Cornwall's Biodiversity Action Plan - Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Cornwall's Biodiversity Action Plan - Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Cornwall's Biodiversity Action Plan - Cornwall Wildlife Trust


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Cornwall’s Biodiversity

Action Plan

Volume 4: Priority Projects


This document should be cited as:

Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative (CBI) (2011) Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plan Volume 4: Priority Projects

All four volumes of Cornwall’s BAP are available on line at: www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/bap

For further information please contact:

Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative

C/o Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Five Acres




T: 01872 273939

E: bap@cornwallwildlifetrust.org.ok

W: www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/bap


Introduction 2

Background 3

Targets 5

Habitat Targets 6

Priority Projects 8

Mapping 9

All of the Coast 11

Bodmin Moor Mires and Headwaters 12

Camborne, Pool, Illogan and Redruth 13

China Clay Area 14

Coast to Coast 15

Cornwall’s Super Green Spine 16

Culm Grassland 17

Linking the Lizard 18

Plymouth Green Infrastructure and Tamar Valley Woods 19

Truro Development – Growth Point 20

Wild Penwith 21

Cetacean BAP Species 22

Invasive Species 23

Connectivity 24

Mapping BAP Habitats 25

Marine Atlas 26

Marine Habitat (Biotope) Mapping 27

Orchards 28

Species recovery 29

References 30


Appendix 1 – Habitat and Species List 31

Appendix 2 – Projects and habitats table 40

Appendix 3 – Projects and organisations table 41


I would like to take this opportunity to commend the individuals and organisations that have undertaken so

much diligent and hard work. However, there is much more to do and the challenges facing us now are more

severe than ever. This is not the time for shirking our responsibilities; this is the time to redouble our efforts and

ensure that our small contribution to protecting the planet’s ecosystems makes a difference, and we leave these

ecosystems in good order for our successors. We must understand the value of our ecosystems, what they do

for us and how we interrelate with them. We must maintain our biodiversity and where possible enhance it. This

will give Cornwall the best chance of survival in a changing climate.

Cornwall's Biodiversity Action Plan, Volume 4, gives us the toolkit to identify responsible actors and measure our

progress. If we fall short, we must hold one another to account and offer encouragement and support in order

to achieve. If we live by the plan, we will succeed’.

Julian German

Cornwall Council Cabinet member for Waste Management, Climate Change and Historic Environment

‘My a garsa kemeres an chons ma dhe gomendya an dus unnik ha kowethyansow re omgemeras kemmys ober

kales ha diwysyk. Byttegyns, yma lies moy dh’y wul ha’n chalenjys usi orth agan enebi lemmyn yw moy sad es

bythkweth kyns. Nyns yw hemma an prys dhe woheles agan charjys; hemm yw an prys dhe dhastewblekhe agan

strivyansow ha surhe y hwra dyffrans agan kevro byhan dhe witha ekosystemow an planet, hag y hwren ni gasa

an ekosystemow ma yn studh da rag agan heryon. Res yw dhyn ni konvedhes talvosogeth a’gan ekosystemow, an

pyth a wrons i ragon ha fatel wren ni keskowethya gansa. Res yw dhyn ni mentena agan bewdhiverseth ha le may

fo possybyl hy gwellhe. Hemm a wra ri dhe Gernow an gwella chons a dreusvewnans yn hin ow treylya.

Towl Gwrians Bewdhiverseth Kernow, Lyver 4, a re dhyn an dafar toulys dhe aswon gwarioryon omgemeryek ha

musurya agan avonsyans. Mar ny wren ni drehedhes an linen, res yw dhyn omsynsi kablus ha profya kennerth ha

skoodhyans may hyllyn y gowlwul. Mar kwren ni bewa dre’n towl, ni a wra seweni’.

Page 1


It is perhaps fitting that this new volume to Cornwall’s

Biodiversity Action Plan was developed over 2010, the

International Year of Biodiversity. The United Nations (UN)

designated 2010 as the International Year of Biodiversity and,

as a result, people all around the world intensified their efforts

to promote the importance of conserving our biodiversity.

Following on from this the UN has launched a new Decade of

Biodiversity from 2011 until 2020. 2011 will also see the launch

of the Natural Environment White Paper, which is the first step

towards new policy for wildlife and the environment.

Cornwall’s Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) Volume 4 has been

produced in response to the updated UK BAP lists of habitats

and species 1 produced in 2007, the UK strategic biodiversity

framework 2 and the Lawton Review 3 . The Cornwall Biodiversity

Initiative (CBI) has produced a new Cornish BAP habitat and

species list (Appendix 1 and www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/

bap) which includes the relevant habitats and species from the

updated UK list.

This volume is very short in comparison to Cornwall’s BAP

Volume 3. This is because there has been a shift in focus of

conservation priorities, which is not just a local view, it is also

occurring throughout the country. This BAP Volume 4 highlights

priority projects where conservation effort should be directed

within the next 5 years. There are no long lists of targets and

actions which are difficult to record against. Instead targets are

set for Cornwall, and priority projects are summarised and

lead partners assigned. It will then be part of each project

development stage to develop SMART (Specific, Measurable,

Achievable, Realistic and Time-constrained) targets that can

be reported on within BARS (Biodiversity Action Reporting

System) 4 .

This new broader, habitat based approach will allow effective

action planning and reporting without significantly adding to

BAP bureaucracy. By shifting the emphasis to habitat-based

work these projects will achieve habitat targets as well as

benefit those species less suited to very narrowly focused

recovery work.

The CBI is of course bound by limits on the budget and

resources that we can muster in these difficult times, but

nonetheless we are confident that we can achieve a lot by

working together and planning ahead. The partnership is

confident that with this co-ordinated approach we will be

able to build on all the good work undertaken to date and

help reverse the decline that so much of our wildlife has

experienced and to ensure that Cornwall’s wildlife continues

to be an inspiration for future generations.

1 www.ukbap.org.uk/NewPriorityList

2 www.naturalengland.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/biodiversity/protectandmanage/framework

3 www.defra.gov.uk/environment/biodiversity/documents/201009space-for-nature.pdf

4 www.ukbap-reporting.org.uk

Page 2



A new UK List of Priority Species and Habitats was published

in 2007, following a 2-year review of the BAP process and

priorities, representing the most comprehensive analysis of

such information ever undertaken in the UK. The list now

contains 1150 species and 65 habitats that have been listed

as priorities for conservation action under the UK BAP. UK

species were considered by expert working groups against a

set of selection criteria based on international importance,

rapid decline and high risk.

The England Biodiversity Group published a new framework

in 2008 to drive the work on priority species and habitats in

England. ‘The framework aims to build on the strengths of the

UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP), promote landscapescale

delivery and embed an ecosystem approach in BAP



Biodiversity South West (BioSW) is currently developing

(due to be completed in 2011) a comprehensive, realistic and

challenging Regional Delivery Plan that identifies spatially the

key priority landscapes for successful delivery of integrated

habitat and species targets. Within this plan organisations

accountable for this delivery will be identified.

The delivery plan will set out a 5 year work plan that builds

on past BioSW/Local BAP activity, outlines and profiles the

future challenges and delivery priorities and aligns this with

South West Nature Map 5 as the main delivery ‘tool’. The main

focus of this plan is on restoration and creation of habitats and

the protection of their associated species. This should occur

at the landscape, ecosystem or catchment scale and focus

on connecting existing habitats. Maintenance of the existing

habitat remains a crucial part of each project, but should not

constitute the whole.


The Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative (CBI) has been involved

in the production and delivery of the Cornwall Biodiversity

Action Plan (BAP) since 1996. The Cornwall BAP is currently

made up of three volumes 6 , these are:

Cornwall’s Biodiversity Volume 1: Audits and Priorities

Cornwall’s Biodiversity Volume 2: Action Plans

Cornwall’s Biodiversity Volume 3: Action Plans 2004

In 1996 the Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative (CBI) produced

Cornwall’s Biodiversity Volume 1. Following on from the

recommendations in this document, Action Plans were

produced for Cornwall’s priority habitats and species and

published in Cornwall’s Biodiversity Volume 2: Action Plans.

A further volume, Cornwall’s Biodiversity Volume 3: Action

Plans 2004, was produced in line with the UK BAP process.

This highlights the UK BAP priority habitats and species

that occur in Cornwall and comprises 25 habitat and 127

species Action Plans, each written by local experts. Cornwall’s

Biodiversity Volume 3 has guided local conservation work and

has helped contribute to the UK BAP targets.

The CBI reviewed Cornwall's Biodiversity Volume 3 in 2008

to assess progress against the targets and actions for each

plan. This involved detailed consultations with lead partners,

other partner organisations, specialist groups and individuals.

A report, Cornwall’s Biodiversity Initiative - Progress Review

2008 6 , was produced detailing the progress made for all the

species and habitat action plans in Cornwall BAP Volume 3.

This has helped to highlight any gaps in delivery which has in

turn helped to inform this new BAP Volume 4.

As part of the production of this BAP, a series of workshops

were held in late 2009 to establish a prioritised list of

biodiversity projects. These priority projects form the backbone

of this volume; the project aims are outlined, the key habitats

and species are listed, and the lead delivery body identified.

Targets and actions for each project are not set within this

document as these are to be drawn up at the development

stage for each individual project.

There are of course overarching principles of the CBI which

are not only included within these projects but also feed

into other aspects of biodiversity within Cornwall. The CBI

works in partnership with other organisations to ensure

these principles are incorporated into strategic planning and

influence the Core Strategy for Cornwall. The Core Strategy

which is currently being developed for Cornwall will provide

planning policies that help deliver enhancement and protect

Cornwall’s biodiversity and geodiversity for the benefit of local

communities. An additional layer to the Core Strategy will be

Town Frameworks which will bring to life the proposed policies

/ implications of the Core Strategy for local communities.

Recognising the valuable role that nature plays in urban areas

is especially important now there is such intense pressure to

build. By working in partnership with developers, planners and

local people, we aim to show that nature conservation has a

crucial role to play.

5 www.biodiversitysouthwest.org.uk/nmap

6 www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/bap

Page 3

Landscape Scale/Ecosystem approach

There are many different definitions for ‘landscape scale

conservation’ and the ‘ecosystem approach’. In summary

this is a holistic approach, looking not just at biodiversity

issues, but also at issues such as local economies and

agriculture, geodiversity and the health and social benefits of

the environment. This is an approach that many conservation

organisations are starting to take and this BAP Volume 4 will

help to guide this work.

Ecosystem Services, as defined by the Millennium Ecosystem

Assessment 7 are: 'the benefits people obtain from ecosystems'.

These include 'provisioning services such as food, water,

timber, and fiber; regulating services that affect climate, floods,

disease, wastes, and water quality; cultural services that provide

recreational, aesthetic, and spiritual benefits; and supporting

services such as soil formation, photosynthesis, and nutrient


Climate change

Climate is one of the most important factors that influence

the behaviour, abundance and distribution of species, as well

as having a strong influence on the ecology of habitats and

ecosystems. The predicted impacts of climate change need to

be considered within this action plan.

Climate is determined by the complex interaction between

the atmosphere, ocean and land, including soil and vegetation.

