

‣ Cyclones, Tropical storms,

Storm surges and Tsunamis

‣ Heavy rain and flood

‣ Land slides

‣ Droughts

‣ Earthquakes

‣ Fire

Possible Disasters in Myanmar

Affected Areas

(Rakhine, Ayeyarwaddy)

Across the country

Hilly regions

The whole country

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

5


Significant regional

variations: South-west

monsoon rains

Coastal, Rakhine &

Tanintharyi: 4000-6000 mm

Central : 500-1000 mm/ yr

Ayeyarwady: 2000-3000 mm

Shan : 1000-2000 mm

In Myanmar, the observations

indicated that the climate

change is taking place in the

southwest monsoon features,

in the field of temperature,

precipitation, extreme

climate and severity of

disasters.

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

6


1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

1964

1965

1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Duration(days)

Duration of Monsoon since Onset in Northern till Withdrawl from Southern Myanmar Areas(1955-2008)

170

Nothern to Southen Mean Linear (Nothern to Southen)

160

1977

y = -0.5905x + 145.55

150

140

130

130

120

110

(1977)113

100

(1979)102

(2004)100

90

The years before 1977 were wet years and after 1977 were dry years.

Both the two fields –heat indices and annual rainfall showed a good

agreement in phase change in 1977.

Most El Nino years occurred in 1980s

Practitioner’s

and 1990s.

and policy-makers exchange

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

years

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

7


Rainfall (mm)

Case Study 1: Wuntwin Township, Central Myanmar

Wuntwin Creek Flash Flood: June 6, 2001

Total Rainfall in May and June in Wuntwin (MAS Station)

450

382 mm

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Years

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

8


Rainfall (10 Yrs Avg.mm)

Case Study 2: Kyaukse Township, Central Myanmar

Rainfall (mm)

Zawgyi River Flood: October 2006

Annual Rainfall in Kyaukse in 2006 (MAS Station)

180

300

160

140

250

120

200

100

80

150

60

100

40

20

50

0

0

Jan.

Feb.

Mar.

Apr

May

Jun.

July

Months

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

10 Yrs. Avg.

2006

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

9


Case Study 3: Agricultural Impacts of Cyclone Nargis (May 2-3, 2008)

•Killed 84,530 lives and other 53,836 persons missing

•Destroyed 450,000 homes

•About 63% (783,000 ha) flooded - 19 Townships (Ayeyarwady,

and Yangon Divisions)

•Standing paddy crops (about 80,000 tons),

•707,500 tons of stored paddy and milled rice

•80% of seed stocks, Loss of fishing boats and nets

(PONJA Report 21 July 2008)

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

10


‣Draft animals killed: 50% of buffaloes

‣More than 80% of rural

households have lost

livelihood assets, farm implements

‣Sea water intrusion to paddy fields

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

11


Lessons learnt from Nargis

‣Highlighted Myanmar’s extreme vulnerability to high impact natural

hazards

‣Need for the country to undertake actions for reducing disaster risks

and adaptation measures

‣Protecting individuals, families and communities -particular focus

- vulnerable groups

‣Unless - needs of poor -most vulnerable are addressed –

adaptation, mitigation options - fail

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

12


Dry Zone, Central Myanmar

Drought-prone areas in

Myanmar

Dry zone area of Sagaing,

Mandalay, and Magway

Division: in association with

wind erosion, drought,

dependent solely on

irrigation for year round

production

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

13


Rainfall (mm)

