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Final Report Engineering Energy June 2013

Final Report Engineering Energy June 2013

Final Report Engineering Energy June

Engineering Energy: Unconventional Gas Production A study of shale gas in Australia. FINAL REPORT PROJECT AUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF THE HUMANITIES AUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE ACADEMY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES IN AUSTRALIA AUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF TECHNOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

  • Page 2 and 3: SECURING AUSTRALIA’S FUTURE A thr
  • Page 4 and 5: Australia’s Learned Academies Aus
  • Page 6 and 7: Summary Many Australian sedimentary
  • Page 8 and 9: List of tables Table 3.1: Compariso
  • Page 10 and 11: List of figures Figure 1.1: The ran
  • Page 12 and 13: Project aims Energy needs will requ
  • Page 14 and 15: Executive summary The development o
  • Page 16 and 17: existing markets and available infr
  • Page 18 and 19: shale gas industry rapidly expands,
  • Page 20 and 21: Key findings Supply and demand econ
  • Page 22 and 23: 6. Although the most prospective Au
  • Page 24 and 25: 21. Shale gas developments can exte
  • Page 26 and 27: in this report. The implications, b
  • Page 28 and 29: 43. There are effective regulations
  • Page 30 and 31: Introduction The discovery of major
  • Page 32 and 33: Figure 1.1: The range of convention
  • Page 34 and 35: ocks within the shale, facilitates
  • Page 36 and 37: Global supply and demand economics
  • Page 38 and 39: Figure 2.3: Wholesale gas prices in
  • Page 40 and 41: Shale gas resources and reserves Th
  • Page 42 and 43: commercially becomes greater. If th
  • Page 44 and 45: Figure 3.3: Current and projected d
  • Page 46 and 47: Figure 3.5: Estimated average compo
  • Page 48 and 49: Table 3.2: Total Australian gas res
  • Page 50 and 51: esource numbers, 26 Basins were ass
  • Page 52 and 53:

    Technology and engineering Overview

  • Page 54 and 55:

    Figure 4.1: Well drilling in Austra

  • Page 56 and 57:

    United States Benchmark: Shale Gas

  • Page 58 and 59:

    US Benchmark: Shale Gas Well - Stim

  • Page 60 and 61:

    Case Study of the use of Saline Wat

  • Page 62 and 63:

    temperature and flow logging, trace

  • Page 64 and 65:

    (Heidbach, et al., 2009; Australian

  • Page 66 and 67:

    States both stresses are approximat

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Figure 4.3 US benchmark - Horizonta

  • Page 70 and 71:

    Figure 4.4 Aquifer/seismicity issue

  • Page 72 and 73:

    Figure 4.5 Australia: Cooper Basin

  • Page 74 and 75:

    Infrastructure considerations The d

  • Page 76 and 77:

    on land declined sharply (Asche, et

  • Page 78 and 79:

    Compression The processed gas must

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    The McArthur Basin is serviced with

  • Page 82 and 83:

    Table 5.4: A selection of trades id

  • Page 84 and 85:

    Rapid drilling, standardisation of

  • Page 86 and 87:

    Financial analysis of shale gas in

  • Page 88 and 89:

    There are three gas markets in Aust

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    Table 6.2: Major markets for Austra

  • Page 92 and 93:

    aggregated gas flow that is reasona

  • Page 94 and 95:

    Financial analysis of shale gas ext

  • Page 96 and 97:

    Costs for shale gas extraction in A

  • Page 98 and 99:

    Landscape and biodiversity Humans a

  • Page 100 and 101:

    • Are underlain by sedimentary ba

  • Page 102 and 103:

    • potential loss of some fauna sp

  • Page 104 and 105:

    Figure 7.1: Aerial photograph showi

  • Page 106 and 107:

    2006; Norris, et al., 2001). Sedime

  • Page 108 and 109:

    approach has been adopted. The aim

  • Page 110 and 111:

    are an issue that require specific

  • Page 112 and 113:

    Water resources and aquatic ecosyst

  • Page 114 and 115:

    Table 8.2: Summary of individual an

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Many Australian streams in develope

  • Page 118 and 119:

    Figure 8.1: Australian Great Artesi

  • Page 120 and 121:

    The gas industry is very conscious

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    governments within these limits. Th