Climatic projections vary between models; while there is now

more consensus across models on the level of future warming:

projected changes in precipitation and extreme rainfall events

are less certain.

Conserving Biodiversity – The UK Approach a report produced

by the UK biodiversity Partnership states that lack of habitat

and habitat fragmentation would appear to be a key factor

preventing range expansion in some species as the climate

changes. Many are already showing evidence of changes in

their range, and some which undergo annual migration are

responding particularly rapidly, such as wading birds which

migrate to spend winter on the UK coast. Reduced numbers

of waders have been found in the south and west of the UK,

because warmer winters mean they are able to feed further

north and east, nearer to their overseas breeding sites. There is

also increasing evidence of non-migratory species which reach

the northern limit of their distribution in the UK expanding

their range northwards and onto higher ground. In contrast,

some species which reach their southern limit in the UK are

retreating northwards and are being lost from lower ground.

Two types of action need to be taken to address the challenge

of climate change and biodiversity conservation. The first

is adaptation, which means increasing the ability of natural

systems to absorb and respond to change, given that the

world is already experiencing some degree of climate change.

The second type of action is mitigation, which is controlling

and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, the root cause

of climate change. Cornwall’s Biodiversity Action Plan Volume

4 focuses on actions that are relevant to habitats and species

adaptation to climate change. This plan should be reviewed

frequently and systematically to take account of current

research on the impacts of climate change on biodiversity.

7 www.maweb.org

Page 4


Within this document it has been decided to set targets for

the county rather than each individual project. This will allow

monitoring and reporting to be consistent with Regional and

National BAP targets as there will be direct comparison to

methodologies used in defining the targets.

At each project development stage realistic targets should be

set for habitat maintenance and restoration/expansion. These

will then feed into the county targets, i.e. the Wild Penwith

Project has contributed x amount to the county targets, y

amount to regional and z to the National targets.

Maintenance target

Data from ERCCIS and Cornwall’s Landcover 1995-2005

(2010) 8 report have been used to establish the baseline

figures for each BAP habitat where information is available.

Baseline figures are not available for some BAP habitats as

insufficient survey work has been undertaken. Different levels

of confidence for these figures have been applied, the lack of

certainty derives both from the lack of clarity in the habitat

definition and incompleteness of fieldwork data in the county.

The figures for extent have been used to indicate the

maintenance target for each of these BAP habitats. The

habitats which have no maintenance figures are due to the

fact that these areas of habitat cannot be quantified; however

it is important that the current extents of these habitats are

maintained. Once these habitats have been surveyed and

mapped then numerical targets can be set.

Expansion/restoration target

The methodologies used to define the expansion/restoration

targets vary depending on data available. Three methods have

been used and these are summarised below.

Method 1

All habitats mapped on South West Nature Map have the

expansion/restoration figures for 2050 calculated using the

same methodology as that in Review of the South West

Biodiversity, BRERC, March 2006 9 , a full description of the

methodology can be found in this document. The 2015 figure

is derived by assuming a linear rate of increase and dividing the

2050 figure by 8.

Method 2

The Review of the South West Biodiversity gives restoration/

expansion targets for both 2015 and 2030 for the region

for habitats not mapped on South West Nature Map. The

percentage of habitat occurring in Cornwall was calculated

and the 2030 aspirational target was calculated using the same

proportion as for the region. The target for 2015 was created

by averaging the 2010 target and the 2020 aspirational target

Method 3

No relevant data exists to produce targets for these habitats.

Therefore it should be ensured that these BAP habitats are

maintained until further information is available and future

targets can be set.

It should be noted that these targets are not prescriptive; they

are an indication of the scale of local contributions that are

needed to deliver regional and national targets. No targets

have been set for marine habitats or habitats without any

current baseline data; this is something that will need to be

addressed at the next 5 year review using the information

gained from the mapping projects outlined in this document.

8 www.erccis.co.uk/projects/cornwall_landcover_change

9 www.biodiversitysouthwest.org.uk/docs

Page 5

Habitat targets





Arable and



and linear



mixed and





Dwarf Shrub


Fen, Marsh

and Swamp




target, ha

Restoration/expansion target (ha)


(confidence 2015 2030 2050


Aspirational Aspirational

500 (B) 80(2) 200(2)

Lowland Dry

Acid Grassland

Arable field 30 000 m (est) Maintain



Hedgerows 30 000 km (est) Maintain












70 (est) Maintain







and parkland

250 (B) Maintain






Upland 1500 (B) 260(1) 2100(1)


Upland mixed 1700 (B) 300(1) 2350(1)


Wet woodland 2200 (A) 380(1) 3000(1)

Lowland mixed 1600 (est) 280(1) 2200(1)



Lowland 100 (B) Maintain Maintain Maintain


(3) (3) (3)


Lowland 6500 (A) 1000(1) 8000(1)


Upland 30 (B) 15(2) 40(2)


Purple moorgrass

and rush


900 (B) 50(2) Culm




Lowland fens 3100 (B) 500(2) 1300(2)

Reedbeds 100 (A) 20(2) 50(2)



Inland rock

Upland flushes,

fens and


Coastal and


grazing marsh



560 (B) Maintain






75 (A) 10(1) 90(1)

50 (est) Maintain






Littoral rock

Open mosaic

habitats on


developed land




100 (est) Maintain






Page 6





Arable Littoral and

horticulture sediment


and linear



mixed and

yew Neutral

woodland Grassland

Rivers and



Open Water

and Canals



Dwarf Shrub

Heath Sublittoral


Fen, Marsh

and Swamp





Inland rock





Priority Maintenance Restoration/expansion target (ha)

Habitat target, ha


(confidence 2015 2030 2050


Aspirational Aspirational

Sabellaria Lowland Dry

alveolata Acid Grassland reefs

3500 (A)(B) Maintain 80(2)


Maintain 200(2)




Coastal Arable field 290 30 000 (A) m (est) 10(1) Maintain Maintain 90(1) Maintain

saltmarsh margins

(3) (3) (3)

Intertidal Hedgerows 2600 30 000 (A) km (est) 100(1) Maintain Maintain 800(1) Maintain


(3) (3) (3)

Seagrass beds

Sheltered Traditional 70 (est) Maintain Maintain Maintain

muddy orchards gravels

(3) (3) (3)

Lowland Wood-pasture 100 250 (est) (B) 150(2) Maintain 400(2) Maintain Maintain

meadows and parkland

(3) (3) (3)

Rivers Upland 300 1500 (est) (B) Maintain 260(1) Maintain Maintain 2100(1)


(3) (3) (3)

Eutrophic Upland mixed 100 1700 (est) (B) Maintain 300(1) Maintain Maintain 2350(1)

standing ashwoods

(3) (3) (3)

waters Wet woodland 2200 (A) 380(1) 3000(1)


Lowland mixed 150 1600 (est) (est) Maintain 280(1) Maintain Maintain 2200(1)

lakes deciduous

(3) (3) (3)


woodland 750 (est) Maintain Maintain Maintain

Lowland dystrophic 100 (B) (3) Maintain (3) Maintain (3) Maintain

lakes calcareous

(3) (3) (3)

Ponds grassland 300 (est) Maintain Maintain Maintain

Lowland 6500 (A) (3) 1000(1) (3) (3) 8000(1)

Estuarine heathland 60 (est) Maintain Maintain Maintain

rocky Upland habitats 30 (B) (3) 15(2) (3) 40(2) (3)

Fragile heathland sponge

and Purple anthozoan moorgrass

and rush

only (3)

900 (B) 50(2) Culm Maintain


on pastures subtidal

rocky Lowland habitats fens 3100 (B) 500(2) 1300(2)


channels Reedbeds


100 (A) 20(2) 50(2)

spinulosa Upland flushes, reefs 560 (B) Maintain Maintain Maintain

Subtidal fens and sands

(3) (3) (3)

and swamps gravels

Maerl Coastal beds and 75 (A) 10(1) 90(1)

Blue floodplain mussel

beds grazing marsh

Saline Calaminarian lagoons 50 (A) (est) Maintain







Maritime cliff 3750 (B) 30(2) Maintain

and Open slopes mosaic 100 (est) Maintain (3) Maintain Maintain

Coastal habitats sand on 1030 (A) 30(1) (3) (3) 230(1) (3)

dunes previously

Coastal developed land 75 (B) 1(2) 3(2)

vegetated Intertidal


Littoral rock



Confidence levels for calculating current BAP habitat extent

• A thought to be accurate to within plus or minus 25%;

• B thought to be accurate to within 50%; and

• est the best estimate.

Page 7

BAP Volume 4: Priority Project List for Cornwall

The following list of priority projects for Cornwall has been

established through a series of workshops and consultations

within the CBI. Below the projects have been split into three

distinct topics, geographically based area projects, species

projects and information gathering projects. Each project

needs to be developed by the identified lead organisations

and partners during the lifespan of this action plan. The

development phase of each project will include setting targets

for maintaining and restoring/expanding each BAP habitat

associated with that project. These individual project targets

will then contribute to the Local, Regional and National targets.

Previous and existing projects should not be forgotten

and should still be considered a valuable contribution to

biodiversity within Cornwall. Best practice can be gained from

these projects, for example a number of heathland projects

have occurred in Cornwall, Tomorrows Heathland Heritage,

Mid Cornwall Moors LIFE project and the HEATH project.

A report has been produced by the CBI, Measuring BAP

outcomes from landscape scale projects in Cornwall 10 which

highlight the contributions these projects have had in delivering

biodiversity targets.

Appendix 2 contains a table showing which projects

contribute to each BAP habitat and Appendix 3 shows the

lead organisations and partners.


• All of the Coast

• Bodmin Moor Mires and Headwaters

• Camborne, Pool, Illogan and Redruth

• China Clay Area

• Coast to Coast

Cornwall’s Super Green Spine

• Culm Grassland

• Linking the Lizard

• Plymouth Green Infrastructure and Tamar

Valley Woods

• Truro Development – Growth Point

• Wild Penwith


• Cetacean BAP Species

• Invasive Species

Information gathering

• Connectivity

• Mapping BAP Habitats

• Marine Atlas

• Marine Habitat (Biotope) Mapping

• Orchards

10 www. cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/bap

Page 8


The projects which are being delivered in a specific geographical

area of Cornwall have been mapped, the projects not mapped

are ones that are Cornwall wide or not appropriate for


The boundaries shown on the map do not represent a

statutory designation; they are simply project areas where

there are considered to be opportunities to make positive

changes for biodiversity.

The boundaries mainly follow the South West Nature Map

or Landscape Character Areas. The South West Nature Map

shows the priority areas (Strategic Nature Areas (SNA’s)) to

maintain and expand terrestrial wildlife habitats at a landscape

scale across the South West. The map is a biodiversity

opportunity map and no constraints or obligations are placed

on land within the SNA’s, other than areas which already have a

statutory or local designation. Landscape Character Areas give

us an overview of how landscapes change across the county.

These are single, unique areas and form discrete geographical

areas of a specific landscape type.

White areas on the map are by no means areas where

conservation work is not necessary; these areas are relevant

to the non geographical projects such as mapping new BAP

habitats, and the invasive species project. Other areas, where

considered appropriate, will be addressed in future plans. The

areas of BAP habitats in these white areas should at least be

maintained and restoration/expansion should be encouraged

especially where linking to exisiting BAP habitats.