800

Annual Rainfall in Nyaungu Agricultural

Research Farm

700

600

500

400

300

200

Severe

Drought

100

0

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Year

2006

2007

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

2008

2009

Rainfall

14


Potential Impact of Drought on Agriculture and Food Security

Rice plants harvested for cattle feed

Survey trip in Nov. 2009

‣ Lepyinthar village, Yamethin

Township, Central Myanmar

lower rainfall than usual

‣ Rain-water is insufficient for

paddy and upland crops

cultivation

Cattle grazing in the rice fields

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

Chronic food insecurity, livelihood and

vulnerability analysis

15


Impact of Drought on Agriculture

Dry seeding of rice under rain fed ecosystem

Naypyitaw – Mandalay Highway, Nov. 2009

Rice seedbed with lack of rain-water

Meikhtila – Nyaungu Highway

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

Sorgum and Groundnut plants are waiting for rain

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

16


3. Existing risk management and adaptation efforts

Traditional Adaptation Strategies to

Combat Drought in Dry Zone,

Myanmar

1. TIMELY LAND PREPARATION

Water Harvesting Technology in

Central Myanmar, Dry Zone

Enhancing innovative dry land farming system

enhancing crop-water use efficiency

Frequent Ploughing and Harrowing

while waiting for the sufficient rain

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

17


Traditional Adaptation Strategies to Combat Drought in Dry Zone, Myanmar

2. FREQUENT INTERCULTIVATION

Nyaung-u Township, Central Dry Zone June,2010

Inter- cultivation kills the weeds and holds soil moisture

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

18


Traditional Adaptation Strategies to Combat Drought in Dry Zone, Myanmar

3. MIX CROPPING AND INTERCROPPING

Groundnut with chili

Groundnut with sesame

Mix or intercropping - not

to lose the entire crops

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Sunflower, corn and sesame

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

Adaptation for drought: Mixcropping

(crop diversification) is

common with low input

technology in Central Myanmar

19


Traditional Adaptation Strategies to Combat Drought in Dry Zone, Myanmar

Crop Rotation in Central Myanmar:

Black gram after rice

Zero tillage or incomplete tillage for

conservation of residual soil

moisture: Post monsoon season

black gram after rice harvest

4. ZERO TILLAGE FOR CROP ROTATION

Leway Township, January,2010

Sun-drying of the harvested rice

on the bunds

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

Blackgram growing just after rice harvest

20


Traditional Adaptation Strategies to Combat Drought in Dry Zone, Myanmar

5. TIMELY SOWING

Traditional water harvesting practice in Magwe Division, Central Myanmar

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

Land Preparation at very early morning for timely seeding of peanut and sesame

21


Traditional Adaptation Strategies to Combat Drought in Dry Zone, Myanmar

Sintewa Creek, Nyaungu – Myingyan

highway, Magwe Division, April 2009

When the creek dries up, some vegetables like onion

are grown in pre-monsoon season

6. GROWING ON ALLUVIAL SOIL WHEN WATER IS RECEDED

Potato plantation: irrigation with underground

water

Shallow Open wells

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

22


Current Research Projects in Yezin agricultural University

and Department of Agricultural Research

• Research Thesis: Post-graduate Programs

• Breeding programs: Salt-tolerant varieties (Rice)

• Drought –tolerant varieties (Groundnut and

• Sesame)

• Biodiversity Conservation: Preservation of plant genetic resources

at Seed Bank, DAR

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

23


National Medium-Term Priority Framework

(NMTPF) 2010-2014 for MOAI

• Renovation of existing

dams/ embankments built

in the time of Myanmar

monarchs

• Proper management of

water storage

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010 Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

Yindaw Tank under maintenance of earth

embankment, Pyawbwe Township, supply

potable water for local consumption and for

agricultural purpose

Paypin Lake Kong-taung Village, Thazi Township

24


National Medium-Term Priority Framework

(NMTPF) 2010-2014 for MOAI

• Construction of new reservoirs or dams

• Diversion of water from streams and creeks

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

25


Groundwater Irrigation Project, Meiktila and Thazi Townships, Central Dry Zone

July 2010

Nyaungkaing Village, Meikhtila Township

Apyauk Village

Water Resource Utilization Department:

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

Tradle-pump to fetch the ground water

from a tube well: Shallow tube wells

- 30 m

Efficient utilization of ground water

Supplementary Water for growing rice,

cotton and water chesnut,

26


Promoting ecosystem based-adaptation

Kontaung Village Thazi Township, Central

Myanmar, July 2010

Ground-water Irrigation Project more common after 2000

7974 underground water tapping stations

across Myanmar - Shallow / Deep tube

wells (30-100 m)

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

27


Bago

Lifting of water from rivers through pumps

N

India

Chindwin

China

Ayeyarwady

Thanlwin

Laos

322 river water pumping stations

Thailand

Sittoung

ANDARMAN SEA

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in

100

agriculture

50 0 50

100

28


Climate Change Adaptation Measures by Water Resource Utilization

Department in Dry Zone

Meiktila plain electric-powered

water pumping project

in 2008-2009

A gasifier used for groundwater

extraction from a tube well

Magyipinbu village, Meiktila

towhship

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

29


Needs for Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture

For the increasing adaptation capacities in regions which are highly vulnerable to

the consequences of climate change

•Identify communities’ own priorities and needs, value their knowledge which is

key to the development of sound adaptation strategies

• Develop policies that are enabling for local - level action

•Establishment of a framework and development of optimized national

and regional land use concepts (optimized resource management,

especially of water, soil, biomass etc.)

•Sustainability of ecosystems to climate change adaptation

• Technical assistance and capacity building , finance, institutions, and the policy

environment

30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

30


30 Aug – 1 Sept 2010

Practitioner’s and policy-makers exchange

on climate change adaptation in agriculture

31

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