E - Fermilab

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E - Fermilab

The NOvA Experiment

Denis Perevalov, Fermi Na9onal Accelerator Laboratory

for the NOvA Collabora9on

June 10, 2012, Kolymbari, Crete, Greece

Interna9onal Conference on New Fron9er Physics

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


2

Overview

o Neutrino Oscillations Overview

o NOvA Experiment Introduction

o Current Status

o Summary

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Neutrino Mixing Matrix and Masses

3

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎝⎝

ν e

ν µ

ν τ

atmospheric ν

Mixed Term

solar ν

⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ 1 0 0 ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ cosθ 13

0 sinθ 13

e −iδ ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ cosθ

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎟⎟

12

sinθ 12

0⎞⎞

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎜⎜ 0 cosθ 23

sinθ 23 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 0 1 0 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ −sinθ 12

cosθ 12

0⎟⎟

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎟⎟

⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 0 −sinθ 23

cosθ

⎜⎜

23 ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ −sinθ 13

e −iδ 0 cosθ

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

13 ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 0 0 1⎠⎠

⎝⎝

ν 1

ν 2

ν 3

⎞⎞

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎠⎠

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Neutrino Mixing Matrix and Masses

4

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎝⎝

ν e

ν µ

ν τ

atmospheric ν

Mixed Term

solar ν

⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ 1 0 0 ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ cosθ 13

0 sinθ 13

e −iδ ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ cosθ

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎟⎟

12

sinθ 12

0⎞⎞

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎜⎜ 0 cosθ 23

sinθ 23 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 0 1 0 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ −sinθ 12

cosθ 12

0⎟⎟

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎟⎟

⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 0 −sinθ 23

cosθ

⎜⎜

23 ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ −sinθ 13

e −iδ 0 cosθ

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

13 ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 0 0 1⎠⎠

⎝⎝

ν 1

ν 2

ν 3

⎞⎞

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎠⎠

Atmospheric:

Solar:



Δm 2 31

= (2.45 ± 0.009) ×10 −3 eV 2

sin 2 θ 23

= 0.51 ± 0.06

Δm 2 21

= (7.59 +0.20 −0.18

) ×10 −5 eV 2

sin 2 +0.017

θ 12

= 0.312 −0.015

arXiv:1108.1376



Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Neutrino Mixing Matrix and Masses

5

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎝⎝

ν e

ν µ

ν τ

atmospheric ν

Mixed Term

solar ν

⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ 1 0 0 ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ cosθ 13

0 sinθ 13

e −iδ ⎞⎞ ⎛⎛ cosθ

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎟⎟ = ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎟⎟

12

sinθ 12

0⎞⎞

⎛⎛

⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎜⎜ 0 cosθ 23

sinθ 23 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ 0 1 0 ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ −sinθ 12

cosθ 12

0⎟⎟

⎜⎜

⎜⎜

⎟⎟

⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 0 −sinθ 23

cosθ

⎜⎜

23 ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ −sinθ 13

e −iδ 0 cosθ

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

⎟⎟ ⎜⎜

13 ⎠⎠ ⎝⎝ 0 0 1⎠⎠

⎝⎝

ν 1

ν 2

ν 3

⎞⎞

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎟⎟

⎠⎠

M. Messier (Indiana)

Daya Bay 0.092 ± 0.017

arXiv:1203.1669v2 [hep-ex]

RENO 0.113 ± 0.023 (revised)


arXiv:1204.0626v2 [hep-ex]

Reactor Average

0.099 ± 0.014

Combined Average

0.092 ± 0.012

sin 2 2θ 13

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Mass Hierarchy

6

Currently the mass hierarchy is unknown

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


The NOvA Experiment

7

Long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment:

o Near and far detector pair.

o Off-­‐axis in order to have a narrow

neutrino flux with the energy peak is at

2GeV.

o 810 km baseline from Fermilab to Ash

River, Minnesota.

Goals:

o Search for ν µ →ν e oscilla9ons.

o precision measurements of

"|Δm 2 31 |, θ 23 ."

o determine mass hierarchy.

o constrain CP viola4ng phase.

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Off-­‐axis beam

FD

8

protons

target

π +

Decay Pipe

ND

Placing detectors 14 mrad off the

beam axis results in 2GeV narrow

band beam. Close to the €

oscilla9on maximum.

θ

ν

E ν

=

⎛⎛

1 − m 2 ⎞⎞

µ

⎜⎜

2

⎟⎟ E

⎝⎝ m π

π ⎠⎠

1+ γ 2 θ 2

o

o

o

o

o

o

Enhanced 700 kW NuMI beamline (Currently 300 kW).

