Immigration and Citizenship in the United States, 1865–1924

newberry.org

Immigration and Citizenship in the United States, 1865–1924

Immigration and Citizenship in

the United States, 1865–1924

Newberry Digital Collections for the Classroom

Professional Development Programs for Teachers

The Newberry Library, 60 West Walton Street, Chicago, IL 60610

(312) 255-3569 | www.newberry.org/teacherprograms

The Newberry Digital Collections for the Classroom project is generously funded by The Grainger Foundation.


Immigration and Citizenship in the

United States, 1865–1924

Newberry Digital Collections for Classroom Use

Introduction

Is the United States “a nation of immigrants,” a “land of opportunity,” and refuge for the world’s persecuted

and poor? Is the country made stronger by its ability to welcome and absorb people from around the world?

Or are the new arrivals a burden? Should the United States close its borders to immigrants because of their

numbers, their countries of origin, their politics, religions, financial means, educational levels, or medical

conditions—all of which have been factors in one or more immigration laws over the past 150 years? What

does it mean to be an immigrant, to be born in one country and spend much of one’s life in another? What

consequences does immigration have for the individuals, families, and communities who migrate?

Debates over immigration dominate today’s newspaper headlines and political campaigns. These debates may

be new in some of their particular concerns (the border with Mexico, Islamist terrorism), but many of the

questions raised and arguments presented would have been deeply familiar to a reader in 1900. Almost since

the founding of the republic, Americans and their legislators have weighed the benefits of welcoming new

citizens from around the world against the benefits of restricting immigration, monitoring the activities of the

foreign born in the United States, and narrowing the path to citizenship. One line of debate has focused on

the issue of political influence and, specifically, the fear that foreigners within the United States promoted

political radicalism. With the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798, the U.S. Congress and President John Adams

sought to limit the influence of the French Revolution by deporting certain immigrants and closing

immigrant-owned, opposition presses on the grounds of treason. In the late nineteenth century, immigration

laws specifically forbade entry to any suspected anarchists; Communists would be targeted later in the

twentieth century.

Another line of debate over immigration has focused on its economic impact. U.S. policy makers have

vacillated between accommodating agricultural and industrial employers, who demanded a broad,

inexpensive, and often temporary labor pool, and workers, who objected that the influx of immigrant labor

created too much competition and drove down wages. Immigration from Latin America, for example, may

seem the overriding issue today, but was not restricted at all until 1965, largely because of the demand for

Mexican agricultural labor in Southwestern and Western states. The Chinese, in contrast, became the first

ethnic group specifically barred from entry to the United States with the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882,

passed under pressure from white workers’ organizations in the West that resented Chinese competition for

jobs in mining and railroad construction.

Finally, debates over immigration often turn on understandings of cultural difference and on changing

expectations of how foreign-born people should adapt to and participate in American society. There have

always been two primary paths to U.S. citizenship: One is through being born in the United States. The other

is through naturalization, the legal process by which individuals apply for and are admitted to citizenship. But

beyond this legal process, what are the expectations of citizenship? What is the process of assimilation, or

absorption into, American culture? Can immigrants retain the customs or languages of their countries of

origin and participate sufficiently in American society or are these practices in conflict? And which groups—

government officials, politicians, journalists, “native-born” citizens, or immigrants themselves—should be in

a position to decide?


This collection explores the subject of immigration in U.S. history with particular attention to the two and a

half decades from 1890 to the start of World War I. As historian Roger Daniels explains in Guarding the Golden

Door: American Immigration Policy Since 1882, the late nineteenth century witnessed an enormous increase in the

number of arriving immigrants. More immigrants—11.7 million—came to the United States between 1871

and 1901 than had arrived in the United States and the British North American colonies during the preceding

three centuries combined. (The U.S. population was 76.2 million in 1900.) Between 1900 and 1914, 12.9

million new immigrants arrived. These turn-of-the-century immigrants came primarily from Southern and

Eastern Europe, and were largely Italians, Jews, and Poles.

This period also saw significant changes in the government’s management of immigration. In 1891, the U.S.

Congress determined that the issue would fall, exclusively, under national control. Congress removed any

power that state commissions had previously held and established a new federal Bureau of Immigration. In

1892, the Bureau opened the Ellis Island immigrant receiving station in New York, through which

approximately 70 percent of all immigrants would pass over the coming decades. Federal laws proceeded to

restrict immigration over the coming decades, culminating in the passage of the Immigration Act of 1924.