  • Page 124 and 125:

    Potential Impacts of Shale Gas Oper

  • Page 126 and 127:

    Figure 8.4: Barnett shale measured

  • Page 128 and 129:

    that these problems are widespread

  • Page 130 and 131:

    come from non-water-based fluids. T

  • Page 132 and 133:

    Induced seismicity One of the poten

  • Page 134 and 135:

    hydraulic fracturing, it is neverth

  • Page 136 and 137:

    Risk Mitigation Strategies for Indu

  • Page 138 and 139:

    Greenhouse gas emissions In this se

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Venting, Leakage and Flaring The Cl

  • Page 142 and 143:

    10 to 1000 times faster than in con

  • Page 144 and 145:

    While the ratio of emissions for 10

  • Page 146 and 147:

    An analysis of Figure 10.2 suggests

  • Page 148 and 149:

    year. Coal provides about 70% of el

  • Page 150 and 151:

    Conclusions Like all other natural

  • Page 152 and 153:

    Community Community Amenity and Opp

  • Page 154 and 155:

    • there could be fewer opportunit

  • Page 156 and 157:

    Building a social licence for shale

  • Page 158 and 159:

    where development is likely to occu

  • Page 160 and 161:

    The issue of research independence

  • Page 162 and 163:

    dialogue about how best to utilise

  • Page 164 and 165:

    was the large number of ‘speculat

  • Page 166 and 167:

    climatic regimes. Notwithstanding t

  • Page 168 and 169:

    Monitoring, governance and regulati

  • Page 170 and 171:

    Table 12.2: Some indicative Commonw

  • Page 172 and 173:

    Measurement of natural background l

  • Page 174 and 175:

    potential problems. These are also

  • Page 176 and 177:

    esults in induced seismicity (de Pa

  • Page 178 and 179:

    Knowledge needs It is apparent from

  • Page 180 and 181:

    will provide that information - pro

  • Page 182 and 183:

    and of orphan wells. This issue is

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Glossary of terms 2P reserves Reser

  • Page 186 and 187:

    Crystal Ball A plug-in module by Or

  • Page 188 and 189:

    hydraulic fracturing IEA The fractu

  • Page 190 and 191:

    q.v. Quod vide: Latin for “which

  • Page 192 and 193:

    Scientific and Engineering Units an

  • Page 194 and 195:

    References ACIL Tasman. (2011). Eco

  • Page 196 and 197:

    Clevenger, A. P., Chruszcz, B., & G

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Fisher, K., & Warpinski, N. (2011).

  • Page 200 and 201:

    Johnson, C., Cogger, H., Dickman, C

  • Page 202 and 203:

    New York State Department of Enviro

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Sinclair Knight Merz. (2012). Impac

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Expert Working Group Professor Pete

  • Page 208 and 209:

    Acknowledgements The Expert Working

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Evidence gathering Meetings were he

  • Page 212 and 213:

    2 Written Submissions As part of th

  • Page 214 and 215:

    Review Panel This report has been r

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Appendix 1 Unconventional hydrocarb

  • Page 218 and 219:

    (e.g. Beetaloo and McArthur basins;

  • Page 220 and 221:

    drilling (via industry collaborativ

  • Page 222 and 223:

    Figure 3: Major sedimentary basins

  • Page 224 and 225:

    Appendix 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  • Page 226 and 227:

    Table A.2.4: Preproduction Emission

  • Page 228 and 229:

    p 10 Technology (t CO 2 e/MWh) (t C

  • Page 230 and 231:

    Appendix 3 Financial Analysis of Sh

  • Page 232 and 233:

    Table A.3.1: Comparison of fiscal r

  • Page 234 and 235:

    A breakout box in the main text of

  • Page 236 and 237:

    Table A.3.4 shows the “required g

  • Page 238 and 239:

    Figure A.3.5: Flowchart for shale g

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Table A.3.6: Sensitivity of “pric

  • Page 242 and 243:

    Probabilistic Parameters - Australi

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Appendix 4 Australian Bioregions an

  • Page 246 and 247:

    Bioregion Finke Geraldton Sandplain

  • Page 248 and 249:

    Bioregion Ord Victoria Plain Sturt

  • Page 250 and 251:

    Appendix 5 Geological Epochs Geolog

  • Page 252:

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