Reduce cycle 9me from 2.2 to 1.3 seconds.

Increased intensity/cycle with addi9onal Booster batch.

New horn and target.

10µs beam pulse every 1.3 seconds.

4.9e13 POT/pulse or 6e20 POT/year.

P(! µ "! e

)

0.10

0.05

0.00

2 4 (GeV)

6 8 10

E !

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


NOvA Detectors

9

o

o

o

A large 14+ kton Far Detector

A smaller

Functionally equivalent Near Detector

Reduced systematic uncertainties

o Highly segmented (alternating X/Y)

o 65% Active Volume

o Low Z materials (PVC and Oil)

Radiation length ~ 40 cm

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


NOvA Detectors

10

o

o

o

A large 14+ kton Far Detector

A smaller

Functionally equivalent Near Detector

Reduced systematic uncertainties

o Highly segmented (alternating X/Y)

o 65% Active Volume

o Low Z materials (PVC and Oil)

Radiation length ~ 40 cm

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Electronics

11

End of Fibers

Avalanche photo-­‐diode (APD)

Front-­‐end-­‐board (FEB)

o Cell readout via looped WLS fiber to APD sensor

Each Far Detector cell measures 3.9 x 6.0 cm x 15.m

o The photon signal from fibers is read by an Avalanche Photo-­‐Diode (APD), where

it is amplified.

o The APD output is then digibzed by the Front-­‐End-­‐Board (FEB)

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Avalanche photo-­‐diode (APD)

12

o Relabvely inexpensive (about $10 per

channel)

o 85% QE for 520 – 550 nm light.

o Gain of 100 @ 375 volts.

o Array of 32 pixels

o Acbvely cooled to -­‐15 o C.

o 11,150 APDs at the Far detector

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Front-­‐end-­‐board (FEB)

o Low noise ASIC amplifier is developed to maximize the sensibvity

to small signals from the fiber.

13

4000 ADC

ASIC signal output as a func=on of =me

0 1us

o Analog-­‐to-­‐Digital converter samples each pixel with a frequency

of 2 MHz (8 MHz at the Near Detector)

o Field Programmable Gate Array preselects “hits” and sends the

readout informabon to DAQ.

o Thermo Electric Cooler Controller controls the amount of drive

current to supply for a Thermo Electric Cooler installed on the APD

module.

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


14

Simulated Event Signatures

ν μ charged-­‐current

o

o

long, well-­‐defined

muon track

short proton track with

large energy

deposibon at end

ν e charged-­‐current

o

o

single EM shower

characterisbc EM

shower development

Neutral-­‐current

with π 0 final state

o

o

mulbple displaced EM

showers

possible gaps near

event vertex

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Prototype Near Detector on Surface

15

o Very similar design and scale to the actual

NOvA Near Detector.

o Tested detector design, installabon procedures,

electronics, DAQ.

o Collected beam data to from December 2010 to

April 30 th 2012.

o Analyzing Data, performing calibrabons.

ν µ CC

candidate

Mulb-­‐prong

neutrino

candidate

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Prototype Near Detector on Surface

NuMI Neutrinos

16

Number of Windows / 1 µsec

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

Track 9me in the beam trigger

Beam 9ming window

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

time (µsec)

Number of tracks

350

300

250

200

150

100

We do observe the neutrinos from the NuMI beamline

50

Track direc9on

• NuMI Data beam data

− cosmic data

Cosmic Background Data

Neutrino events

in beam direc9on

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

cos ! NuMI

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Prototype Near Detector on Surface

Booster Neutrinos

17

Track 9me in the beam trigger

Track direc9on

Events/2µsec

220

200

180

160

Number of tracks

50

45

40

35

• Booster beam Data data

− cosmic data

Cosmic

140

30

120

25

100

20

80

15

60

10

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Time (µsec)

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

cos(! BNB

)

We do observe the neutrinos from the Booster beamline

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Detector Calibra9on

18

Example ver4cal cell

Michel electrons

Posi9on dependence

of cell response (light

a]enua9on, etc.)

Corrected cell response

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


19

Far Detector Building is Complete

Inside the Hall

At the Opening Ceremony

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Far Detector

Construc9on Status

o Block pivoter essen9ally complete

(a few reinforcement plates to be

added; final flatness shimming)

o Bookend, li_ers, leak testers ready

o 1 st block assembly to begin this month!