This act imposed a national quota system based on the 1890 census. As a result, foreign countries were

allotted a specific number of annual entries to the United States in proportion to their presence in the United

States in 1890. The act favored nationalities such as English, Irish, and Germans who had arrived before 1890

and severely limited arrivals from Eastern and Southern Europe. No numerical limit was placed on

immigration from North or South America. Asians were completely excluded as they remained ineligible for

citizenship. Other categories of people were excluded because they were deemed criminals or otherwise

immoral, paupers (very poor people), contract laborers, political radicals, illiterates, or physically or mentally

unfit. In 1943, Congress repealed the exclusion acts and established quotas for people from Asian countries.

But the 1924 law remained largely in effect until the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the national

quotas system.

The documents here approach the history of immigration and citizenship from several different angles:

national and personal identity, the experience of immigration, immigrant life in the cities, and political debates

over immigration.

Please consider the following as you review the documents

2




What role has immigration played in the formation of America’s national identity? In what ways are

immigrants central to American ideals and in what ways have they been seen as threats to those

ideals?

Identify the terms of debate regarding the social effects of immigration. What arguments have people

made about the impact of immigration on American society? What have been the perceived

consequences—positive and negative—of new arrivals from around the world?

Consider the experience of immigration. How do writings by immigrants contribute to the debates

over immigration? How do they reframe our understanding of both personal and national identity?


3

Documents 1, 2, and 3: Nation of Immigrants

J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur. “What is an American?” In Letters from an

American Farmer. 1793. pp. 46–47.

Newberry Call No. Ayer 128.7 .C8 1793

Thomas Nast. “Uncle Sam’s Thanksgiving Dinner.” Harper’s Weekly. Vol. 13.

November 20, 1869. p. 745.

Newberry Call No. folio A 5 .392

Emma Lazarus. “The New Colossus.” In The Poems of Emma Lazarus. 1889.

pp. 202–203.

Newberry Call No. Y 285 .L45

These three documents represent different moments in what is now a long tradition of defining America as a

nation of immigrants. Crèvecoeur offers one of the earliest formulations of this idea—and of the metaphor of

different races “melted” together—in this passage from Letters from an American Farmer, written at the start of

the American Revolution. Crèvecoeur was born in France in 1735 and moved to the British colony of New

York at the age of 24, where he bought a large farm and settled down to raise a family seven years before the

start of the war. In Letters from an American Farmer, he adopts the persona of James, a Pennsylvania farmer,

who writes to a friend in England to explain American ways. (Ironically, Crèvecoeur did not favor American

independence from England and lost his family as well as his farm in New York in the violence of the

Revolution.) “Uncle Sam’s Thanksgiving Dinner” appeared in the magazine Harper’s Weekly just four years

after the close of the Civil War, as many Americans were trying to envision national identity in the wake of

such a profound internal rupture. It also responds to early debates around restricting Chinese immigration.

The poet Emma Lazarus grew up in New York in a Jewish family of Portuguese descent in the nineteenth

century. After 1879, she became particularly concerned about the persecution of Jews in Russia and Eastern

Europe. She wrote this poem in 1883 to help raise money for a pedestal for the Statue of Liberty on Ellis

Island. This poem was installed on a bronze plaque inside the statue in 1903, after her death. [Please note:

The old colossus mentioned at the start of the poem is the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the seven wonders of

the ancient world. The twin cities are New York and Brooklyn, not yet consolidated into one entity.]

Questions to Consider

1. According to Crèvecoeur (or his narrator, James), in what ways does America differ from Europe?

What is the character of an American? In what way is he a “new man, who acts upon new

principles”?

2. How does America benefit from its ethnic diversity? What happens to the different national cultures

of European immigrants in America? Are distinct national identities preserved?

3. Why do you think that Crèvecoeur created an ethnically English character to narrate his work and

personify the “American farmer”? Why do you think African Americans and Native Americans are

absent from his sketch of a representative American?

4. Examine the illustration “Uncle Sam’s Thanksgiving Dinner.” Which ethnic and racial groups are

represented? How are people arranged around Uncle Sam’s table? Is there a hierarchy or do they

appear to be equals? Why do you think that Nast chose to include family groups? Who do the

pictures on the wall behind them portray?