Page 9

Cornwall Biodiversity Action Plan Priority Project Areas 2010 -2015

Priority Project Areas

All of the Coast

Biotope Mapping



Bodmin Moor Mires and Headwaters

Camborne Pool Illogan and Redruth

China Clay Area

Coast to Coast

Cornwall's Super Green Spine


All of the Coast

Cornwall's Super

Green Spine

Linking the Lizard

Plymouth GI and Tamar Valley Woods

Truro Develpoment - Growth Point

Wild Penwith

Bodmin Moor

Mires and


Coast to Coast

Plymouth GI and

Tamar Valley Woods

Biotope Mapping

China Clay


Truro Development

Growth Point


Pool Illogan

and Redruth



Linking the


Page 10

All of the coast

Although an ambitious project to cover ‘all of the coast’ of

Cornwall, this has been identified as an important area for

biodiversity. There are already a lot of projects happening

along the coast, it is however unclear how this activity is

contributing to BAP targets. To link these current conservation

projects and to improve the monitoring could have huge social,

economic and biodiversity gains for Cornwall.

The large project area is based on the coastal Strategic Nature

Area, and will require a multi disciplinary, varied approach

dependent on location. The focus of the project will be

to identify opportunities to link, buffer, or expand areas of

habitat which are currently protected by designation (SSSI,

SAC etc) or at locations vulnerable to fragmentation or loss.

The project will aim to work alongside or fill in the gaps of

existing conservation projects/partnerships to ensure there

is no duplication of effort to benefit this nationally important

landscape. A huge amount of work has been done already in

terms of restoring neglected cliff-land habitats and encouraging

reversion of cliff-tops, much of it on NT land with agrienvironment

scheme funding. This includes initiatives such

as the Chough Partnership and the Atlantic Coasts & Valley


The first stage of this project will be a mapping exercise.

Delivery will be via farmer advice, agri environment scheme

targeting, RSPB projects and involvement of local landowners

and communities. Through improving the quality of a range

of BAP habitat types, and by establishing ecological networks

between these priority habitats, the project aims to develop

an ecologically resilient and varied landscape. The project will

work to conserve and enhance habitat and species viability,

both as a prerequisite to long-term survival, and also to

ensure that species can shift and follow their necessary climate

space. Re-creation of BAP habitat behind the coast will enable

roll back as the coast erodes through predicted increased

storminess and sea level rise and has the potential to improve

carbon storage in these soils.

The main lead organisations will be the RSPB and Natural

England, with the National Trust and Cornwall Wildlife Trust

identified as partners. Meetings have been held to develop this

project further and to identify partnership work areas that

would support all projects and facilitate delivery.

Key BAP habitats:

• Maritime Cliff and Slopes

• Coastal Sand Dunes

• Lowland Heathland

• Arable Field Margins

• Lowland Dry Acid Grassland

• Lowland Calcareous Grassland

• Coastal and Floodplain Grazing Marsh

• Coastal Saltmarsh

• Intertidal Mudflats

• Coastal Vegetated Shingle

• Saline Lagoons

• Reedbeds

Key BAP species include:

• Birds – aquatic warbler, corn bunting, cirl bunting, hen harrier

(wintering), house sparrow, nightjar, linnet, reed bunting,

skylark, yellowhammer, herring gull, bittern, black-tailed

godwit, balearic shearwater, roseate tern.

• Butterflies - small-pearl-bordered fritillary, large blue, silver

studded blue, grayling

• Vascular plants - early meadow grass, perennial century,

slender birdsfoot trefoil, western ramping fumitory, smallflowered

catchfly, wild asparagus, pale dog-violet

• Lower plants - golden-haired lichen, pitted frillwort

• Bees - brown-banded carder bee, shrill-carder bee, longhorned


• Beetles - black oil beetle and violet oil beetle

• Flies - hornet robberfly

Coast near St Agnes. Photo By Sheila McCann-Downes

Page 11

Bodmin Moor Mires and Headwaters

Bodmin Moor is a key landscape area for biodiversity in

Cornwall; the aim of this project is to provide a landscape scale

approach which will help to connect all the previous projects

and conservation efforts within the Bodmin Moor Landscape

Character Area. Agri environment schemes will be utilised

to encourage farmers and commoners to manage land with

biodiversity and economic gain. Recreation, education and

sustainability will also be a focus for the project.

Through improving the quality of a range of BAP habitat types,

and by establishing ecological networks between these priority

habitats, the project will develop an ecologically resilient and

varied landscape. The project will work to conserve and

enhance habitat and species viability, and also to ensure that

species can shift in the face of climate change.

South West Water is introducing a new scheme aimed at

‘rewetting’ Bodmin Moor to protect water resources for

Cornwall. The scheme, called Upstream Thinking, encourages

the upland moors to act as a 'sponge' during severe weather

events, reducing the impact of storms further downstream.

The natural filtering effect also has the benefit of delivering

cleaner raw water to water treatment works and reservoirs.

This partnership approach to catchment restoration will not

only deliver clean raw water but also many ancillary benefits

for society and nature.

The Bodmin Moor Vision is a joint agreement between

agencies to ensure that landowners receive consistent advice

across all of the unenclosed land on Bodmin Moor, it also

aspires to reconnect all the communities that use the moor.

A map has been produced showing the broad vegetation

zones to aim for in the long term; it also highlights the historic

resource on the moor.

The lead organisations are Natural England and South West

Water, with Cornwall Wildlife Trust, RSPB and the AONB unit

identified as partners.

Key BAP habitats:

• Lowland Heathland

• Upland Heathland

• Purple Moor Grass and Rush Pasture

• Lowland Dry Acid Grassland

• Lowland Fens

• Wet Woodland

• Blanket Bog

• Ponds

• Rivers

Key BAP species include:

• Marsh fritillary

• Narrow boarded bee hawk moth

• Otter

• Greater and lesser horseshoe bats

• Salmon

• Curlew

• Reed bunting

• Grasshopper warbler

• Willow tit

Cheesewring. Photo by Jason Smith

Page 12

Camborne Pool Illogan Redruth

This area is targeted for massive urban expansion but differs

from other growth points and identified Green Infrastructure

areas in that there is very little BAP habitat or even seminatural

habitat currently mapped within the urban framework.

There are extensive areas of the new BAP Open Mosaic

Habitat on Previously Developed Land but this is yet to be

mapped and the extent calculated. There are also some high

value habitats nearby such as Carn Brea County Wildlife Site,

Red River Local Nature Reserve and the West Cornwall

Bryophytes SSSI.

Two documents have been submitted to Cornwall Council for

formal approval as Council policy; The Tuckingmill Framework

and the Dudnance Lane and South Crofty Framework. The

frameworks set out details regarding the future development

of two large brownfield sites in the Camborne, Pool, Illogan and

Redruth area; including proposals for new road infrastructure,

green infrastructure, and a new and extended residential

community with local facilities. The Dudnance Lane and

South Crofty Framework also presents proposals for a new

working mine and commercial and leisure development.

Any development planning will need to consider offsite

compensation which is essential to follow the guidance of PPS9.

Cornwall Wildlife Trust is in the process of developing and

seeking funding for a wildlife gardening and community

engagement project in this area. The project seeks to work

with local communities in the CPIR area to create a wildlife

network comprising green spaces and gardens that will provide

gains for communities, including health benefits and enable

wildlife to adapt to a changing climate. The project proposals

have been written up and funding is currently being sourced.

The lead organisations are Cornwall Wildlife Trust, Cornwall

Council and Natural England,with the Environment Agency and

FWAG identified as partners.

Key BAP habitats:

• Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land

• Hedgerows

• Lowland Heathland

Key BAP species:

Species of conservation concern within the area include

western and purple ramping fumitory; these have specialist

requirements which could technically be supported by

development. There are also other under recorded species

such as:

• Reptiles

• Amphibians

• Bats

• Otter

• Song thrush

• House sparrow

• Hedgehog

Hedgehog. Photo by Richard Burkmar

Page 13

China Clay Area

The aim of this area of work is to take advantage of a once in

a lifetime opportunity to create an Eco-community that will

deliver radical change for the Clay Area in mid Cornwall, and

open up a bright new future for all. Building on the recent

success of the ‘Tomorrow’s Heathland Heritge’ and the ‘China

Clay Woodlands Project’ the aim for the St Austell Clay

Country area is: “To create a sustainable community that builds

on the strengths of the area to ensure a more prosperous and

sustainable future”.

Based on disused clay extraction sites careful redevelopment

aims to build a thriving rural community. This aims to

bring benefits to all stakeholders through the creation of a

strong economy and a sustainable restored environment. The

development will encourage inward investment opportunities

to maximise social and economic growth and environmental

management, and facilitate a more prosperous and sustainable

future for the Clay Country communities.

The St Austell Clay Country Eco-community spans five sites,

over approximately 700ha of former minerals land within the

Clay area. The six sites are: Baal and West Carclaze, Par Docks,

Blackpool, Goonbarrow, Drinnick and Nanpean. At the 6 sites,

new developments are proposed that will include new housing,

employment, leisure, community and transport infrastructure

and facilities, all within close walking distance of existing

local settlements, designed to achieve exemplar sustainability


An Eco-community should demonstrate a net gain in

Ecosystems and Ecosystem services, including local biodiversity.

A strategy for conserving and enhancing local biodiversity

will be produced to accompany planning applications for

the Eco-community. For the purpose of this project the

China Clay Mining and the Goss and Red Moor Landscape

Character Areas have been used as boundaries and it is the

aim that biodiversity gain should occur in these areas. Work

can continue on from previous projects such as ‘Tomorrow’s

Heathland Heritage’ and the ‘China Clay Woodland Planting’ to

ensure current management of these sites and to fund further

habitat creation. A full target species list will be drawn up and

considered within management plans.

Community engagement is a key element of this project to

generate opportunities to create and maintain green spaces

and access to nature.

Lead organisations are Ecobos, Natural England, with the

Environment Agency, Cornwall Wildlife Trust, RSPB, Forestry

Commission, Cornwall Council, Eden Project and the China

Clay Local Action Group identified as partners.

Key BAP Habitats:

• Lowland Heathland

• Woodland – Upland Oakwood, Upland mixed Ashwood,

Wet Woodland, Lowland Mixed Deciduous Woodland

• Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land

Key BAP species groups:

• Mammals – otter, dormouse, pipistrelle, greater horseshoe,

lesser horseshoe

• Birds – skylark, bittern, nightjar, willow tit, linnet, reed bunting,

woodlark, spotted flycatcher, bullfinch, song thrush, curlew

• Butterflies - pearl-bordered fritillary, marsh fritillary, silverstudded

blue, dingy skipper

• Moths - narrow-bordered bee hawk, waved carpet, double


• Vascular plants - vigur's eyebright, western ramping-fumitory,

marsh clubmoss, pennyroyal, pillwort, three-lobed watercrowfoot

• Lower plants – western rustwort

China clay area. Photo by Cornwall Council Historic Environment Service

Page 14

Coast to Coast

This will involve creating a living landscape/wildlife network to

link the two coasts of Cornwall, from Padstow through the

Camel valley, into the Fowey valley and then splitting to take

in both Fowey and the Looe valley. The lower Fowey valley

section of the project area is currently being worked up as a

project, see detail below. Other project areas will need to be

identified during the course of this plan.