Block Pivoter

20

Module li_ing fixture

and adhesive dispenser

Near Detector

o Detector cavern excava9on and

assembly to proceed in parallel at

Fermilab

NOvA module factory

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Construc9on Schedule

21

o

o

o

NOvA will turn on April 2013 with 5 kton of Far detector in place and beam operating at

about 400 kW.

We will add detector mass at a rate of ~ 1 kton/month.

Beam intensity will ramp up to 700 kW in approximately 6 months.

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


( )

ν e Appearance

o NOvA measures the probability of ν e appearance in a ν µ beam:

22

o sin 2 (2θ 13 ) has been measured which allows us to make measurements of δ CP

and mass hierarchy.

o Note that we can improve θ 23 measurement from ν µ disappearance.

o Probability is enhanced or suppressed due to matter effects which depend on

the mass hierarchy, i.e the sign of Δm 2 31 ~ Δm2 32 as well as neutrino vs. antineutrino

running.

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


( )

ν e Appearance

23

1 and 2 Contours for Starred Point

P(¯ e)

0.09

0.08

Contours 2 yr and 4 yr ¯

An example of a bi-­probability

measurement.

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

suppose we measure

0.02

0.01

0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

P( e

)

suppose we measure

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


( )

ν e Appearance

24

Different values of δ CP give different

oscilla4on bi-­‐probability

In this example, the measurement

would lead roughly to:

P(¯ e)

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

1 and 2 Contours for Starred Point

Contours 2 yr and 4 yr ¯

m 23

2 = 2.32 10 -3 eV 2

sin 2 (2 13

) = 0.095

sin 2 (2 23

) = 0.97

δ CP

= 3π 2 ± π 4

0.02

0.01

= 0

= /2

=


0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

P( e

)

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


( )

ν e Appearance

25

Mass hierarchy also give different bi-­probability.


P(¯ e)

0.09

0.08

0.07

1 and 2 Contours for Starred Point

Contours 2 yr and 4 yr ¯

m 23

2 = 2.32 10 -3 eV 2

sin 2 (2 13

) = 0.095

sin 2 (2 23

) = 0.97

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

m 2 < 0

= 0

= /2

=

= 3/2

m 2 > 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

P( e

)

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


( )

ν e Appearance

26

Mass hierarchy also give different bi-­probability.


In this case, this kind of measurement

would signify that the mass hierarchy is

normal with 3σ.

P(¯ e)

0.09

0.08

0.07

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

1 and 2 Contours for Starred Point

Contours 2 yr and 4 yr ¯

m 23

2 = 2.32 10 -3 eV 2

sin 2 (2 13

) = 0.095

sin 2 (2 23

) = 0.97

m 2 < 0

= 0

= /2

=

= 3/2

m 2 > 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

P( e

)

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


( )

ν e Appearance

27

1 and 2 Contours for Starred Point

Uncertainty in θ 23 also

affects the measurements*.

P(¯ e)

0.09

0.08

0.07

Contours 2 yr and 4 yr ¯

m 23

2 = 2.32 10 -3 eV 2

sin 2 (2 13

) = 0.095

sin 2 (2 23

) = 0.97

θ 23 = 40 o

θ 23 = 50 o

One can see from the plot

how different values of θ 23

can lead to a different bi-­probability

regions.

*NOvA will constrain θ 23 from

ν µ disappearance.

0.06

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

m 2 < 0

= 0

= /2

=

= 3/2

m 2 > 0

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

P( e

)

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Conclusions

28

o NOvA has become the

leading experiment at

Fermilab

o Recent results from T2K and

reactor neutrino experiments

are very encouraging for the

NOvA program.

o NOνA NDOS is taking data

now and has provided cribcal

feedback to all aspects of the

experiment.

o Far Detector construcbon is

to begin this month so please

… Stay Tuned!

150+ Collaborators in 25 Institutions from 5 Countries

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


29

BACKUPS

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Data Acquisi9on System

30

64 FEBs Data Concentrator Module (DCM)


16 Mbits/s

• 64 FEBs provide input to the Data Concentrator Module (DCM)

• DCM packebze the data and sends it through the Gigabit Ethernet to Buffer Nodes

• No data loss at this stage of the data transmission

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece


Data Acquisi9on System

31

Denis Perevalov, ICFP 10-­‐16 June 2012 Kolymbari, Crete, Greece

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