5. Examine the captions within the illustration. What is the illustrator’s message? What do you think is

the significance of the illustration’s timing, just four years after the close of the Civil War?

6. Identify America’s characteristics, as personified by the Statue of Liberty. Which terms does Lazarus

use to describe the Statue? Compare Lady Liberty to Uncle Sam. How does gender affect the

meaning of each of these personifications of America?

7. How are immigrants portrayed in Lazarus poem? What are their reasons for coming to the United

States? What, according to Lazarus, is America’s role in the world?

4


5

Documents 4 and 5: Immigration Debates in Cartoons

Thomas Nast. “The Chinese Question.” Harper’s Weekly. Vol. 15. February 18,

1871. p. 149.

Newberry Call No. folio A 5 .392

C.J. Taylor. “The Mortar of Assimilation–And the One Element That Won’t

Mix.” Puck. Vol. 25. June 26, 1889. p. 304.

Newberry Call No. folio A 5 .7634

These political cartoons from two popular nineteenth-century magazines both take up the question of

whether specific national groups should be excluded from American life. The Harper’s illustration responded

to a bill in the New York legislature that proposed to fine and imprison anyone who hired Chinese contract

workers. The illustration accompanied a brief column describing the bill and dismissing the alleged threat of a

“Chinese invasion” against which American workers must be protected. The columnist concluded that “A

majority in this country still adhere to the old Revolutionary doctrine that all men are created free and equal

before the law, and possess certain inalienable rights.” Eighteen years later, the Puck cartoon takes a quite

different approach to the controversy concerning Irish immigrants. This cartoon accompanied an editorial

that argued that the United States, like European countries, had developed “a national type… This type is

strong enough to assimilate to itself all foreign types which fall fairly under its influence.” However, the

editorial goes on to criticize supporters of Irish independence from England as “a class of voters who are

American only in name, and Irish in feeling and conduct.” Both cartoons personify America as Columbia, a

goddess-like embodiment of the nation who appears in art and literature from the eighteenth century

forward.

Questions to Consider

1. Describe the different figures in the Harper’s illustration—the Chinese man, Columbia, and the mob

of white men on the right. What are their postures? How do they relate to each other?

2. Examine the posters on the wall behind Columbia and the Chinese man. What arguments do they

make against Chinese immigration? What do the posters as well as the representation of the white

mob suggest about its class composition? What evidence do you see that the mob may resort to

violence?

3. The caption reads: “Columbia—‘Hands off, gentlemen! America means Fair Play for All Men.’” How

do the caption and other elements of the illustration refute the anti-Chinese movement?

4. In the Puck cartoon, the man on the rim of the bowl wears a banner that reads “Blaine Irishman” and

carries a flag with Irish writing. How does the man appear? How does his appearance support and

explain the caption? How does Columbia respond to him?

5. What does the process of assimilation—or cultural absorption—involve, according to this

representation?


6

Documents 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11: Experiences of Immigration

“Immigrant Women in Line for Inspection at Ellis Island”; “Immigrant Girls

Coming to Work…” and “Polish Girls Washing Dishes…”; “YMCA Class…”

and “Class of Foreign-born Women…” In Edward Alsworth Ross. The Old

World in the New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the

American People. 1914. pp. 6, 217, and 277.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756

“Line Inspection at Ellis Island,” “The Unskilled Immigrant in Chicago,” and

“Immigrant Girls Traveling Alone Who Failed to Reach Destination.” In Edith

Abbott, ed. Immigration: Select Documents and Case Records. 1924. pp. 244–

247, 481, and 610–611.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .015

These documents represent various experiences that were shared by many immigrants who arrived in the

United States between 1890 and 1924: being inspected at Ellis Island, performing or seeking work, getting

lost or searching for relatives who have been lost in transit, and attending civics and English language classes.

The photographs appear in Edward Alsworth Ross’ The Old World in the New. Ross, a professor of sociology at

the University of Wisconsin–Madison, takes a fiercely anti-immigrant stance in his book. However, these

photographs, taken by journalists and reformers, offer a compelling record of immigrant experiences and a

counterweight to Ross’ rhetoric, examined later in this collection. Edith Abbott was an economist, social

worker, and educator who helped establish the School of Social Service Administration (SSA) at the

University of Chicago and served 18 years as its dean. These documents are selected from a source book that

she compiled from government records, scholarly articles, and other sources for the benefit of SSA students.

