Key Concept Chart - Pearson

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Key Concept Chart - Pearson


Integrated Science

Key Concept Chart

Form 3

Science, technology and society

Useful definitions

anti-virus software: software that has been written to find and

destroy viruses

desktop publishing (DTP): the process of creating complex

documents such as magazines on a computer

download: a piece of software obtained from a server on the

Internet and transferred onto your computer

email: messages sent from one computer user to another using

electronic mailboxes on email servers on the Internet

hardware: the electronics of a computer

Internet service provider: a company that sells the use of their

email and web servers to the public

online: connected to the Internet

portable document format (PDF): a small software document

(small number of bytes) that can easily be sent by email

search engine: software on a server that allows users to search for

anything on the World Wide Web

viruses: pieces of computer software that can spread on the

Internet and damage computers

web browsers: software in a computer that allows users to find

and read websites

web server: a computer that contains websites that users can read

on the World Wide Web

word-processing: the commonly used process of creating

electronic documents such as letters on a computer

The nature of matter

Useful definitions

atom: the basic building block of matter; the smallest particle that

all matter is made of

atomic number: the number of protons in an atom

boiling point: the temperature at which a liquid boils

compound: a chemical combination of two or more elements in

fixed proportions

diatomic molecules: molecules that are made up of two atoms

distillation: a purification process that uses the difference in

boiling points of the constituents of a mixture

electron configuration: the arrangement of the electrons in an

atom or molecule

element: a substance that contains only one type of atom

evaporation: the process by which some materials change from

liquid to gas

isotopes: atoms of the same element with different masses

mass number: the total number of protons and neutrons in the

nucleus of an atom

matter: all objects in the universe are made of matter

melting point: the temperature at which a substance changes

from solid to liquid

mixture: a combination of elements in any proportion that can be

separated by physical processes

molecule: two or more atoms joined together

nucleus: the centre of an atom containing the protons and neutrons

orbit: to move around something

orbitals: the different energy levels around the nucleus that

electrons occupy

reactivity: the rate or speed at which a chemical substance tends

to undergo a chemical reaction

Managing natural resources

• Pollution results when any form of harmful substance enters

the environment.

• The three main types of pollution are air, water and soil

pollution.

• Examples of sources of pollution are: burning of fossil fuels,

poisons, sewage, plastics, pesticides, toxic waste, mines,

agriculture, power plants and construction sites.

• Problems caused by pollution include: acid rain, global

warming, polluted water, contaminated soil and health

problems (lung diseases, cholera, dysentery, typhoid

and cancer).

• Ways in which we can manage pollution include: educating

people about its dangers, handling and disposing of waste

correctly, reducing the amount of pollutants produced, using

environmentally-friendly products, and reducing the use of

fossil fuels.

Acids and bases

• pH tells us how acidic or basic a substance is. It is measured

on a scale from 0 to 14.

• The strength of a substance relates to how well it dissociates

when dissolved in water, while the concentration is a

measure of how much of a substance is dissolved.

• A strong acid has a low pH.

• A weak acid has a high pH.

• A concentrated acid has a lot of acid and a little water.

• A diluted acid has a lot of water and a little acid.

When a metal reacts with an acid:

acid + metal → salt + hydrogen gas

When a carbonate reacts with an acid:

carbonate + acid → salt + carbon dioxide + water

The pH Scale:

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Periodic Table

}

7

Group 1 elements

These are soft light metals. They react very quickly

to water, are similar and are called alkali metals.

11

I

Li

Lithium

Na

Sodium

9

II

Be

Berryllium

12

Mg

Magnesium

1

H

Hydrogen

Transition elements

These are unreactive metals. They have very high melting points.

They are very useful. Many of their compounds are coloured.

Group VIII elements

(called group 0)

These are all gases. They do not form compounds.

They are called noble or inert gases.

Group VII elements

These are very reactive non-metals.

They are poisonous, but some of their

compounds (like table salt) are essential

for us to live. They are called halogens.