Lower Fowey Valley

The lower Fowey River valley system features a network

of historic parklands, ancient woodlands, wood pasture, and

veteran trees in the wider landscape. A number of sites within

this network are known to be of international or national

importance for their epiphytic lichen flora and, at very least,

of regional importance for their saproxylic (dead wood)

invertebrates. However, data on the invertebrate interest

of the site network remains limited, and information on the

status and distribution of lichens outside of the Lanhydrock

and Boconnoc Estates needs updating. Without better baseline

information the biodiversity interests of the sites are unlikely

to be fully accounted for in management plans at both a site

and landscape scale.

Funding is currently being sought to:

• Conduct new surveys for saproxylic invertebrates and

epiphytic lichens, and reassess the significance of assemblages

of these groups at a regional and national scale.

• assess habitat quality and connectivity

• assess the role of the site network in conserving the

deadwood and veteran tree biodiversity at a landscape scale

• produce site management guidance and a landscape-scale

conservation strategy which will contribute to delivery of

targets for UKBAP priority species and habitats

• Communicate with stakeholders and raise the profile of the

habitat and its biodiversity to the public.

The lead organisations for the lower Fowey Valley project are

Buglife and the National Trust. Other project areas should be

lead by Natural England and Cornwall Wildlife Trust with the

Highways Agency, local Voluntary Marine Conservation Zones

(VMCAs) and Westcountry Rivers Trust identified as potential


Key BAP habitats:

• Wood-Pasture and Parkland

• Lowland Mixed Deciduous Woodland

• Wet Woodland

• Hedgerows

Key BAP species:

Invertebrates: A large number of deadwood invertebrates

will benefit, many of which are rare or scarce (14NS, 2 RDB

known) however are not recognised as BAP priority species.

• Carabus intricatus (Blue ground beetle)

Lichens: 7 UK BAP Priority species have been recorded from

within the NT’s Landhydrock Estate:

• Arthonia invadens

• Bacidia incompta

• Lecania chlorotiza

• Melaspilea lentigosa

• Porina hibernica

• Usnea articulate

• Usnea florida

Mammals: although not a focus of the project many species of

bats will benefit:

Blue ground beetle. Photo by John Walters

Page 15

Cornwall’s Super Green Spine (SGS)

The project aims to establish a permeable corridor for wildlife

along the spine of Cornwall, linking Land’s End to the Tamar

valley, and beyond. Loosely based on the route of the A30

trunk road, a 4 km wide corridor would link all the significant

river catchments in the county, providing new opportunities

for wildlife to move east-west along the SGS as well as

north-south along the river corridors. The corridor would be

characterised by BAP habitats typical of Cornwall’s farmed

landscape, including heathland, low input neutral grasslands,

purple moor grass pastures, wet woodland, upland unimproved

acid grassland, mires and sand dunes.

The project would be delivered in the main by the appropriate

targeting of Environment Stewardship agreements. The

project would run over a 3 year timeframe aiming to have

90% of agricultural holdings within the SGS corridor in

agri environment schemes (or alternative), and for these

management agreements to include management options

aimed at delivering:

• a more permeable landscape for wildlife

• all BAP habitats present to be under appropriate


• opportunities identified and realised for the recreation of

appropriate BAP habitats.

The project is currently in the planning stage. The lead

organisations in this proposed project are likely to be

land managers, Cornwall Council and Natural England with

Cornwall Wildlife Trust and FWAG identified as potential


Key BAP habitats:

• Lowland Heathland

• Lowland Calcareous Grassland

• Lowland Dry Acid Grassland

• Purple Moor Grass Pastures

• Wet Woodland

• Upland Flushes, Fens and Swamps

• Coastal Sand Dunes

Key BAP Species:

• Marsh fritillary

• Otter

• Dormouse

• Adder

• Curlew

• Willow tit

Goss Moor. Photo by Wesley Smyth

Page 16

Culm grassland

Culm grasslands are internationally important - they are home

to some of the nation’s most threatened wildlife, such as the

marsh fritillary butterfly and the narrow-bordered bee hawkmoth.

Culm serves other important functions like reducing

pollution in watercourses by acting as a buffer from more

intensive agriculture upstream. The impacts of unseasonably

high rainfall are reduced as the land acts like a sponge,

absorbing high levels of rainfall and then slowly releasing the

water during periods of drought.

One of the main threats to Culm wildlife is habitat fragmentation.

Sites are often very small and widely spaced, which leaves

species requiring Culm for their survival in a risky position.

There have been huge losses of Culm grassland in the last

hundred years. Over 50% was lost during the late 1980s

and early 1990s due to the effects of poorly targeted farm

subsidy which indirectly encouraged farmers to plough these

grasslands to plant crops. Only 10% of the resource present in

1900 still survives.

Through the Working Wetlands project, Devon and Cornwall

Wildlife Trusts are helping landowners carry out targeted

habitat management, creation and restoration projects. The

result will be better linked areas of Culm grasslands in the

wider landscape. Delivery methods include land management

advice, training events, restoration demonstration sites,

establishing grazing networks, machinery rings, parish audits

and a lot of practical, on the ground work. The project also

takes an ecosystem scale approach that will deliver a wide

range of public goods (ecosystem services). For example, the

restoration and creation of wet grassland will help to retain

water during periods of high rainfall, releasing the water slowly.

This will help to regulate river flows and reduce the likelihood

of flooding. It will also positively impact on water quality.

Lead delivery organisations are Devon and Cornwall Wildlife

Trusts. Identified partners include Natural England, South West

Water, Environment Agency, Devon County Council, Butterfly


Key BAP habitats:

• Native woodland (inc. Lowland Mixed Deciduous

Woodland, Wet woodland, Upland Oak Woodland)

• Lowland Meadows

• Purple Moor Grass and Rush Pasture

• Hedgerows

• Rivers

Key BAP species:

• Small pearl bordered fritillary

• Marsh fritillary

• Brown hairstreak

• Wood white

• Dingy skipper

• Narrow-bordered bee hawk-moth

• Atlantic salmon

• Freshwater pearl mussel

• Curlew

• Willow tit

Mire and wet heath. Photo by Liz Cox

Page 17

Linking The Lizard

The Lizard Peninsula, the most southerly part of the British

mainland, is a place apart, where a combination of the mild

maritime climate and complex and unique geology has

produced an area with a distinctive character. It includes some

habitats and species which are confined solely to The Lizard,

and others which are extremely rare nationally.

Whilst much of this natural and historic heritage still remains,

some elements of the peninsula’s environmental interest

have been lost or degraded in the past through inappropriate

development, agricultural improvement and drainage, or

through changes in management and scrub invasion. Also, as

the climate continues to warm, maybe by as much as +2 o C by

2050 11 , the best prospect for maintaining assets such as wildlife

and resources on which we all depend, is by working at the

larger scale rather than simply managing small sites in isolation

from each other.

The main aims of the project are

• To restore, link, and extend the area of wildlife habitat

across The Lizard, to safeguard and enhance its position

as one of the most important wildlife areas in the country.

• To enhance access in many forms and enjoyment of the

outdoors for all, the local community and visitors

• To encourage involvement of local people in all aspects of

the project.

• To promote farming and land management on the

peninsula which provides clean water and conserves

healthy soils.

• To conserve, enhance and interpret the distinctive

landscape and rich cultural heritage of the Lizard AONB.

• To support activity that benefits the local rural economy.

• To improve resilience to climate change impacts, and

promote carbon storage in soils and vegetation.

Cornwall Wildlife Trust, the National Trust and Natural England

are already working together. It is now intended to approach

the National Farmers Union and AONB team as natural

partners with a direct interest to join the Working Group. A

wide range of other organisations and individuals will also be

invited to get involved if they wish as the project develops.

Key BAP Habitats:

• Maritime Cliff and Slopes

• Lowland Heathland

• Arable Field Margins

• Ponds

• Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land

Key BAP species:

• Wild asparagus

• Juniper

• Pygmy rush

• Pillwort

• Lizard crystalwort

• Butterflies

• Bats (greater and lesser horseshoe)

The Lizard. Photo by MOD

11 http://ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk

Page 18

Plymouth Green Infrastructure and Tamar Valley

Plymouth has an ambitious growth agenda, but it also has a

wealth of natural assets. 32% of the city is green space and it

is surrounded by three Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty

(AONBs), Dartmoor National Park and a marine Special Area

of Conservation (of European importance). The Plymouth

Green Infrastructure (GI) Delivery Plan is a proactive response

to Plymouth's growth agenda, and will deliver a sustainable GI

Network. With funding for phase 2 it will provide a coordinated,

cross boundary approach to creating, managing and enhancing

the natural assets of Plymouth and the rural hinterland.

Green infrastructure provides many benefits for local people

including areas for exercise, relaxation and play, wildlife areas,

flood alleviation, food and fuel production and sustainable

transport links. Improving and protecting these assets is a key

aspect of planning and delivering Plymouth's growth agenda.

The Tamar Valley is a unique and significant landscape. Rich in

wildlife, industrial heritage, natural beauty and rare habitats, this

diverse landscape is defined and shaped by the rivers Tamar,

Tavy and Lynher, and by the human activity focussed around

them. Extensive areas of woodlands on ancient woodland sites

are found on the steep valley sides, and remnants of heathland

still persist on the granite ridge. Layers of history and human

exploitation of the land and its minerals have left a legacy

of unique habitats such as mine spoil, species-rich hedges,

old market gardens and orchards, each of which has its own

characteristic wildlife. The Tamar Valley Woodlands Project

will combine a number of existing and new initiatives to bring

under-managed woodlands and farm copses into management

for biodiversity and woodfuel. The work will be funded

through England Woodland Grant Scheme (EWGS), HLS and a

European Interreg Programme.

Lead Organisations: Plymouth City Council, Natural England,

Forestry Commission and the Tamar Valley AONB.

Key BAP habitats:

• Rivers

• Reedbeds

• Coastal Saltmarsh

• Maritime Cliff and Slope s

• Lowland Dry Acid Grassland

• Lowland Calcareous Grassland

• Arable Field Margins

• Ponds

• Hedgerows

• Wood-Pasture and Parkland

• Traditional Orchards

• Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land

• Seagrass Beds

• Subtidal Sands and Gravels

• Blue Mussel Beds

• Estuarine Rocky Habitats

• Fragile Sponge and Anthozoan Communities on Subtidal

Rocky Habitats

• Intertidal Underboulder Communities

• Sheltered Muddy Gravels

• Tide-swept Channels

Key BAP species:

• Bats, including greater and lesser horseshoe

• Dormouse

• Otter

• Cirl Bunting

• Nightjar

• Curlew

• Woodland birds - lesser spotted woodpecker, spotted

flycatcher, willow tit, marsh tit

• Heath fritillary

• Cnidarian species and seahorses

• Pink seafan

• Atlantic salmon

• Lamprey

• Allis shad

Bircham Valley. Photo by Jeremy Sabel

Page 19

Truro Development – Growth Point

Truro has become a natural focus for growth in Cornwall,

with sites like the Hospital and Truro College all adding to the

area to provide an economically vibrant city. The challenge for

Truro and its community is to manage growth in a way that

adds value to the city.

Truro and the surrounding landscape still support a wide

range of different green infrastructure which varies from

formal urban parks to Special Areas of Conservation (SAC’s)

of international importance. It is also known to support a wide

range of European protected species including dormice, otters

and at least 11 species of bats. The Truro and Threemilestone

area is one of several important areas of high biodiversity

value that radiate from Truro outwards. The river valleys and

Halbullock Moor Cornwall Wildlife Trust Reserve are also of

high value, and the unmapped hedgerow systems support good

areas of BAP habitat. These high-value habitats are connected

to other habitats of importance within the wider landscape

around Truro such as the estuarine SAC and Nansavallan


It is key that the biodiversity value of this area is fully

recognised by strategic documents including a detailed Green

Infrastructure Strategy; which is being developed as part of

the City Framework for Truro and Threemilestone. The Truro

Green Infrastructure Strategy draft sets out the Council’s

aspirations to protect manage and improve the natural and

cultural environmental setting of Truro and Threemilestone as

growth occurs. It establishes a vision for how the City should

relate to its setting and describes how the main proposals of

the strategy can be delivered. The main delivery mechanism is

through the planning system both strategic and development.

It is essential that the principles of Planning Policy Statement

9: Biodiversity and Geological Conservation (PPS9) produce

good planning design which ensures the continued high

biodiversity value of the site, examples can be found in the

Biodiversity and Geological Conservation Planning Good

Practise Guidance for Cornwall (2007) 12 .

The lead organisations are Cornwall Council, Natural England,

Cornwall Wildlife Trust and the Environment Agency.

Key BAP habitats:

• Hedgerows

• Lowland Mixed Deciduous Woodland

• Wet Woodland

• Wood-Pasture and Parkland

• Lowland Fens

Key BAP species:

• Bats

• Otters

• Hedgehog

• Dormouse

• House sparrow

• Slow worm

• Grass snake

• Adder

• Invertebrates

Coosebean. Photo by Steve Hartgroves, Cornwall Council Historic Environment Service

12 www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/conservation/Planning_advice_cornwall_wildlife

Page 20

Wild Penwith

The Wild Penwith project started in 2009 and is led by

Cornwall Wildlife Trust, the project aims to create a coast to

coast ‘Living Landscape’, with healthy, well connected wildlife

habitats. Granite moors dominate the centre, and to the north

a series of short, relatively steep river valleys pass through

medieval field systems to the coast. The landscape to the south

comprises a large number of gently sloping river-valley systems,

supporting nationally significant wetland and heathland habitats.

Penwith has an exceptionally rich historical landscape, with many

field systems of Bronze Age origin and a large concentration of

prehistoric ritual monuments.

The Wild Penwith project will achieve its goals by:

• Assessing the condition of BAP habitats, including heathland

and wetland habitats, and providing advice to landowners for

their positive management, restoration and reconnection.

• Securing long term management of BAP habitats through

working with Natural England and FWAG to encourage uptake

of agri-environment schemes. The majority of Environmentally

Sensitive Area schemes are due to expire in 2012. The need

to ensure the good work undertaken during the ESA scheme

is continued and built upon is one of the key drivers for this


• Creating a system of healthy wetlands and watercourses for

wildlife and people. The project area includes Drift Reservoir

which is known to be affected by diffuse agricultural pollution.

Cornwall Wildlife Trust is working with the Environment

Agency and South West Water to monitor water quality, and

with FWAG to advise farmers on soil and nutrient management.

The project is also working with partners to deliver training

workshops, on issues such as soil and water management, to

enhance water quality throughout the catchment.

• Programme of community events and a weekly volunteer

group which carries out practical conservation tasks on both

farmland and nature reserves.

• Helping deliver recommendations for water quality and habitat

management through a small capital grant scheme.

• Working with conservation partners to deliver these goals

with a coordinated approach, avoiding any duplication of effort.

Lead organisations in this project are Cornwall Wildlife Trust,

FWAG, Natural England and the Environment Agency. The Wild

Penwith project is currently ongoing and is supported through

grant funding from the Tubney Charitable Trust, Countdown

2010 and South West Water.

BAP habitats:

• Wet Woodland

• Lowland Heathland

• Rivers

• Lowland Fen

Key BAP species:

• European nightjar

• Linnet

• Reed bunting

• Otter

• Brown/sea trout

• Purple ramping-fumitory

• Three-lobed water crowfoot

• Noctule bat

• Soprano pipistrelle bat

• Brown long-eared bat

• Greater horseshoe bat

Wild Penwith. Photo by Liz Cox

Page 21

Cetacean BAP species

This Cetacean Project will look at management measures and

activities to help protect the 15 cetacean species (dolphins,

porpoises and whales) on the current BAP list for Cornwall.

The seas around the south west are amongst the richest areas

for spectacular animals including whales and dolphins. There

are current projects which aim to monitor these species,

such as Seaquest Southwest 13 a marine recording project run

jointly by Cornwall and Devon Wildlife Trusts. Another ongoing

project run by Cornwall Wildlife Trust is the Seaquest Netsafe

Project, this gathers data on cetaceans which will help develop

strategies to protect them. Cornwall sadly receives the highest

numbers of dead dolphin strandings each year, in response

to this the Marine Strandings Network was set up to record

these animals and retrieve them for post mortem examination.

This BAP project aims to combine all the hard work which

is currently ongoing and will seek to combine all information

gathered. This will to help develop and implement management

measures and/or activities to conserve these cetaceans and the

ecosystem through working closely with the fisheries industry

and consumers. Key areas to focus on are summarised below:

• Inshore cetacean populations and cetacean bycatch around

Cornwall, through effort based sightings and underwater

acoustic monitoring at specific sites

• Data from stranded animals through the Marine Strandings


• Testing of bycatch mitigation measures with inshore netters

and promoting responsible fishing practices.

Lead organisations include Cornwall Wildlife Trust, Natural

England, Marine Management Organisation, Cornwall Inshore

Fisheries and Conservation Authority, and the commercial

fishing industry.

Key BAP species:

• Minke whale

• Sei whale

• Fin whale

• Common dolphin

• Long-finned pilot whale

• Risso's dolphin

• Atlantic white-sided dolphin

• White-beaked dolphin

• Sowerby`s beaked whale

• True`s beaked whale

• Killer whale

• Harbour porpoise

• Sperm whale

• Bottlenosed dolphin

• Cuvier's beaked whale

Dolphin watching. Photo by Joana Doyle

13 www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/conservation/living seas/Seaquest_southwest

Page 22

Invasive Species

Non-native invasive plant species are one of the greatest

threats to the environment and biodiversity. They are often

more vigorous than native species and lack natural pests

and diseases to keep them in check. The smallest fragment,

inadvertently spread, can cause an invasion. Invasive species

can act as vectors for new diseases, alter ecosystem processes,

change biodiversity, disrupt cultural landscapes, reduce the

value of land and water for human activities and cause other

socio-economic consequences.

Cornwall Knotweed forum formed in 1997 to co-ordinate

policy on the control of Japanese knotweed in Cornwall. The

Forum has produced a number of publications and guidance

notes, organised conferences and co-ordinated research

projects. It has developed a GIS survey recording system in

conjunction with the Botanical Society of the British Isles.

Cornwall is also currently pioneering work in the control of

invasive alien weeds such as Japanese Knotweed where a top

scientific research company has been contracted to examine

the weed and potential natural control methods. Other

terrestrial non native invasive species in the county include

himalayan balsam, hottentot fig, montbretia and giant hogweed.

Aquatic invasive plants in particular out-compete native plants

and can form dense mats choking up watercourses, increasing

the risk of flooding, deoxygenating water and limiting access.

Substantial amounts of money are spent annually managing

non-native invasive species on waterways, ponds and lakes.

ERCCIS are currently running POND CHECK 14 , which is a

free service to help pond owners identify potential problem

plants and provide advice on how to remove and carefully

dispose of them.

Rivers and river corridors are often a means of transport/

spread for terrestrial as well as aquatic invasive species,

therefore river basin or catchment scales plans should be

considered a minimum for control or monitoring.

ERCCIS and Cornwall Wildlife Trust are collaborating with

associated organisations, including the Marine Biological

Association, to uncover which invasive marine species have

already arrived in Cornwall and establish the ones that

pose a significant threat should they arrive. Dive surveys will

be undertaken in 2010 and 2011 in the Fal estuary, along

with monitoring of removable settlement panels situated in

surrounding marinas. Both native marine life and marine based

industries are under increasing pressure from the introduction

of non-native invasive marine species. They find their way into

our coastal waters through many pathways, once here, they

compete for resources such as space, light and food. In some

cases native wildlife can be prey for the new arrivals.

Lead organisations are Cornwall Council, ERCCIS and

Cornwall Wildlife Trust, Westcountry Rivers Trust, and

Cornwall Knotweed forum.

Key BAP habitats:

• Ponds

• Rivers

• Marine habitats

• Broad Leaved Mixed and Yew Woodlands

• Coastal and Floodplain Grazing Marsh

• Saline Lagoons

Floating pennywort. Photo by Trevor Renals

14 www.erccis.co.uk/projects/investigate_invasives/pondcheck/

Page 23


Landscapes are, by definition, large on a spatial scale. They

contain many habitats and populations of many species of

conservation concern. Environmental stresses caused by the

fragmentation of habitats, changing climate and exploitation

by humans, mean that the Cornish landscape is composed of

increasingly fragmented and dwindling patches of habitat of

high conservation importance (e.g. lowland heathland, coastal

dune systems, broadleaf woodland, flower-rich meadows),

and isolated populations of endangered species (e.g. dormice,

marsh fritillaries, water crowfoot).

We require an understanding of how populations and

communities of organisms can move across our landscape,

in order to maintain viable populations and respond to

changing climates. Conservation of the Cornish landscape

must therefore consider the connectivity of this stressed

network of habitats and populations. This project would aim

to map our baseline understanding of ecological connections,

and barriers, between fragmented habitats and populations.

It would then analyse the spatial distribution of connections

and barriers, to help prioritise the creation or conservation of

wildlife corridors, mitigate against the future loss of important

connections, and identify levels of isolation of county wildlife

sites and other protected sites.

The first step in this project is a mapping exercise, which

should identify and superimpose networks of hedgerows,

footpaths, bridleways, rivers, roads and railways on maps of

priority BAP habitats and species distributions. Much of this

work can be achieved by collating established databases (e.g.

LandCover maps, footpath networks, roadmaps) held by

ERCCIS, Cornwall Council, Natural England, Environment

Agency, Highways Agency, and others. Spatial analysis of the

resulting network should engage academic support from the

University of Exeter.

This project is aspirational but highly deliverable. Several of

the baseline components already exist but should be shared

among agencies. The project would recommend improvements

to the ecological connectivity of the Cornish landscape, with

reference to current threats of habitat fragmentation and

degradation, and future threats imposed by predictions of

climate change. It will also ensure connectivity is maintained

under increasing development pressure by influencing Green

Infrastructure Strategies. Its resource requirement is mainly

the need for a centralised mapping database (to be held at

ERCCIS), and the cost of academic staff to analyse landscape


Lead organisations would be ERCCIS and the University of

Exeter with National Rail and Highways Agency identified as

additional partners.

Key BAP habitats:

• Hedgerows

• Rivers

• Woodland (all habitats)

• Lowland Meadows

Key BAP species:

• Dormouse

• Bats (all species)

• Grass snake

• Moths

Hedge patterns. Photo by Robert Walton

Page 24

Mapping BAP Habitats

Many of the original BAP habitats have been mapped by

ERCCIS based on aerial photographic data, giving us a rough

indication of where the BAP habitats occur and approximately

how much of the habitat is found in Cornwall. Without this

information it is very difficult to conserve or even maintain the

habitat. The area of the new BAP habitats, designated in 2007,

that exists in Cornwall will need to be calculated before we

can set habitat maintenance targets for the county. The main

areas of degraded habitat highlight where conservation efforts

should be focused.

The new BAP habitats and the habitats which are currently

not mapped for Cornwall include:

• Traditional Orchards

• Lowland Mixed Deciduous Woodland

• Wood-Pasture and Parkland

• Standing Open Water:

Oligotrophic and Dystrophic Lakes

Mesotrophic Lakes

Eutrophic Standing Waters

• Ponds

• Rivers

• Calaminarian Grasslands

• Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land

• Blue Mussel Beds

• Estuarine Rocky Habitats

• Fragile Sponge and Anthozoan Communities on Subtidal

Rocky Habitats

• Intertidal Underboulder Communities

• Sabellaria Spinulosa Reefs

• Seagrass Beds

• Sheltered Muddy Gravels

• Tide-swept Channels

• Subtidal Sands and Gravels

• Maerl Beds

The lead organisation to take this work ahead would be

ERCCIS. This would primarily be a desk based study using

aerial photos and other GIS layers available from partners.

Some ground truthing surveys would also be needed.

Photo by Cornwall Council

Page 25

Marine Atlas

This broad project will map a large majority of the marine BAP

species. This will be a new desk based project which should

follow on from the Finding Sanctuary 15 process and will help to

raise the profile of the marine environment in Cornwall. This

will ensure that all the data gathered by Finding Sanctuary for

the Marine Conservation Zone process is passed to ERCCIS

and therefore useable by all conservation partners.

By having a distribution atlas of habitats and species there

will be greater knowledge of how climate change will have an

anticipated impact. Once this is established then adaptation

principles can be put into practice

Can be used for education, awareness raising and within the

various industries that use the sea, i.e. fisheries and recreational

The project and potential funding is at the 'wish list' stage,

Lead organisations would be ERCCIS, Cornwall Wildlife Trust,

Natural England and Finding Sanctuary

Key habitats:

• Seagrass Beds

• Maerl Beds

• Blue Mussel Beds

• Sabellaria Spinulosa Reefs

• Sabellaria Alveolata Reefs

• Fragile Sponge and Anthozoan Communities on Subtidal

Rocky Habitats

Key species:

• Coral maerl

• Common maerl

• Fan mussel

• Stalked jellyfish

• Native oyster

• Pink seafan

• Sea-fan anemone

• Sunset cup coral

• Undulate ray

15 www.finding-sanctuary.org

Pink sea fan. Photo by Chris Bunney

Page 26

Marine habitat (Biotope) mapping

In order to properly manage and understand the wider marine

environment and ecosystem as a whole, it is first necessary

to have some knowledge of what constitutes the seabed and

what habitats and species are present in a given area. This

project aims to map the intertidal and subtidal habitats of

the coast of Cornwall. Initially the project will create a digital

marine habitat map covering the North coast of Cornwall

from mean high water to 6 nautical miles offshore with the

hope that this can be extended at a later date.

The mapping project will bring together a number of

organisations interested in gathering seabed habitat data in

Cornwall. The project will allow them to pool resources to

make the most of survey data already collected by converting

existing texture maps into useable habitat maps by overlaying

detailed species and habitat data. Further habitat data where

needed or where gaps are identified, particularly for intertidal

areas, will be collected to enable a continuous habitat map to

be produced from mean high water mark to the 6 nautical

mile limit.

Benthic (seabed) habitat mapping has become the principle

method for defining the distribution of seabed habitats, and

indicating or predicting the distribution of marine organisms

that are closely associated with these marine habitats. Rather

than mapping the distribution of the species themselves, benthic

habitat mapping uses remote sensing data to characterise wide

regions of the seafloor primarily based on the substrate and

geomorphology. This combined this with visual and sample

ground truthing surveys undertaken by divers match species

and biological communities with habitat characteristics. In the

intertidal zone there is no need for remotely sensed data as

habitats can be directly surveyed. Standard methodology for

such surveys has been developed by the Countryside Council

for Wales and is widely used in Wales and in parts of England

(Marine Monitoring Handbook, JNCC).

The project aims to combine expert identification and survey

skills and the latest in internet-based mapping technologies

to undertake and disseminate a comprehensive map of the

benthic marine biotopes (seashore and sea bed habitats and

their associated communities) on the key intertidal areas of

North Cornwall.

Lead organisations: Cornwall Wildlife Trust and the Marine

Management Organisation. Other partners are identified as

the Marine Coastal Agency, Channel Coastal Observatory,

Exeter University, Environmental Records Centre for Cornwall

and Isles of Scilly, Natural England, the Cornwall Inshore

Fisheries and Conservation Authority and KSARS LTD (marine

survey specialists).

Key BAP habitats:

• Sabellaria Alveolata Reefs

• Intertidal Mudflats

• Intertidal Underboulder Communities

• Sabellaria spinulosa Reefs

• Seagrass Beds

• Fragile Sponge and Anthozoan Communities on Subtidal

Rocky Habitats

• Blue Mussel Beds

• Maerl Beds

Key BAP species:

• Timid burrowing anemone

• Pink sea fan

• Sea-fan anemone

• Native oyster

• Fan mussel

Eelgrass. Photo by Paul Kay

Page 27


The county once boasted extensive orchards, but these

have been reduced to small or isolated pockets of trees

hidden away; often neglected, unproductive and unprofitable.

Traditional orchards need management; a neglected orchard

soon becomes swamped with scrub and the trees will

eventually succumb. With no new planting, the orchard's

value for wildlife will not be sustained and if the trees are not

adequately cared for and protected from grazing animals, they

will suffer. An orchard that is well managed (in a low intensity

way) will both crop well and function as an important wildlife


Traditional orchards are hotspots for biodiversity in the

countryside, supporting a wide range of wildlife and containing

other BAP priority habitats and species, as well as an array of

Nationally Rare and Nationally Scarce species 16 .

A Traditional Orchard Survey, part-funded by Natural England

and the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation, is currently ongoing and

aims to locate and map the remaining traditional orchards

within Cornwall. Once traditional orchards within the county

have been mapped, the inventory will provide a valuable

resource to be used by conservationists and orchard groups

to ensure there is no net loss of this valuable habitat. With

correct management advice the condition of many orchards

can be improved and suitable areas for expansion identified.

Sustainable economic management should be considered and

links with producers, large and small should be investigated.

It is anticipated that agri-environment schemes will be the key

mechanism for delivery of this habitat.

Lead organisations: Natural England and Cornwall Council

Key BAP habitats:

• Orchards

• Hedgerows

• Wood-Pasture and Parkland

Key BAP species:

• Bats

• Birds

• Violet oil beetle

• String-of-sausages lichen

• Goat moth

• Pearl-bordered fritillary

• Common lizard

• grass snake

• slow-worm

Photo by Bill Bradshaw

16 Nationally rare - Occurring in 15 or fewer hectads in Great Britain. Nationally scarce - Occurring in 16-100 hectads in Great Britain

Page 28

Species recovery programme

This BAP Volume 4 is focussed on landscape-scale projects.

For species conservation to be effectively integrated into this

habitat-based approach we need to place greater emphasis

on creating the component niches and resources required by

the majority of BAP species, rather than simply managing the

habitats generically.

Inevitably there will always be some important species work

that cannot be carried out through habitat-based management

or other delivery mechanisms; this will therefore require

targeted species recovery work. As the lead delivery body for

the England Biodiversity Strategy, Natural England will work

with partners to agree a National five year prioritised species

recovery programme for each taxonomic group. This will have

SMART targets and agreed accountabilities to deliver the most

urgent actions.

Once this prioritised programme has been produced (due in

2011), it should be included within this document and where

appropriate local projects should be developed to achieve the

urgent species-focussed activities that cannot be met by the

landscape scale approach.

Triangular club rush. Photo by Environment Agency

Crayfish. Photo by Roy Restell

Page 29


BRERC (2006) Review of South West Biodiversity Targets. A report for the South West Regional Biodiversity Partnership

Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative (CBI) (2008), Cornwall’s Biodiversity Initiative - Progress Review

Cornwall Biodiversity Initiative (CBI) (2008) Measuring BAP outcomes from landscape scale

projects in Cornwall

Cornwall Wildlife Trust and ERCCIS (2007), Biodiversity and Geological Conservation Planning Good Practise Guidance for


Davies, J., Baxter, J., Bradley, M., Connor, D., Khan, J., Murray, E., Sanderson, W., Turnbull, C. & Vincent, M., (2001), Marine Monitoring


England Biodiversity Group (2008) Securing Biodiversity: A new framework for delivering priority habitats and species in England.

Natural England, Sheffield

ERCCIS and Cornwall Wildlife Trust (2010) Cornwall's Land Cover 1995-2005: Summary report

JNCC [Joint Nature Conservation Committee] (2007) UK List of Priority Habitats and Species.

Lawton, J.H., Brotherton, P.N.M., Brown, V.K., Elphick, C., Fitter, A.H., Forshaw, J., Haddow, R.W., Hilborne, S., Leafe, R.N., Mace, G.M.,

Southgate, M.P., Sutherland, W.J., Tew, T.E., Varley, J., & Wynne, G.R. (2010) Making Space for Nature: a review of England’s wildlife

sites and ecological network. Report to Defra.

Planning policy Statement 9: Biodiversity and Geological Conservation (PPS9) (August 2005)

UK Biodiversity Partnership (2007) Conserving biodiversity – the UK approach. Defra

Davies, J., Baxter, J., Bradley, M., Connor, D., Khan, J., Murray, E., Sanderson, W., Turnbull, C. & Vincent, M., (2001), Marine Monitoring

Handbook, JNCC

Page 30


See www.cornwallwildlifetrust.org.uk/bap

Appendix 1


Broad Habitat

Acid grassland

Arable and horticulture


Boundary & Linear Features

Broadleaved, Mixed and Yew Woodland

Calcareous Grassland

Dwarf Shrub Heath

Fen, Marsh and Swamp

Improved Grassland

Inland rock

Littoral rock

Littoral sediment

Neutral Grassland

Rivers and Streams

Standing Open Water and Canals

Sublittoral rock

Sublittoral sediment

Supralittoral Rock

Supralittoral Sediment

Priority Habitat

Lowland dry acid grassland

Arable field margins

Blanket bog


Traditional orchards

Wood-pasture and parkland

Upland oakwood

Upland mixed ashwoods

Wet woodland

Lowland mixed deciduous woodland

Lowland calcareous grassland

Lowland heathland

Upland heathland

Purple moor-grass and rush pastures

Lowland fens


Upland flushes, fens and swamps

Coastal and floodplain grazing marsh

Calaminarian grasslands

Open mosaic habitats on previously developed land

Estuarine rocky habitats

Intertidal underboulder communities

Sabellaria alveolata reefs

Coastal saltmarsh

Intertidal mudflats

Seagrass beds

Sheltered muddy gravels

Lowland meadows


Eutrophic standing waters

Mesotrophic lakes

Oligotrophic and dystrophic lakes


Fragile sponge and anthozoan communities on subtidal rocky habitats

Tide-swept channels

Sabellaria spinulosa reefs

Subtidal sands and gravels

Maërl beds

Blue mussel beds

Saline lagoons

Maritime cliff and slopes

Coastal sand dunes

Coastal vegetated shingle

Page 31



Fungus Cantharellus friesii Orange Chanterelle

Cotylidia pannosa

Wooly Rosette

Entoloma bloxamii

Big Blue Pinkgill

Geastrum minimum

Tiny Earthstar

Geoglossum atropurpureum

Dark-purple Earthtongue

Hydnellum concrescens

A Tooth Fungus

Hydnellum ferrugineum

A Tooth Fungus

Hydnellum spongiosipes

Velvet Tooth

Hygrocybe spadicea

Date-Coloured Waxcap

Hypocreopsis rhododendri

Hazel Gloves

Microglossum olivaceum


Phellodon confluens

Fused Tooth

Phellodon melaleucus

Grey Tooth

Podoscypha multizonata

Zoned Rosette

Sarcodon squamosus

Scaly Tooth

Sarcodontia crocea

Orchard Tooth

Lichen Acarospora subrufula A Lichen

Anaptychia ciliaris ciliaris

A Lichen

Arthonia anglica

A Lichen

Arthonia atlantica

A Lichen

Arthonia invadens

A Lichen

Bacidia incompta

A Lichen

Blarneya hibernica

A Lichen

Caloplaca aractina

A Lichen

Cladonia mediterranea

Reindeer Lichen

Collema latzelii

A Lichen

Cryptolechia carneolutea

A Lichen

Enterographa sorediata

A Lichen

Fulgensia fulgens

A Lichen

Graphina pauciloculata

A Lichen

Heterodermia leucomela

Ciliate Strap-Lichen

Heterodermia speciosa

A Lichen

Lecania chlorotiza

A Lichen

Lecanographa amylacea

A Lichen

Lecidea erythrophaea

A Lichen

Leptogium cochleatum

A Lichen

Megalospora tuberculosa

A Lichen

Melaspilea lentiginosa

A Lichen

Opegrapha prosodea

A Lichen

Parmotrema robustum

A Lichen

Page 32

Physcia tribacioides

Porina hibernica

Porina sudetica

Pyrenula nitida

Ramonia dictyospora

Solenopsora liparina

Teloschistes flavicans

Usnea articulata

Usnea florida

Wadeana dendrographa

Southern Grey Physcia

A Lichen

A Lichen

A Lichen

A Lichen

Serpentine Solenopsora

Golden Hair Lichen

A Lichen

A Lichen

A Lichen

Bryophyte Cephaloziella calyculata Entire Threadwort

Cephaloziella dentata

Toothed Threadwort

Cephaloziella integerrima

Lobed Threadwort

Cephaloziella nicholsonii

Greater Copperwort

Cryphaea lamyana

Multi-fruited River Moss

Cyclodictyon laetevirens

Bright-green Cave-moss

Ditrichum cornubicum

Cornish Path Moss

Ditrichum plumbicola


Ditrichum subulatum

Awl-leaved Ditrichum

Dumortiera hirsuta

Dumortier`s Liverwort

Fissidens curvatus

Portuguese Pocket-moss

Fissidens serrulatus

Large Atlantic Pocket-moss

Fossombronia foveolata

Pitted Frillwort

Grimmia crinita

Hedgehog Grimmia

Jamesoniella undulifolia

Marsh Earwort

Lejeunea mandonii

Atlantic Lejeunea

Leptodontium gemmascens

Thatch Moss

Marsupella profunda

Western Rustwort

Petalophyllum ralfsii


Riccia bifurca

Lizard Crystalwort

Riccia nigrella

Black Crystalwort

Scopelophila cataractae

Tongue-leaf Copper-moss

Telaranea nematodes

Irish Threadwort

Tortula cuneifolia

Wedge-leaved Screw-moss

Tortula wilsonii

Wilson`s Pottia

Weissia multicapsularis

A Moss

Stonewort Chara canescens Bearded Stonewort

Vascular Plant Adonis annua

Asparagus prostratus

Blysmus compressus

Bupleurum rotundifolium

Carex divisa

Centaurea calcitrapa

Centaurea cyanus


Wild Asparagus



Divided Sedge

Red Star-thistle


Page 33

Chamaemelum nobile

Cicendia filiformis

Clinopodium acinos

Coeloglossum viride

Corrigiola litoralis

Dianthus armeria

Eryngium campestre

Euphrasia anglica

Euphrasia vigursii

Fumaria purpurea

Galeopsis angustifolia

Gentianella anglica

Gentianella campestris

Hordeum marinum

Illecebrum verticillatum

Juncus pygmaeus

Juniperus communis hemisphaerica

Lactuca saligna

Lobelia urens

Lolium temulentum

Lycopodiella inundata

Melittis melissophyllum

Mentha pulegium

Minuartia hybrida

Monotropa hypopitys

Muscari neglectum

Oenanthe fistulosa

Pilularia globulifera

Platanthera bifolia

Puccinellia fasciculata

Pyrus cordata

Ranunculus arvensis

Ranunculus tripartitus

Rumex rupestris

Salsola kali kali

Scandix pecten-veneris

Schoenoplectus triqueter

Scleranthus annuus

Silene gallica

Valerianella rimosa

Viola lactea


Yellow Centaury

Basil Thyme

Frog Orchid


Deptford Pink

Field Eryngo

Glandular Eyebright

An Eyebright

Purple Ramping-fumitory

Red Hemp-nettle

Early Gentian

Field Gentian

Sea Barley


Pygmy Rush

A Juniper

Least Lettuce

Heath Lobelia


Marsh Clubmoss

Bastard Balm


Fine-leaved Sandwort

Yellow Bird`s-nest


Tubular Water-dropwort


Lesser Butterfly-orchid

Borrer`s Saltmarsh-grass

Plymouth Pear

Corn Buttercup

Three-lobed Water-crowfoot

Shore Dock

Prickly Saltwort

Shepherd’s Needle

Triangular Club-rush

Annual Knawel

Small-flowered Catchfly

Broad-Fruited Corn Salad

Pale Dog-violet

Mollusc Margaritifera margaritifera Freshwater Pearl Mussel

Omphiscola glabra

Mud Snail

Truncatellina cylindrica

Cylindrical Whorl Snail

Vertigo moulinsiana

Desmoulin's Whorl Snail

Page 34

Spider Agroeca cuprea Golden Lantern-spider

Centromerus serratus

A Money Spider

Dictyna pusilla

Small Mesh-weaver

Dipoena inornata

Silky Gallows-spider

Eresus sandaliatus

Ladybird Spider

Haplodrassus dalmatensis

Heath Grasper

Meioneta mollis

Thin Weblet

Monocephalus castaneipes

Broad Groove-head Spider

Sitticus caricis

Sedge Jumper

Tapinocyba mitis

Gentle Groove-head Spider

Beetle Agabus brunneus Sharp's Diving Beetle

Carabus intricatus

Blue Ground Beetle

Harpalus melancholicus

A Seed-eater Ground Beetle

Hydrochus nitidicollis

Gravel Water Beetle

Melanapion minimum

Sallow Guest Weevil

Meloe proscarabaeus

Black Oil Beetle

Meloe violaceus

Violet Oil Beetle

Pogonus luridipennis

Yellow Pogonus

Fly Asilus crabroniformis Hornet Robberfly

Eristalis cryptarum

Bog Hoverfly

Lipsothrix nervosa

Southern Yellow Splinter

Salticella fasciata

Dune Snail-killing Fly

Bee Bombus humilis Brown-Banded Carder Bee

Bombus muscorum

Moss Carder Bee

Bombus sylvarum

Shrill Carder Bee

Eucera longicornis

Long-horned Bee

Wasp Cerceris quinquefasciata 5-Banded Tailed Digger Wasp

Butterfly Argynnis adippe High Brown Fritillary

Boloria euphrosyne

Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Boloria selene

Small Pearl-bordered Fritillary

Coenonympha pamphilus

Small Heath

Erynnis tages

Dingy Skipper

Euphydryas aurinia

Marsh Fritillary

Hipparchia semele


Lasiommata megera


Leptidea sinapis

Wood White

Limenitis camilla

White Admiral

Maculinea arion

Large Blue Butterfly

Melitaea athalia

Heath Fritillary

Plebejus argus

Silver-studded Blue

Page 35

Pyrgus malvae

Satyrium w-album

Thecla betulae

Grizzled Skipper

White Letter Hairstreak

Brown Hairstreak

Moth Acronicta psi Grey Dagger

Acronicta rumicis

Knot Grass

Agrochola helvola

Flounced Chestnut

Agrochola lychnidis

Beaded Chestnut

Allophyes oxyacanthae

Green-brindled Crescent

Amphipoea oculea

Ear Moth

Amphipyra tragopoginis

Mouse Moth

Apamea anceps

Large Nutmeg

Apamea remissa

Dusky Brocade

Aporophyla lutulenta

Deep-brown Dart

Arctia caja

Garden Tiger

Atethmia centrago

Centre-barred Sallow

Brachylomia viminalis

Minor Shoulder Knot

Caradrina morpheus

Mottled Rustic

Celaena haworthii

Haworth's Minor

Celaena leucostigma


Chesias legatella


Chesias rufata


Cosmia diffinis

White-Spotted Pinion

Cossus cossus

Goat Moth

Cyclophora porata

False Mocha

Dasypolia templi

Brindled Ochre

Diarsia rubi

Small Square-spot

Ecliptopera silaceata

Small Pheonix

Ennomos erosaria

September Thorn

Ennomos fuscantaria

Dusky Thorn

Ennomos quercinaria

August Thorn

Epirrhoe galiata

Galium Carpet

Eugnorisma glareosa

Autumnal Rustic

Eulithis mellinata


Euxoa nigricans

Garden Dart

Euxoa tritici

White-line Dart

Hemaris tityus

Narrow-bordered Bee Hawk-moth

Hemistola chrysoprasaria

Small Emerald

Hepialus humuli

Ghost Moth

Hoplodrina blanda


Hydraecia micacea

Rosy Rustic

Jodia croceago

Orange Upperwing

Luperina nickerlii leechi

Sandhill Rustic

Lycia hirtaria

Brindled Beauty

Malacosoma neustria


Melanchra persicariae

Dot Moth

Page 36

Melanchra pisi

Melanthia procellata

Mesoligia literosa

Mythimna comma

Noctua orbona

Orthonama vittata

Orthosia gracilis

Pelurga comitata

Perizoma albulata albulata

Rheumaptera hastata

Scopula marginepunctata

Scotopteryx bipunctaria

Scotopteryx chenopodiata

Spilosoma lubricipeda

Spilosoma luteum

Stilbia anomala

Syncopacma suecicella

Tholera cespitis

Tholera decimalis

Timandra comae

Trichiura crataegi

Tyria jacobaeae

Watsonalla binaria

Xanthia icteritia

Xanthorhoe ferrugata

Xestia agathina

Xestia castanea

Broom Moth

Pretty Chalk Carpet

Rosy Minor

Shoulder-striped Wainscot

Lunar Yellow Underwing

Oblique Carpet

Powdered Quaker

Dark Spinach

Grass Rivulet

Argent and Sable

Mullein Wave

Chalk Carpet

Shaded Broad-bar

White Ermine

Buff Ermine


Western Sober Moth

Hedge Rustic

Feathered Gothic

Blood Vein

Pale Eggar


Oak Hook-tip


Dark-barred Twin-Spot Carpet

Heath Rustic

Neglected Rustic

Damselfly Coenagrion mercuriale Southern Damselfly

Stonefly Brachyptera putata A Stonefly

Fish Acipenser sturio Common Sturgeon

Alosa alosa

Allis Shad

Alosa fallax

Twaite Shad

Anguilla anguilla

European Eel

Salmo salar

Atlantic Salmon

Salmo trutta

Brown/Sea Trout

Lampetra fluviatilis

River Lamprey

Herptile Anguis fragilis Slow-worm

Bufo bufo

Common Toad

Lacerta agilis

Sand Lizard

Natrix natrix

Grass Snake

Vipera berus


Zootoca vivipara

Common Lizard

Page 37

Bird Acrocephalus paludicola Aquatic Warbler

Alauda arvensis arvensis

Sky Lark

Anser albifrons albifrons

European Greater White-fronted Goose

Anthus trivialis trivialis

Tree Pipit

Aythya marila

Greater Scaup

Botaurus stellaris stellaris


Branta bernicla bernicla

Dark-bellied Brent Goose

Caprimulgus europaeus europaeus Nightjar

Carduelis cabaret

Lesser Redpoll

Carduelis cannabina autochthona/cannabina Linnet

Carduelis flavirostris bensonorum/pipilans Twite

Circus cyaneus

Hen Harrier

Coccothraustes coccothraustes


Cuculus canorus canorus

Common Cuckoo

Cygnus columbianus bewickii

Bewick's Swan (Tundra Swan)

Dendrocopos minor comminutus Lesser Spotted Woodpecker

Emberiza cirlus

Cirl Bunting

Emberiza citrinella citrinella


Emberiza schoeniclus schoeniclus

Reed Bunting

Larus argentatus argenteus

Herring Gull

Limosa limosa limosa

Black-tailed Godwit

Locustella luscinioides luscinioides Savi`s Warbler

Locustella naevia naevia

Grasshopper Warbler

Lullula arborea arborea

Wood Lark

Miliaria calandra calandra

Corn Bunting

Motacilla flava flavissima

Yellow Wagtail

Muscicapa striata striata

Spotted Flycatcher

Numenius arquata arquata


Parus montanus kleinschimdti

Willow Tit

Parus palustris palustris/dresseri

Marsh Tit

Passer domesticus domesticus

House Sparrow

Passer montanus montanus

Tree Sparrow

Phylloscopus sibilatrix

Wood Warbler

Prunella modularis occidentalis

Dunnock (Hedge Accentor)

Puffinus mauretanicus

Balearic Shearwater

Pyrrhula pyrrhula pileata


Sterna dougallii dougallii

Roseate Tern

Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris


Turdus philomelos clarkei

Song Thrush

Turdus torquatus torquatus

Ring Ouzel

Vanellus vanellus


Mammal Arvicola terrestris Water Vole

Barbastella barbastellus

Barbastelle Bat

Erinaceus europaeus


Lepus europaeus

Brown Hare

Page 38

Lutra lutra

Micromys minutus

Muscardinus avellanarius

Nyctalus noctula

Phoca vitulina

Pipistrellus pygmaeus

Plecotus auritus

Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

Rhinolophus hipposideros


Harvest Mouse



Common Seal

Soprano Pipistrelle

Brown Long-eared bat

Greater Horseshoe Bat

Lesser Horseshoe Bat


Alga Cruoria cruoriaeformis A Red Seaweed

Dermocorynus montagnei

A Red Seaweed

Lithothamnion corallioides

Coral Maërl

Phymatolithon calcareum

Common Maërl

Bryozoan Victorella pavida Trembling Sea-mat

Cnidarian Amphianthus dohrnii Sea-fan Anemone

Edwardsia timida

Timid Burrowing Anemone

Eunicella verrucosa

Pink Sea-fan

Haliclystus auricula

A Stalked Jellyfish

Leptopsammia pruvoti

Sunset Cup Coral

Lucernariopsis campanulata

A Stalked Jellyfish

Lucernariopsis cruxmelitensis

A Stalked Jellyfish

Crustacean Mitella pollicipes Gooseneck Barnacle

Niphargus glenniei

British Cave Shrimp

Palinurus elephas

Crayfish, Crawfish or Spiny Lobster

Mollusc Atrina fragilis Fan Mussel

Ostrea edulis

Native Oyster

Fish Ammodytes marinus Lesser Sandeel

Scomber scombrus


Hippocampus guttulatus

Long-snouted Seahorse

Hippocampus hippocampus

Short-snouted Seahorse

Gadus morhua


Petromyzon marinus

Sea Lamprey

Shark/skate Cetorhinus maximus Basking Shark

Dalatias licha

Kitefin Shark

Dipturus batis

Common Skate

Galeorhinus galeus

Tope Shark

Isurus oxyrinchus

Shortfin Mako

Page 39

Lamna nasus

Prionace glauca

Raja undulata

Rostroraja alba

Squalus acanthias

Porbeagle Shark

Blue Shark

Undulate Ray

White or Bottlenosed Skate

Spiny Dogfish

Turtle Caretta caretta Loggerhead Turtle

Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback Turtle

Cetacean Balaenoptera acutorostrata Minke Whale

Balaenoptera borealis

Sei Whale

Balaenoptera physalus

Fin Whale

Delphinus delphis

Common Dolphin

Globicephala melas

Long-finned Pilot Whale

Grampus griseus

Risso's Dolphin

Lagenorhynchus acutus

Atlantic White-sided Dolphin

Lagenorhynchus albirostris

White-beaked Dolphin

Mesoplodon bidens

Sowerby`s Beaked Whale

Mesoplodon mirus

True`s Beaked Whale

Orcinus orca

Killer Whale

Phocoena phocoena

Harbour Porpoise

Physeter catodon

Sperm Whale

Tursiops truncatus

Bottlenosed Dolphin

Ziphius cavirostris

Cuvier's Beaked Whale

Page 40

Subtidal Rocky Habitats

Tide-swept Channels

Sabellaria spinulosa Reefs

Sublittoral sediment

Subtidal Sands and Gravels

Maerl Beds

Blue Mussel Beds

Saline Lagoons

Sublittoral rock Maritime Cliff and Slopes

Supralittoral Sediment

Coastal Sand Dunes

Coastal Vegetated Shingle

Sublittoral rock

Estuarine Rocky Habitats

Fragile Sponge and Anthozoan Communities on

Oligotrophic and Dystrophic Lakes


Rivers and Streams Rivers

Standing Open Water and Canals

Eutrophic Standing Waters

Mesotrophic Lakes

Sheltered Muddy Gravels

Neutral Grassland Lowland Meadows

Wet Woodland

Lowland Mixed Deciduous Woodland

Calcareous Grassland Lowland Calcareous Grassland

Dwarf Shrub Heath

Lowland Heathland

Upland Heathland

Fen, Marsh and Swamp

Purple Moor-Grass and Rush Pastures

Lowland Fens


Upland Flushes, Fens and Swamps

Improved Grassland Coastal and Floodplain Grazing Marsh

Inland rock

Calaminarian Grasslands

Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land

Littoral rock

Intertidal Underboulder Communities

Sabellaria alveolata Reefs

Littoral sediment

Coastal Saltmarsh

Intertidal Mudflats

Seagrass Beds

Traditional Orchards

Wood-Pasture and Parkland

Upland Oakwood

Upland Mixed Ashwoods

Broad Habitat Priority Habitat

Acid Grassland Lowland Dry Acid Grassland

Arable and horticulture Arable Field Margins

Boundaries and linear features Hedgerows

Broadleaved, mixed and yew woodland

All of the Coast

Bodmin Moor

Camborne, Pool, Illogan

and Redruth

China Clay Area

Coast to Coast

Cornwall’s Super Green


Culm grassland

Linking the Lizard

Plymouth GI and Tamar

Valley Woods

Truro Development –

Growth Point

Wild Penwith

Cetacean BAP species

Invasive Species


Mapping BAP Habitats

Marine Atlas

Marine Habitat (Biotope)




Page 41



Priority project Lead organisations Partner organisations

All of the Coast


National Trust

Natural England

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Bodmin Moor Mires and Headwaters

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Natural England


South West Water


Camborne, Pool, Illogan and Redruth

China Clay Area

Coast to Coast

Cornwall’s Super Green Spine

Culm grassland

Linking The Lizard

Plymouth Green Infrastructure and

Tamar Valley Woods

Truro Development – Growth Point

Wild Penwith

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Cornwall Council

Natural England


Natural England


National Trust

Natural England

Cornwall Council

Devon Wildlife Trust

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

National Trust

Natural England

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Plymouth City Council

Natural England

Forestry Commission

Tamar Valley AONB

Natural England

Cornwall Council

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Environment Agency

Cornwall Wildlife Trust


Natural England

Environment Agency

Environment Agency


Environment Agency

Cornwall Wildlife Trust


Forestry Commission

Cornwall Council

Eden Project

China Clay Action Group

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Natural England

Highways Agency

Voluntary Marine Conservation


Westcountry Rivers Trust


Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Natural England

South West Water

Environment Agency

Devon County Council

Butterfly Conservation

National Farmers Union



Priority project Lead organisations Partner organisations

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Natural England

Cetacean BAP species

Marine Management Organisation

Cornwall Inshore Fisheries and

Conservation Authority

Commercial fishing industry

Cornwall Council

Invasive Species


Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Westcountry Rivers Trust

Cornwall Knotweed Forum

Page 42

Information gathering

Priority project Lead organisations Partner organisations



National Rail

University of Exeter

Highways Agency

Mapping Bap Habitats


Marine Atlas

Marine Habitat (Biotope) Mapping



Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Natural England

Finding Sanctuary

Cornwall Wildlife Trust

Marine Management Organisation

Natural England

Cornwall Council

Marine Coastal Agency

Channel Coastal Observatory

University of Exeter


Natural England

Cornwall Inshore Fisheries and

Conservation Authority


Page 43

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