Questions to Consider

1. Describe the photographed women in line at Ellis Island. How are they dressed? What do their

expressions or postures tell you?

2. According to the essay “Line Inspection at Ellis Island,” written by a Bureau of Immigration

inspector, what process did people go through when they arrived at Ellis Island? Describe the

techniques that inspectors used to determine if a person was eligible for admission to the United

States. How did inspectors sort the admitted people from those requiring further examination?

Which physical and mental conditions disqualified a person from admission? What other attributes

rendered a person “unfit”? How do you think you would feel going through this inspection?

3. Describe the women at work in Chicago in the two photographs. What kind of work do they do and,

as far as you can tell, under what conditions? How are they dressed? Compare these women to those

in line at Ellis Island.

4. According to Grace Abbott (Edith’s sister and a social worker and policy maker) in “The Unskilled

Immigrant in Chicago,” what challenges did immigrant men face in finding work?

5. Consider the photographs of people attending civics and English language classes. What is the

purpose of these classes, especially tailored to immigrants?


7

Documents 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16: Neighborhoods and Tenements

Samuel Sewell Greeley. Nationalities Map No. 1, Polk St. to Twelfth, Chicago.

1895.

Newberry Call No. map6F G4104.C6E2 1895 .G7 sheet 2

“Distribution of Foreign-Born Whites.” In Edward Alsworth Ross. The Old

World in the New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the

American People. 1914. p. 240.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756

Jacob A. Riis. Description and diagram of tenement buildings. In How the

Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York. 1890. pp. 18–20.

Newberry Call No. I 30851 .74

Jacob A. Riis. “The Bend” and “Bohemian Cigarmakers.” In How the Other

Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York. 1890. pp. 59 and 143.

Newberry Call No. I 30851 .74

The great majority of turn-of-the-century immigrants settled in cities, such as New York and Chicago. The

two maps included in this section offer graphic representations of the distribution of immigrants at both local

and national levels. Samuel Sewell Greeley’s Nationalities Map was published by Hull House in 1895 as part of

a project to document and describe how people lived and worked in Chicago’s poorest neighborhoods. Hull

House was a settlement house established in Chicago’s Near West Side slum as part of a movement to redress

the widening gulf between the poor and the affluent in America’s cities. Middle-class women and men lived at

Hull House and provided services, classes, and organizational support to people in the neighborhood. In

order to gather information to create this map and others, staff from Hull House and the federal Bureau of

Labor went through the neighborhood house by house and asked residents about their ethnic origins, their

work and wages, and the number of people in their households. Edward Alsworth Ross, a sociology

professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, saw the urban settlement patterns of immigrants as a

problem. He argued that the new arrivals would overwhelm cities’ capacities to provide housing and other

services. Ross created this map to illustrate the concentration of new immigrants in cities throughout the

United States.

Indeed, the work of Jacob Riis vividly portrays the difficult living conditions that many immigrants faced in

New York City. Riis was a Danish immigrant, who experienced severe poverty himself before becoming a

celebrated photographer and social reformer advocating on behalf of the urban poor. In How the Other Half

Lives, Riis documented conditions in the slums of New York’s Lower East Side—at the time, the most

densely populated place on earth. Unlike Ross, who sought to address urban conditions by severely restricting

the flow of new immigrants, Riis responded to these conditions by seeking to change them. He initiated a

campaign to reform building codes and improve living conditions in the tenements, the dark, crowded, overpriced

structures which housed three-quarters of New York’s population.


8

Questions to Consider

1. Examine the Nationalities Map closely. Which nationalities and races are represented here and in what

proportions? (Please note: Bohemian refers to people now known as Czech.) What criteria were used to

define each group? On what basis do you think the map’s creator decided which color to assign each

group?

2. On the Nationalities Map, what patterns do you notice in the distribution of specific ethnic groups

throughout the neighborhood? Are groups evenly dispersed? What do you find surprising about the

neighborhood’s composition? How does it compare to the ethnic composition of your

neighborhood?

3. As illustrated in Ross’ map, where did recent immigrants settle in the United States in 1910?

4. Study Riis’ diagram and description of the tenement building. Where are the windows and doors?

What would the middle rooms of the tenement have been like? What do you think it would have

been like to live in such a building?