5

13

III IV V VI VII

B

Boron

Ai

Aluminium

6

14

C

Carbon

Si

Silicon

7

15

N

Nitrogen

P

Phosphorous

8

16

O

Oxygen

S

Sulphur

}

9

17

F

Fluorine

Cl

Chlorine

}

VIII

2

He

10

Helium

Ne

18

Neon

Ar

Argon

19

K

20

Ca

21

Sc

22

Ti

23

V

24

Cr

25 26 27 28

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

29

Cu

30

Zn

31 32 33 34

Ga

Ge

As

Se

35

Br

36

Kr

Potassium

Calcium

Scandium

Titanium

Vanadium

Chromium

Manganese

Iron

Cobalt

Nickel

Copper

Zinc

Gallium

Germanium

Arsenic

Selenium

Bromine

Krypton

37

Rb

38

Sr

39

Y

40

Zr

41

Nb

42

Mo

43

Tc

44 45 46 47

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

48

Cd

49

In

50 51 52 53

Sn

Sb

Te

I

54

Xe

Rubidium

Strontium

Yttrium

Zirconium

Niobium

Molybdenum

Technetium

Ruthenium

Rhodium

Palladium

Silver

Cadmium

Indium

Tin

Antimony

Tellurium

Iodine

Xenon

55

Cs

56

Ba

57

La

72

Hf

73

Ta

74

W

75

Re

76 77 78 79

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

80

Hg

81

Tl

82 83 84 85

Pb

Bi

Po

At

86

Rn

Cesium

Barium

Lanthamium

Hafnium

Tantalum

Tungsten

Rhenium

Osmium

Iridium

Platinum

Gold

Mercury

Thallium

Lead

Bismuth

Polonium

Astatine

Radon

87

Fr

88

Ra

89

Ac

104

Rf

105

Db

106

Sg

107

Bh

108

Hs

109

Mt

Francium

Radium

Actinium

Rutherfordium

Dubnium

Seaborgium

Bohrium

Hassium

Meitnerium

58

Ce

59

Pr

60

Nd

61 62 63 64

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

65

Tb

66

Dy

67 68 69 70

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

71

Lu

Cerium

Praseodymium

Neodymium

Promethium

Samarium

Europium

Gadolinium

Terbium

Dysprosium

Holmium

Erbium

Thulium

Ytterbium

Lutetium

90

Th

91

Pa

92

U

93 94 95 96

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

97

Bk

98

Cf

99

Es

100

Fm

101

Md

102

No

103

Lr

Thorium

Protactimium

Uranium

Neptunium

Plutonium

Americium

Curium

Berkelium

Californium

Einsteinium

Fermium

Mendelevium

Nobelium

Lawrencium

KEY

Reactive

metals

Transition

metals

Less reactive

metals

Non-metals

Noble gases

Zig-zag line

separates the metals

from the non-metals

1

H

Hydrogen

atomic

number

symbol

name

in Action integrated science in Action integrated science in Action integrated science in Action integrated science


Metals and non-metals

Most metals react with oxygen to form metal oxides.

This process is called corrosion.

Metals are mixed with other metals (and sometimes

with non-metals) to make substances called alloys.

Alloys have properties that the original metals do

not have. Brass, bronze and solder are examples

of alloys.

Carbon is a common non-metallic element found

in all molecules of living things. Carbon can exist

in more than one form in the solid state. Different

forms of the same element in the same state

are known as allotropes. Carbon allotropes are

diamonds, graphite and fullerene.

Machines

• Simple machines make work easier.

• A lever is a simple machine.

• You apply a small force at the effort to create a big

force at the load.

• A lever is supported at the fulcrum or pivot.

• An inclined plane enables you to lift objects more

easily and with a smaller force than if you lifted

them vertically.

• The moment of force is the product of the force

applied at a point, and the perpendicular distance

from where the force is acting (e.g. opening a door).

• The Principle of Moments states that when a

beam is balanced, the clockwise motion is equal

to the anticlockwise moment.

Physical and chemical properties of metals

Physical properties

Conduct heat well

Good electrical conductors

Surface is shiny when

clean – this is called lustre

Malleable – they can be

rolled into thin sheets

Ductile – they can be

pulled into thin wires

Sonorous – they make a

sound when hit

Usually solid at room

temperature (except

mercury)

Chemical properties

Usually have 1–3 electrons

in their outer shell

Lose the electrons in their

outer shell easily

React with oxygen to

produce basic oxides

Good reducing agents

Physical and chemical properties of non-metals

Physical properties

Poor conductors of heat –

they are insulators

Chemical properties

Usually have 4–8 electrons

in their outer shell

load (large force)

Electricity and magnetism

• A resistor is any conductor that resists the flow of

current in a circuit. Bulbs are resistors.

• We measure resistance in units called ohms Ω.

• In a resistor, electrical energy is changed into

other forms of energy such as heat and light.

• This voltage drop across a resistor is a measure of

how much energy is converted to heat and light

energy in the resistor.

• The current passing through a resistor is directly

proportional to the potential difference across it.

• The resistance of a wire increases when it gets hot.

Remember:

fulcrum

A spade being used as a lever

effort (small force)

Do not conduct electricity

well

Brittle if they are solids

Not ductile

Do not have a metallic

lustre

Can be solids, liquids or

gases at room temperature

Gain or share the electrons

in their outer shell easily

React with oxygen to form

oxides that are acidic

Good oxidising agents

R = V ; V = IR; I = V

I

R

Resistance = voltage

current

If several resistors are connected in series in a circuit:

R = R1 + R2 + R3 + …

If several resistors are connected in parallel in a

circuit: 1 1 1

= + + …

R R1 R1

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Junior Secondary School curriculum for Botswana.

IA INT SCIENCE 3SB CV.indd 1

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with Student’s Book!

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Guide!

Janice Barrett | Alpa Somaiya

Reviewed by: Masego Basimanebotlhe

2011/07/14 03:48:44 PM

TOPIC 9 Body systems

In Form 2, you learnt some important things about the

human body. For example, you studied how your body is used

for communication and

The

how

human

the sense

body

organs help you to

communicate. You also learnt that the nervous system is made up

of • many The nerves functions that make of the different skeleton muscles are react. to protect Some of these

muscles, together with bones and joints, enable you to move your

internal organs, support the muscles and body

body. For example, you use muscles, bones and joints to walk, hold

a pencil,

organs

kick

and

a soccer

allow

ball,

body

and so

movement.

on.

• A joint is a part of the body that can bend

In this because unit, we two will learn bones about meet the there. physiology of bones, muscles

and • joints. For movement to happen, the action of the

The muscles, main functions bones of and the joints human must skeleton be coordinated.

The adult

Muscles

human

are

skeleton

attached

is made

to bones

up of 206

by

different

tendons.

bones.

Limbs

These

bones function begin to develop as levers. before Bones birth. are As pulled newborn by babies, pairs our of bones

are soft, muscles and our to bodies move are the floppy. levers. As we get older, our bones get

hard • Posture and strong is and the we position can or of stand the body up straight. parts relative

to one another.

Look at Figure 9.1 to see all the different bones in the adult

skeleton.

• Good

Notice

posture

that most

involves

of the

aligning

bones have

each

scientific

part of

names, for

example, the body humerus with and the femur. neighbouring You do not need parts, to remember thereby the

names keeping of the bones! them well-balanced and supported.

skull

cervical vertebrae

clavicle

scapula

sternum

humerus

ribs

vertebral column

pelvis

radius

ulna

carpals

metatarsals

phalanges

femur

patella

tibia

fibula

The human skeleton

HIV/AIDS

AIDS care-givers must:

• provide emotional support and practical help to

AIDS patients,

• respect the confidentiality of AIDS patients,

• know how to prevent infections, control pain and

cope with very ill patients, and

• encourage patients to do gentle exercise, eat

healthily and take sufficient rest.

Force, motion and energy

• Forces can cause stationary objects to move and

moving objects to change direction or slow down.

• Newton’s First Law of Motion states that an object

remains at rest, or if it is moving it will continue to

move with constant speed in the same direction,

until a force acts on it to move it differently.

• Newton’s Second Law of Motion says that when

a force is applied to a moving object it causes the

momentum of the object to change. The rate of

change of this momentum is equal to the size of

the force. The change takes place in the direction

of the force.

• A useful way of expressing Newton’s Second

Law is the formula F = ma, where F is the force

applied, m is the mass of the object and a is the

acceleration of the object caused by the force.

• Newton’s Third Law of Motion says that action

and reaction are equal and opposite. This means

that if you push against a wall, the wall is also

pushing against you with the same force.

New word

physiology the study of

how living bodies work

Key concept

The human skeleton is

made up of 206 different

bones. The main functions

of the human skeleton are:

to give sturdiness and

provide a frame, to provide

attachments for muscles

and ligaments, to enable

the body to move, and to

provide protection for vital

organs.

Emerging issue

Children must have good

nutrition, because bones

need calcium, and muscles

need carbohydrates and

protein to become strong

and healthy.

The solar system

Space exploration:

• provides us with more information about space

beyond our Earth,

• tells us what the universe was like in the distant past,

• is expensive and dangerous,

• has contributed to advances in types of plastic,

television, computers and human health, and

• relies on the skills of astronauts, pilots, computer

technicians, mechanics, medical doctors, scientists,

engineers, chemists and geologists.

Satellites give us information about Earth. Some

research satellites contain devices that can study

the universe 199 from above the atmosphere, obtaining

information that we cannot get on Earth.

Space probes send information back about other

parts of the solar system. There are many different

kinds of telescopes that detect radio waves, X-rays,

heat and light from objects in the universe.

The solar system

Figure 9.1 A front and back

view of the human skeleton

SO 7.4.1.1, 7.4.1.2

Sun

Mercury

Mars

Earth

Saturn

Uranus

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Plot 14386, New Lobatse Road, G-West Industrial Site,

LONGMAN

Gaborone, Botswana. Website: www.longmanafrica.co.za

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