5. What do these photographs, taken by Riis himself, tell us about immigrants’ lives in New York?


9

Document 17: Nativism

Edward Alsworth Ross. “Social Effects of Immigration.” In The Old World in

the New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the American

People. 1914. pp. 228–229.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756

Edward Ross was a sociologist at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in the early twentieth century. He

endorsed nativism, or the favoring of native-born inhabitants over immigrants, and advocated severe

restrictions on immigration. In the preface to this book, he responds to people who see the welcoming of

new immigrants as part of America’s democratic and humanitarian promise by writing, “I am not of those

who consider humanity and forget the nation, who pity the living but not the unborn…I regard [America] as

a nation whose future may be of unspeakable value to the rest of mankind, provided that the easier

conditions of life here be made permanent by high standards of living, institutions and ideals…We could

have helped the Chinese a little by letting their surplus millions swarm in upon us a generation ago; but we

helped them infinitely more by protecting our standards and having something worth their copying when the

time came.” He proceeds to argue that “the original make-up of the American people” was English Puritans,

French Protestants, Germans, and Scotch-Irish. He laments that recent immigrants are predominantly Italian,

Slavic, and Jewish.

Questions to Consider

1. How does Ross describe recent immigrants? Why does he believe that they pose such a problem for

American society?

2. Which groups of Americans are left out of his discussion of original and “new” immigrants?

3. Do you believe that Ross’ arguments are simply a cover for prejudice against certain nationalities? Is

there any legitimate basis for his claims? How would you respond to his arguments?


10

Documents 18 and 19: Immigration and Identity

W. E. B. Du Bois. “Of Our Spiritual Strivings.” In The Souls of Black Folk:

Essays and Sketches. 1903.

pp. 3–4.

Newberry Call No. H 5837 .244

Mary Antin. The Promised Land. 1912. pp. i, xii-xv, and 364.

Newberry Call No. E 5 .A629

While the readings that open this collection address the issue of national identity, these texts by W. E. B.

DuBois and Mary Antin explore questions concerning personal identity. DuBois was a prominent African

American intellectual and civil rights advocate who, in The Souls of Black Folk, examined the history of African

Americans and their place within American society. DuBois grew up in Massachusetts, relatively sheltered

from racism, and earned a PhD at Harvard. But he lived in an America defined by Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the

Supreme Court decision that introduced the doctrine of “separate but equal” and upheld the constitutionality

of state laws requiring racial segregation. In this passage, DuBois considers what it means to be both black

and American in a discussion that resonates with immigrant writers who wonder what it means to be both

American and Irish or Italian or any other ethnicity. Mary Antin was born into a Jewish family in Polotzk,

Russia, in 1881 and moved with her family to Boston when she was 13 years old. Although her father

struggled to support the family, Antin received a strong education at the local public schools and grew up to

become a celebrated writer and lecturer on the immigrant experience. Her autobiography, The Promised Land,

portrays her childhood in Polotzk and Boston, contrasting the persecution and oppression that Jews

experienced in Russia to the opportunity and success she found in America.

Questions to Consider

1. How does DuBois characterize the experience of being African American at the turn of the twentieth

century? What does he mean by “this sense of always looking at oneself through the eyes of others,

of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity” (p. 3)?

2. How do you interpret Antin’s statement: “I am absolutely other than the person whose story I have

to tell” (p. i)? What does she mean when she writes of experiencing “more than one birth of myself”

(p. xii)? What do these lines suggest about Antin’s relationship to the past?

3. Consider how Antin develops the commonly used metaphors of Old World and New World to refer,

respectively, to Eastern Europe and the United States. What does she mean when she writes, “I

began life in the Middle Ages” (p. xiii)? What are the implications of conflating history and geography

in this way?

4. Both DuBois and Antin evoke an experience of double identity—DuBois’ “double-consciousness”

or, in Antin’s words, being “of two worlds.” What do they mean by these phrases? In what ways are

their formulations of African American and Jewish American identity similar and in what ways are

they different? Do they have the same feelings toward their experience of doubleness? Do they seek

the same sort of reconciliation? What, ultimately, are their feelings for America?


11

Selected Sources

Roger Daniels. Guarding the Golden Door: American Immigration Policy and Immigrants Since 1882. 2004. pp. 27–58.

Mae M. Ngai. Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. 2004. pp. 227–264.

Robert Siegel. Jacob Riis: Shedding Light On NYC’s “Other Half.” www.npr.org/templates/story/

Jewish Women’s Archive. jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/antin-mary


Document 1: J. Hector St. John de Crèvecoeur. “What Is an American?” In Letters from an American

Farmer. 1793. pp. 46–47.

Newberry Call No. Ayer 128. 7 .C8 1793


Document 2: Thomas Nast. “Uncle Sam’s Thanksgiving Dinner.” Harper’s Weekly. Vol. 13. November 20,

1869. p. 745.

Newberry Call No. folio A 5 .392


Document 3: Emma Lazarus. “The New Colossus.” In The Poems of Emma Lazarus. 1889. pp. 202–203.

Newberry Call No. Y 285 .L45


Document 4: Thomas Nast. “The Chinese Question.” Harper’s Weekly. Vol. 15. February 18, 1871. p. 149.

Newberry Call No. folio A 5 .392


Document 5: C.

J. Taylor. “The Mortar of Assimilation—And the One Element That Won’t Mix.” Puck.

Vol. 25. June 26, 1889. p. 304.

Newberry Call No. folio A 5 .7634


Document 6: “Immigrant Women in Line for Inspection at Ellis Island.”

In Edwardd Alsworth Ross. The

Old

World in the New: The

Significance of Past and Present

Immigration to the American People. 1914.

p. 6.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756


Document 7: “Immigrant Girls Coming to Work… …” and “Polish Girls Washing Dishes…” In Edward

Alsworth Ross. The Old World in the New: The Significance

of Past and

Present Immigration

to the

American People. 1914. p. 217.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756


Document 8: “YMCA Class…” and “Class of Foreign-born Women…” In Edward Alsworth Ross. The

Old

World in the New: The

Significance of Past and Present

Immigration to the American People. 1914.

p. 277.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756


Document 9: “Line Inspection at Ellis

Island.” In Edith Abbott, ed. Immigration: Select Documents and

Case

Records. 1924. pp. 244–245.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .015


Document 9: “Line Inspection at Ellis

Island.” In Edith Abbott, ed. Immigration: Select Documents and

Case

Records. 1924. pp. 246–247.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .015


Document 10: Grace Abbott. “The Unskilled Immigrant in Chicago.” In Edith Abbott, ed. Immigration:

Select Documents and Case Records. 1924. p. 481.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .015


Document 11: “ Immigrant Girls Traveling Alone Who Failed to Reach Destination.” In Edith Abbott, ed.

Immigration: Select Documents and Case Records. 1924. pp. 610–611.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .015


Document 12: Samuel Sewell Greeley. Nationalities Map No.

1, Polk St. to Twelfth, Chicago. 1895.

Newberry Call No. map6F G4104.C6E2 1895 .G7 sheet 2


Document 13: “Distribution

of Foreign-Born Whites.” In Edward Alsworth Ross. The Old World in the

New: The Significance of Past and Present Immigration to the American

People. 1914. p. 240.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756


Document 14: Jacob A. Riis. Description and diagram of tenement buildings. In How the Other Half

Lives: Studies Among the Tenements

of New York. 1890. pp. . 18–19.

Newberry Call No. I 30851 .74


Document 14: Jacob A. Riis. Description and diagram of tenement buildings. In How the Other Half

Lives: Studies Among the Tenements

of New York. 1890. p. 20.

Newberry Call No. I 30851 .74


Document 15: Jacob A. Riis. “The Bend.” In How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of

New

York. 1890. p. 59.

Newberry Call No. I 30851 .74


Document 16: Jacob A. Riis. “Bohemian Cigarmakers.” In How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the

Tenements of New York. 1890. p. 143.

Newberry Call No. I 30851 .74


Document 17: Edward Alsworth Ross. “Social Effects of Immigration.” In The Old

World in the New:

The

Significance of Past and Present Immigration

to the American People. 1914. pp. 228–229.

Newberry Call No. J 383 .756


Document 18: W. E. B. Du Bois. “Of Our Spiritual Strivings.” In The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and

Sketches. 1903. pp. 3–4.

Newberry Call No. H 5837 .244


Document 19: Mary Antin. The Promised Land. 1912. p. i.

Newberry Call No. E 5 .A629


Document 19: Mary Antin. The Promised Land. 1912. pp. xii-xiii.

Newberry Call No. E 5 .A629


Document 19: Mary Antin. The Promised Land. 1912. pp. xiv-xv.

Newberry Call No. E 5 .A629


Document 19: Mary Antin. The Promised Land. 1912. p. 364.

Newberry Call No. E 5 .A629

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines