September 2005 - Vol 65, No 1 - International Technology and ...

September 2005 - Vol 65, No 1 - International Technology and ...

SEPTEMBER 2005 Volume 65, No. 1

The Super Mileage Challenge

see more photos on pages 20-21


Technology, Innovation,

Design, and Engineering



Volume 65, No. 1

Publisher, Kendall N. Starkweather, DTE

Editor-In-Chief, Kathleen B. de la Paz

Editor, Kathie F. Cluff

ITEABoard of Directors

Ethan Lipton, DTE, President

Anna Sumner, DTE, Past President

Ken Starkman, President-Elect

Ed Denton, DTE, Director, ITEA-CS

Paul Jacobs, Director, Region 1

Chris Merrill, Director, Region 2

Julie Moore, Director, Region 3

Doug Walrath, Director, Region 4

Rodney Custer, DTE, Director, CTTE

Joe Busby, DTE, Director, TECA

Patrick N. Foster, Director, TECC

Kendall N. Starkweather, DTE, Executive Director

ITEA is an affiliate of the American Association for the

Advancement of Science.

The Technology Teacher, ISSN: 0746-3537, is published

eight times a year (September through June with combined

December/January and May/June issues) by the

International Technology Education Association,

1914 Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA 20191.

Subscriptions are included in member dues. U.S. Library

and nonmember subscriptions are $80; $90 outside the U.S.

Single copies are $8.50 for members; $9.50 for

nonmembers, plus shipping—domestic @ $6.00 and

outside the U.S. @ $17.00 (surface).


World Wide Web:

Advertising Sales:

ITEA Publications Department


Fax: 703-860-0353

Subscription Claims

All subscription claims must be made within 60 days of the

first day of the month appearing on the cover of the journal.

For combined issues, claims will be honored within 60 days

from the first day of the last month on the cover. Because

of repeated delivery problems outside the continental United

States, journals will be shipped only at the customer’s risk.

ITEA will ship the subscription copy, but assumes no

responsibility thereafter.


2 ITEA Online

3 In the News and Calendar

5 You & ITEA

6 Editorial

7 IDSA Activity

14 Resources in Technology


10 Appropriate Technology: Value Adding Application

for Technology Education

The author contends that the need exists for the technology education field to

address technological problem solving from a more holistic and appropriate level;

that is, less high tech, more thoughtful problem solving, using available resources.

Robert C. Wicklein, DTE

20 Tenth Annual IMSTEA Super Mileage Challenge

Photos from the Super Mileage challenge held April 25, 2005 at the Indianapolis

Raceway Park.

22 Project Probase: Engaging Technology for 11th and

12th Grade Students

This project, funded by the National Science Foundation’s Advanced

Technological Education Program, is creating a standards-based, technology

education curriculum targeted for 11th and 12th grade students.

Dustin J. Wyse-Fisher, Michael K. Daugherty, Richard E. Satchwell, and Rodney

L. Custer, DTE

The Technology Teacher is listed in the Educational Index

and the Current Index to Journal in Education. Volumes are

available on Microfiche from University Microfilm, P.O. Box

1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Change of Address

Send change of address notification promptly. Provide old

mailing label and new address. Include zip + 4 code.

Allow six weeks for change.


Send address change to: The Technology Teacher, Address

Change, ITEA, 1914 Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston,

VA 20191-1539. Periodicals postage paid at Herndon, VA

and additional mailing offices.

27 Examples of Leadership: What We Can Learn From

Technology Education Leaders

Remarks from the Maley Spirit of Excellence Breakfast in Kansas City, MO.

Thomas L. Erekson



Editorial Review Board



Dan Engstrom

Stan Komacek

California University of PA California University of PA

Steve Anderson

Nikolay Middle School, WI

Stephen Baird

Bayside Middle School, VA

Lynn Basham

MI Department of Education

Clare Benson

University of Central England

Jolette Bush

Midvale Middle School, UT

Philip Cardon

Eastern Michigan University

Michael Cichocki

Salisbury Middle School, PA

Mike Fitzgerald

IN Department of Education

Tom Frawley

G. Ray Bodley High School, NY

Marte Hoepfl

Appalachian State Univ.

Laura Hummell

Manteo Middle School, NC

Frank Kruth

South Fayette MS, PA

Linda Market

SUNY at Oswego

Don Mugan

Valley City State University

Mary Annette Rose

Ball State University

Monty Robinson

Black Hills State University

Terrie Rust

Oasis Elementary School, AZ

Andy Stephenson

Scott County High School, KY

Ken Starkman

WI Dept of Public Instruction

Greg Vander Weil

Wayne State College

Katherine Weber

Des Plaines, IL

Eric Wiebe

North Carolina State Univ.

Editorial Policy

As the only national and international association dedicated

solely to the development and improvement of technology

education, ITEA seeks to provide an open forum for the free

exchange of relevant ideas relating to technology education.

Materials appearing in the journal, including advertising,

are expressions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect

the official policy or the opinion of the association, its

officers, or the ITEA Headquarters staff.

Referee Policy

All professional articles in The Technology Teacher are

refereed, with the exception of selected association activities

and reports, and invited articles. Refereed articles are

reviewed and approved by the Editorial Board before

publication in The Technology Teacher. Articles with bylines

will be identified as either refereed or invited unless written

by ITEA officers on association activities or policies.

To Submit Articles

All articles should be sent directly to the Editor-in-Chief,

International Technology Education Association, 1914

Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA 20191-1539.

Please submit articles and photographs via e-mail to Maximum length for manuscripts

is eight pages. Manuscripts should be prepared following the

style specified in the Publications Manual of the American

Psychological Association, Fifth Edition.

Editorial guidelines and review policies are available by

writing directly to ITEA or by visiting

F7.htm. Contents copyright © 2005 by the International

Technology Education Association, Inc., 703-860-2100.


ITEA Web site/E-mail Changes

In order to better streamline communications with its members, ITEA has

revamped its Web and e-mail addresses.

Beginning immediately, ITEA’s new Web address is For a complete listing of all new e-mail

addresses, see page 5.

Although forwarding of both Web and e-mail addresses will continue for

one year, please make a note of the new addresses. We hope these

changes will make it easier for you to CONNECT with ITEA.

See Your Students On the ITEA


Here’s an opportunity to get some recognition for your students and

program. ITEA posts one “Picture of the Week” on its homepage each

week. Submit a photo from your classroom of student(s) actively learning

about technology. Include a short description of the activity being

depicted in the photo and the school, city, and state.

Photos can be submitted electronically to

Photos in which students appear must have a photo release form signed

by a parent. ITEA reserves the right to use photographs in future ITEA


Gain recognition for your program—thousands of people visit the ITEA

Web site each month!




Election Candidates

The 2005-2006 ITEA Board of Directors election ballot will be e-mailed in September. The highly experienced field of

candidates is pictured here. Exercise your right to vote by returning your ballot promptly! Electronic voting must take

place prior to October 30, 2005.


Thomas Anthony Frawley

G. Ray Bodley High School

Fulton, NY

Mark Spoerk

Lynde and Harry Bradley

Technology and Trade


Milwaukee, WI

Andy Stephenson, DTE

Southside Technical Center

Lexington, KY


William Bradley

(Brad) Moore

Winamac Community

High School

Winamac, IN

Lauren Withers Olson

Biloxi Junior High

Biloxi, MS


Richard L. Rios

Anchorage School District

Anchorage, AK

Melvin Lee Robinson

Utah State Office of


Salt Lake City, UT

ITEA’s 68th Annual


Be sure to mark your calendars for

March 23-25, 2006 and plan to be in

Baltimore, Maryland, a city on the

move—with new attractions,

charming neighborhoods, ethnic and

cultural diversity, Chesapeake Bay

cuisine, and a wealth of history.

Baltimore’s perfect blend of the old

and the new makes the city’s urban

renewal America’s success

story.....and the perfect place for the

2006 ITEA Annual Conference.

Exciting general sessions, nearly 100

special interest sessions presented

by your peers, a choice of eight preconference

workshops, afternoon

educational tours, a complete

spouse/social program, and a

tradeshow floor filled with companies

offering new and exciting products

for the’s all in

Baltimore next March at ITEA’s 68th

Annual Conference. Watch your mail

for the pre-conference brochure,

arriving any day now, or go online to

our new Web site,, for complete

program, registration, and housing

information. See you there.

Publications of Interest

• New CTTE Yearbook—The 2005

Council on Technology and

Teacher Education: 54th Yearbook,

Distance and Distributed

Learning Environments:

Perspectives and Strategies,

edited by William L. and Pamela

A. Havice, is now available. For

information or to purchase,

contact the publisher, Glencoe/

McGraw Hill, Inc. at

linkteched.html, 800-334-7344, or

614-755-5682 fax.

• New from ITEA and NSTA Press:

Bringing Technology Education

Into K-8 Classrooms: A Guide to

Curricular Resources About the

Designed World is a comprehensive

review of technology

teaching materials. Authored by

Edward Britton, Bo De Long-

Cotty, and Toby Levinson, and the

result of a joint effort by ITEA,

Corwin Press, NSTA Press, and

WestEd, this document is the first

independent review of the latest

technology education textbooks

and resource materials for

teaching technology, design, and

engineering, with an eye towards

analyzing the strengths and

weaknesses of each product.

302 pages, 2005. ISBN:

1-887101-02-0. For ordering

information, contact




Sept 30-Oct 1, 2005

The Minnesota Fall Conference will be held in St. Cloud, MN.

For additional information, contact Mike Lindstrom at

October 5-7, 2005

Technology Education New Zealand is hosting the upcoming

5th TENZ Biennial Conference, “Technology Education—A

Future in Technology,” at the Christchurch College of

Education. The conference fosters an understanding and

quality implementation of the technology curriculum and aims

at keeping teachers well informed and up to date in the

dynamic field of technology education. Visit

for complete information about the conference, including

presentations, the conference brochure, and online


October 14-15, 2005

The New England Association of Technology Teachers

(NEATT) conference will be held at the Crowne Plaza,

Worcester, MA. Visit for information about

being a vendor or presenter.

November 3-5, 2005

The Technology Education Association of Pennsylvania

(TEAP) will hold its 53rd Annual Conference at the Radisson

Penn Harris Hotel & Conference Center in Camp Hill, PA.

Anyone interested in presenting should visit the TEAP Web

site ( for a “Special Interest Session

Application.” Those interested in having exhibit space can

also find the necessary forms on the Web site. For more

information contact

November 16-18, 2005

DeVilbiss, Binks and Owens Community College have teamed

up to present a Spray Finishing Technology Workshop in

Toledo, OH. Two Continuing Education Units will be

awarded to participants in this intensive three-day

program. Attendees should be involved with industrial,

contractor, or maintenance spray finishing applications, or

spray equipment sales and distribution. For additional

information, call 800-466-9367, ext. 7357, e-mail, or visit the Web site at

November 18, 2005

The Massachusetts Technology Education/Engineering

Collaborative Conference will be held at Fitchburg State

College. The theme of the conference will be “Yankee

Ingenuity=Invention and Innovation.” For additional

information visit the MassTEC Web site at

January 5-7, 2006

The International Conference on Technology Education for

the Asia-Pacific Region 2006 will be held at The Hong Kong

Polytechnic University. The theme of the conference is

“Articulating Technology Education in a Global Community.”

Join this exciting event to exchange experiences and

expertise with fellow international technology educators.

For information or enquiries, please e-mail or

February 23-25, 2006

The 10th Annual Children’s Engineering Convention will

be held at the Marriott West, Richmond, Virginia. For

additional information, contact Ginger Whiting at or visit

March 23-25, 2006

ITEA’s 68th Annual

Conference in Baltimore,

MD. The conference theme

is “Living in a World With

Smart Technology.”

Baltimore is an exciting

city on the move,

conveniently located within the nation’s largest

concentration of professionals connected to technology

education. Don’t miss this one! Details are at

April 6-7, 2006

The Ohio Technology Education Association (OTEA) will hold

its Spring Conference at Worthington Kilborne High School in

Worthington, OH. Visit for upcoming details.

April 6-9, 2006

The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) National

Convention will be held in Anaheim, CA. Information is

available at

April 26-29, 2006

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

National Convention will take place in St. Louis, MO. The

conference theme is “Asking Questions—Generating

Solutions.” Visit for information.

List your State/Province Association Conference in TTT,

TrendScout, and on ITEA’s Web Calendar. Submit conference

title, date(s), location, and contact information (at least

two months prior to journal publication date) to kcluff@




ITEA Web site/

E-mail Changes

Connecting With ITEA

In order to better streamline

communications with its members,

ITEA has revamped its Web and

e-mail addresses.

Beginning immediately, ITEA’s

new Web address is

ITEA e-mail addresses are also

changing. ITEA‘s new e-mail address

is Other

important e-mail addresses are:

• Barry Burke, DTE, CATTS


• Kathie Cluff

Editor/Publications Specialist

• Katie de la Paz, Editor-in-Chief

• Bill Dugger, DTE, Senior Fellow

• Sima Govani, A/R Coordinator

• CJ James, Web site/Computer

Operations Coordinator

• Yin Jia, Coordinator of Financial


• Shelli Meade, Research Project


• Barbara Mongold

Publications Services Coordinator

• Crystal Nichols

Project Administrator

• Susan Perry, Meeting Planner

• Lari Price, Member Services

• Kendall Starkweather, DTE

Executive Director

• Moira Wickes

Database Coordinator/Registrar

• Maureen Wiley

Advertising/Exhibits Coordinator

Although forwarding of both Web and

e-mail addresses will continue for

one year, please make a note of the

new addresses. We hope these

changes will make it easier for you to


ITEA Member Receives

Invention Award

For his work in the development of

mobile robots for use in hazardous

environment applications, ITEA

member Harry T. Roman was

awarded the 2005 Inventor of the

Year award by the New Jersey

Inventors Hall of Fame.

Roman’s 23 mobile robots saved

Public Service Electric & Gas Company

$10,000,000 in operational savings,

removing human workers from

potentially hazardous work situations.

These revolutionary machines were

developed in concert with robot

developers and manufacturers at a

central New Jersey laboratory

designed and managed by Roman.

Many have been in continuous use at

the company’s nuclear power plants.

An integral part of this lab was to

educate and train human workers

about the use of robots and the

operational and maintenance benefits

of these machines.

Of particular note in Roman’s award

citation was his development of an oil

tank cleaning and inspection robot for

use in large oil storage tanks. This oil

tank inspection robot is now used

worldwide to save significant time and

money and human exposure.

Previously, this task involved emptying

the entire tank, with humans entering

the tank to perform a laborious inchby-inch

cleaning and searching of the

steel floor for possible pitting and

deterioration that could lead to oil leaks

into the environment. This normally

would take six to eight weeks to

accomplish. Roman’s robot can

perform this task, with the tank

remaining filled with oil and fully

operational, in a matter of a few days.

Roman holds nine U.S. patents, six of

which involve robots for: the

automated placement of work points

in free space; a radiation inspection

robot; an oil tank inspection machine;

and a device for visually inspecting

electric power consumption meters.

Another patent utilizes a common

ornamental shrub as a source for an

anti-cancer drug. Two patents detail

a new way to use fuel-cell-powered

automobiles as a source of clean,

base-load electric power.

Roman credits his inventive ways to

a fourth grade teacher and a class

assignment that led him to develop a

keen and continuing interest in the

great inventor Thomas Edison. A

book about Roman’s invention

activities, filled with classroom

activities to promote invention fun in

the classroom, will be published by a

leading educational supplier.

During his 36-year career as an

engineer, he has worked with many

teachers, schools, and educational

organizations—giving classroom

demonstrations, hosting design

challenges, and conducting in-service

seminars for teachers. Roman is a

long-time advocate and supporter of

technology education in New Jersey,

being active from the beginnings of

this state movement in the mid-1980s.

He writes a regular feature article in

the Technology Educators Association

of New Jersey’s quarterly newsletter,

The Interface, and is a regular

contributor to The Technology


His current area of work is designing

prototype micro sensors to monitor

the electric power grid in real time. He

is the co-author of The Smart Utility

concept, where millimeter size

sensors would monitor and automatically

assess the condition of the

utility system, and through intelligent

and adaptive learning software, make

recommendations for follow-up action.



Katie de la Paz

The direction in which you want The Technology

Teacher to head is very clear.


And the Survey Says…

Many thanks for the numerous

responses to our Technology Teacher

Readership Survey. It is hugely

informative to receive feedback from

those who read the journal, and

having this data enables us to

determine what we’re doing right,

what we’re doing wrong, and set the

appropriate direction for TTT.

Having this type of direct communication

from readers allows us to

hear what’s on your mind, and in the

past two surveys one message is

crystal clear. A large majority of

readers want to see more practical,

classroom-teacher-written articles.

We hear you. Our biggest current

challenge is persuading a sufficient

number of classroom teachers to

write and then submit articles. The

bulk of the material included in each

issue of The Technology Teacher is

written by members of ITEA. If the

classroom teacher members choose

not to write and submit material,

there are no articles of that type to

publish. During the 2004-05

publishing year, 25 articles were

submitted to TTT for peer-review. Of

those 25, only two were written by

classroom teachers.

“practical, classroom-teacherwritten”

articles. Yet when asked

“Have you considered authoring an

article for The Technology Teacher?”

the most frequent responses were “I

have no time,” or “I don’t write well

enough,” or “I don’t have anything to

write about.”

The Technology Teacher is YOUR

journal. We all want the journal to

reflect the membership, but it can’t if

members don’t contribute. Don’t get

caught up in thinking that the writing

has to be of a certain caliber. Know

that the people who will eventually

read the article are most likely to be

classroom teachers, interested in

your experiences and looking for

good ideas. Also keep in mind that

the article will go through editing to

address any grammatical or other

writing issues. We will help you

make your article outstanding.

If article ideas are difficult, here are

just a few suggestions:

• Describe your program or a

specific course that has had


• Write about an adjustment that

you made in your teaching that

has made a difference.

“volunteer” pieces that don’t meet

the research requirements of many

refereed articles. The decision of

whether or not to undergo peer

review is entirely up to the

submitting author.

Thanks again for the valuable

feedback. The direction in which you

want The Technology Teacher to

head is very clear: The journal needs

to place more emphasis on classroom

teachers. My message to you is

equally clear: To make this happen,

we need your contributions!

Please contact me directly with

any questions, comments, or

submissions. I look forward to

making these changes—with your


Katie de la Paz is

Editor-in-Chief of The

Technology Teacher.

She can be

reached via e-mail

at kdelapaz@

We’ve attempted to address this

issue in a variety of ways over the

past few years. In an effort to

encourage more classroom teacher

authorship, working together with the

excellent TTT Review Board, we’ve

tried mentorship programs, informational

sessions at conference, and

even incentives. Despite a great deal

of initial interest, none of these have

borne much fruit.

According to the TTT survey, over

80% of readers want to see

• Describe an aspect or element

about the organization or

management of your lab that is of


Complete writing tips for The

Technology Teacher are available at

Another point to consider is that

while many authors desire that their

submitted articles undergo peer

review, it is not a requirement for all

articles. Authors may choose to


Autodesk .............................31



Goodheart Willcox ...............13









Student Interpretation of the M.A.S.H Design Development Tool

David Ringholz, IDSA


The original article describing the

M.A.S.H. approach was published in

the May/June 2005 issue of The

Technology Teacher. To review, the

M.A.S.H. mnemonic is a useful

framework for generating, tracking,

and objectively evaluating innovative

ideas. M.A.S.H. expresses the

fundamental components of

successful design; Mechanics,

Aesthetics, Sustainability, and

Human Factors. These essential

elements are often underdeveloped in

student design concepts and

subsequently require bolstering

throughout the process. For a given

problem, M.A.S.H. can be

implemented as a useful

brainstorming tool, allowing students,

educators, and project managers to

filter out extraneous ideas while

maintaining sufficient depth.

M.A.S.H. can also be successfully

implemented as an objective measure

of a concept’s performance. Using a

rating system based on the M.A.S.H.

mnemonic, individuals can readily

identify strengths and weaknesses of

a given design concept. This system

supports an individualized design

process and allows students to

develop the vocabulary to articulate

and compare complex concepts.

This article describes how senior

Industrial Design students interpreted

and applied the M.A.S.H. process in

the completion of their final studio

projects. These examples have been

chosen to illustrate diversity of

Students found M.A.S.H. useful as a

roadmap to guide their design decisions and

remind them of issues that had become

clouded by project complexity.

application and scale. For the most

part, students found M.A.S.H. useful

as a roadmap to guide their design

decisions and remind them of issues

that had become clouded by project

complexity. This was particularly true

of students who were very strong in

some areas and weaker in others. For

example, one student who was adept

at making aesthetic observations and

decisions, found the tool useful to

remind her of mechanical issues that

remained unaddressed. It is natural

for students to gravitate toward their

strengths but struggle when forced

outside of what is comfortable. This

is particularly true of a discipline like

industrial design, where solutions

have to be equally strong in aesthetic

and functional performance.

Lighting Products

Melanie used M.A.S.H to aid in the

development of lighting products. Her

goal was to develop three lamps that

had distinct aesthetic features but

were recognizable as a “family” of

products. She had limited experience

and knowledge of electrical and

mechanical issues required for the

design and assembly of such

products. After extensive research

and experimentation in these areas,

Melanie developed multiple concepts

for each lamp and used their M.A.S.H.

evaluation scores to compare them.


• Cord mounted switches

insulated user from bulb.

• Cool-to-the-touch styrene

shade is easy to adjust.

Web Site Design



The mechanical issues for this

product include:

• Light source type and energy


• Frame type [pendant, desk, floor]

and construction.

• Shade and diffuser material and

connection to frame.

• Electrical wiring.

• Light source and shade are

chosen to avoid heat damage.


The aesthetic references for these

lamps were derived from natural

objects like the human body, water,

and plants.

• Interpretation of natural


• Quality of light output

• Relationship to other lamps in the



The lamps elegantly achieve multiple

goals in this category.

• Low power consumption

No fasteners or glue allowed for

easy disassembly

• Polystyrene used for the shades

is highly recyclable

Human Factors

• The lamps are flexible enough to

be used in diverse locations and

décor schemes.

Angela’s Web Interface

project required the most

individualized interpretation

of the M.A.S.H. categories.

Since resources are defined

and utilized differently in

electronic interface design

than in three dimensional

design, Angela was challenged to

investigate and organize ideas in

unfamiliar territory. M.A.S.H. gave her

a familiar and comfortable structure

from which to explore her options.


The mechanical issues for Web

interface include:

• Programming and deployment.

• Hosting and maintenance.

• Bandwidth and throughput.

• Browser compatibility.

• Information architecture.

• Search engine compatibility.


The aesthetic issues for Web

publishing have a great deal to do

with where and how the Web Site

will be viewed.

• Graphic composition

• Font and typeface

• Use of audio

• Brand communication and



Natural resources in this category are

uniquely defined.

• Low power consumption

• Use of electronic media can

eliminate paper usage

• Easy to update to promote


• Service orientation may eliminate

the need for some products

Human Factors

In general, “ease of use” is a driving

factor for Web interface.

• Information flow

• Easy to read and compatible with

Web accessibility standards

• Customizable button size and


• Option to “hide” unused features

or advance quickly through site

Kitchen Appliances

and Storage

Clay was somewhat

overwhelmed by the scale

and complexity of kitchen

environmental design. Once

he focused on certain

appliances and activities, he

was able to apply M.A.S.H. in

a way that yielded some very

innovative solutions. Clay

proposed a system of cubeshaped

modules, suspended

from a wall-mounted track

system that would replace



existing refrigerators, dishwashers,

and cabinets. This is a “blue sky”

design concept meant to

demonstrate possible applications of

emerging technologies. Notably, he

researched trends in thermoacoustics

and ultrasonics that could

impact the development of

refrigeration and dishwashing



The mechanical issues for this

system include:

• Power source routed through

track system.

• Counterbalance allows for

perceived weight reduction of

each module.

• Ultrasonic cleaning in washing


• Thermo-acoustics incorporated in

refrigeration units.

• Module surfaces double as



The aesthetic references for these

products relate to the simple

geometry from which the forms are


• Visually simple environment

• Adjusts to multiple configurations

• Quieter technology will be more



This system has powerful

environmental implications.

• Lower power consumption

• Eliminates use of harmful

chemicals and greenhouse gasses

currently used

• Small size reduces waste and

provides efficient use of space

• Windows allow user to view

contents without opening units

Human Factors

• Adjustability accommodates

diverse users

• Can be customized to user


• Can be adjusted based on task

It is important to note how each

student defined his/her M.A.S.H.

elements differently depending on the

application. They also generated a

great deal of overlap between

categories, which helped to show

that one decision can impact multiple

factors and change a product’s

performance dramatically. They could

also see the trade-offs that start to

take place when attempting to

optimize certain features. Each of

these students found the M.A.S.H.

approach to be a useful and

productive part of the design process.

Used in conjunction with other

techniques, this approach can be

supportive in any creative


David Ringholz is an

assistant professor

of Industrial Design

at Georgia Tech,

where he teaches

courses in Advanced

Product Design and

Design Research Methods. He developed

and is using the M.A.S.H.

analysis mechanism with seniors in

that program. He can be reached at





Robert C. Wicklein, DTE

What is Appropriate


Appropriate Technology (AT)

concepts have been discussed

throughout this past century by

notable leaders and scholars such as

Mohandas Gandhi and Julius

Nyerere; however, the undisputed

founder of the AT movement was E.F.

Schumacher, a British economist

who worked extensively in India and

Burma during the 1950s and 60s.

Schumacher encapsulated the

philosophy of AT in his book, Small Is

Beautiful (1973), where he described

the central doctrine of AT as (a)

simple, (b) small scale, (c) low cost,

and (d) non-violent. The U.S. Office of

Technology Assessment has further

refined these tenets by describing AT

as (a) small scale, (b) energy

efficient, (c) environmentally sound,

(d) labor intensive, (e) controlled by

the local community, and (f)

sustained at the local level (Office of

Technology Assessment, 1981).

Many definitions of AT have spawned

from these criteria; however, when

the scope and focus of technology

education is considered, the following

explanation incorporates the core of

the AT thrust with the fundamental

base of technology education. The

following working definition of AT will

serve as the foundational base for

this article.

Appropriate Technology seeks

to aid and support the human

ability to understand, operate,

and sustain technological

systems to the benefit of

humans while seeking to be in

harmony with the culture and

the environment.

Students are given more opportunities to be

creative, to think logically, to see and

understand a technological problem in total,

and to act responsibly as they work to

solve problems that are important and

intrinsic to them.

Appropriate Technology and

the Technology Education


The majority of real-world

technological problems and their

plausible solutions do not require

complicated “high-tech” applications.

The technological problems that most

of us face on a day-to-day basis are

best solved by employing much lower

levels of technology than what is

currently taught in many technology

education classrooms/laboratories.

Therefore, the need exists for the

technology education field to address

technological problem solving from a

more holistic and appropriate level;

that is, less high tech, more

thoughtful problem solving, using

available resources.

What would be different about this

curriculum than what is currently

being used? What would be the

benefit of this type of program for

students and the profession?

Possibly, this form of technology

study would lend itself to helping

students learn to analyze and solve

problems within a more realistic

context. Starting with their own

school and community and then

progressively moving out to the state,

region, nation, and world, students

could benefit by developing a focus

on learning that reflects the

application of AT. For example,

addressing environmental recycling

within their own school, planning and

designing recreational facilities for

their school or community, or

designing small, sustainable water

filters for communities in a

developing country, students are able

to broaden their knowledge of

technology and the world outside of

their immediate area. The difference

this form of technology education

takes is that the students are given

more opportunities to be creative, to

think logically, to see and understand

a technological problem in total, and

to act responsibly as they work to

solve problems that are important and

intrinsic to them. The use and

application of tools and other

technological devices within this

context are studied and used as they

are applied rather than in the

narrowly defined constructs of a

typically prescribed technology

education classroom activity.

The constructs that make up a welldesigned

AT curriculum activity are

well supported in Standards for

Technological Literacy, (2000/2002).

10 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER


Standards 4 through 11 address the

student’s ability to develop an

understanding of technology and

society and the processes used to

design solutions to technological

problems. AT provides opportunities

for students to engage in real humanbased

needs where technological

problem solving applications are

needed and make a difference. This

unique approach to curriculum design

immerses students in order that they

see and understand a complete

technological system and its impact

on humans.

Connecting Technology

Education to the Whole


Problem-solving opportunities could

also move beyond a local concern to

address problems or opportunities

that go outside the boundaries of the

school, community, or even the state

and nation. By continuing to focus

the student on more broad topics that

are based in reality and important for

humanity, the learner is able to grow

and develop as a human and to

understand that he or she can make a

difference in the world. This form of

technology education would be

uniquely different from existing

models; students would begin to see

themselves as part of a solution in

helping humanity. They would begin

to understand how technology fits

into the overall plan of creating a

better world for everyone and how

they can be a part of the solution, not

just an observer who has little control

or influence in the overall scheme of


The learning contexts associated

with AT and problem solving are

critical to both framing important

technology and scientific concepts

and enlightening students as to the

everyday meaning of what may have

been previously considered useless

knowledge. In the AT approach, the

learning is situated in the context of a

global concern or issue. Students

could work towards solutions based

on criteria that are pertinent to a

given situation (e.g., problem

scenarios embedded in real-world

conditions and environments,

social/cultural factors integrated as

part of the problems). One way of

situating this for students is to use

current or relatively current news

stories into which key technological

concepts could be anchored. For

example, contexts can be selectively

induced or pulled out to amplify

circumstances where technology has

been associated with dire

consequences (e.g., the influence of

clear-cutting Brazilian forests on soil

erosion and air quality, drinking water

contamination in Honduras following

recent flooding from a hurricane).

This format may stimulate students

to engage in real-world events and

employ technological problem solving

to develop plausible conclusions

where there is not a clear-cut

answer. Through these types of

learning environments, students

become immersed in research,

analysis, exploration, manipulation,

and informed experimentation to

provide workable solutions. At the

same time, they become aware of

people and places that they may

have never been aware of before.

The potential impact of this approach

to technology education could be

profound. First, it would be a radical

departure from current practices of

piecemeal exposures to select

technologies and focus in on realworld

situations where appropriate

forms of technology will be studied

and employed to solve problems. A

primary goal in this form of

technology education will be on

understanding real-world

environments and determining

plausible solutions while considering

the impacts on people. Students and

teachers will be required to consider

a variety of human conditions and

developmental criteria in designing

and developing appropriate solutions

to problems. Second, this approach

will require that students and

teachers begin to address human

conditions outside of the typical

school classroom. As this approach

is developed over the course of a

school term, students will have

opportunities to experience how

people from diverse backgrounds

around their communities, across the

nation, and around the globe could

benefit from appropriate technological

solutions. In short, this is a much

more comprehensive approach to

knowing and doing technology

education; it is technology with a

human face. The consequences for

not considering this form of

technology education will be the

continuation of the status quo, (e.g.,

principles of flight and aerodynamics

outside the context of any concrete


Appropriate Technology

Case Study for Technology


The following case in point is an

example of an actual AT assignment

within a technology education

curriculum. This assignment

originated from the University of

Georgia (Wicklein, n.d.) and has been

duplicated in both high school and

middle school technology education

programs. This approach to AT seeks

to stimulate students to think of and

consider the needs of people outside

of their normal environments and to

utilize engineering design and

problem solving to solve real-world


Appropriate Technological


During a recent trip to the Central

American country of Honduras, I

observed several small communities

of people who were struggling to find

clean drinking water. Many people,

especially the very young and very

old, were experiencing illnesses

related to drinking polluted water.

The people in these communities

were very poor and uneducated.

They were located in a remote

mountainous region of the country

where centralized water treatment

facilities and distribution are nonexistent.

The community is located

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 11


near a small river; however, the river

is often dirty and carries large

amounts of silt from the nearby


Illnesses caused from ingesting

polluted water are epidemic in many

developing countries around the

world. The effects of these illnesses

are a cyclical process that relates to

all types of poverty (mental,

monetary, physical, and spiritual). If

the inhabitants of these communities

utilized a small, portable, and

sustainable water purification device,

they could eliminate many of their

physical problems.

Design Challenge

Working as a small design team

(3-4), design and construct a

small, portable, and sustainable

water purification device that

could be utilized by the people

described in the scenario. Base

your design and construction on

solid research and design principles

and calculations.


1. Water purifier must be small,

portable, and lightweight (can be

operated by one person of normal


2. Water purifier must be

constructed of locally available

materials (materials available in


3. Water purifier must be low cost

(total materials cost must not

exceed $10 U.S.).

4. Water purifier must be

sustainable (can be operated and

maintained properly by local


5. Water purifier must be able to

operate efficiently and safely

under all conditions.

a. Required water quality testing

done at Water Quality

Laboratory – 217B Driftmier

Engineering Center

Water Testing:

1. Resource water will originate

from Oconee River (located next

to River’s Crossing Building on

the University of Georgia


2. Water purity testing must be

conducted prior to any form of

human or animal ingesting.

3. Conduct all water testing prior to

class presentation.

4. Calculate and record water quality

test results (e.g., utilize table and


5. Provide solid rationale for the

design of your water purification


6. Summarize test results and make

recommendations of water

purification device.


Scoring will be based on:

• Your rationale for your solution

(grounded on strong research).

• Technical design of your solution

(technical drawing and parts list).

• Craftsmanship and construction.

• Functional test.

• Post-test analysis of your solution.

• Re-testing of experiment.

• Accurate documentation and

application of Engineering Design


You will be expected to give a short

presentation using the poster session

format to describe your rationale for

your thermal resistance device. See

attached Poster Session instructions.

For more detailed information and

description of this assignment,

contact Dr. Robert C. Wicklein,, at the University

of Georgia.



Brown, L. R., Flavin, C., and French, H.

(1999). State of the world. New York:

W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Hazeltine, B. and Bull, C. (1999).

Appropriate technology: Tools, choices,

and implications. San Diego: Academic


International Technology Education

Association. (2000/2002). Standards for

technological literacy: Content for the

study of technology. Reston, VA:


Office of Technology Assessment. (1981).

An assessment of technology for local

development. (GPO Stock No. 052-003-

00797-5). Washington DC: U.S.

Government Printing Office.

Schumacher, E. F. (1973). Small is

beautiful: Economics as if people

mattered. New York: Harper Perennial,

a Division of Harper Collins Publishers.

United States Central Intelligence Agency

(n.d.). 2002 CIA world factbook.

Retrieved July 31, 2003, from


United States Department of State (n.d.).

2001 Background notes. Retrieved July

31, 2003 from

Wicklein, R.C. (n.d.). Seek truth…Dr.

Wicklein’s Web site. Retrieved July 31,

2003 from University of Georgia Web


Robert C. Wicklein.

DTE is a professor in

the Department of

Occupational Studies

at the University of

Georgia in Athens.

He can be reached

via e-mail at

This is a refereed article.

Suggested Reference Sources


Appropriate Technology

Reference Library2nd Floor Reference Desk – UGA Science Library

U.S. State Department –

Background Notes

CIA – The World Factbook

12 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER

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Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles


Walter F. Deal, III


If you can imagine thousands of

years ago, early humans walked on

the earth and probably looked toward

the skies, watching birds soar

effortlessly and thinking, “…if only I

could fly!” Aviation as we know it

today is a mature but very young

technology as time goes. Considering

that the 100th anniversary of flight

was celebrated just a few years ago

in 2003, millions of people fly from

city to city or from nation to nation

and across the oceans and around

the world effortlessly and

economically. Additionally, we have

space travel that has taken us

beyond our atmosphere to the moon

and Mars and beyond.

As we look at aviation, we generally

think in terms of airlines and

passenger travel. However, there are

many other applications of aircraft

beyond carrying passengers. Aircraft

are used for transporting packaged

goods, mail, foods, medical supplies,

and other materials. But there are

other applications that aircraft are

used for, such as observation,

mapping, weather, and

reconnaissance missions. Some

aircraft are piloted, and others are

remotely controlled and are called

unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs.

Here we will focus on the highlights

of unmanned aerial vehicles.

It is important to realize that the

invention and development of flight

and flying machines represent the

accumulation of much knowledge by

many people over many years. To put

things into perspective, it was about

the time of the Wright brothers’ early

flights in 1903 that we saw the

Millions of people fly from city to city or

from nation to nation and across the oceans

and around the world effortlessly and


introduction of the automobile, large

scale use of trains, steam-powered

ships, and the introduction of wireless

radio technology. In other words,

there was a revolution in technology—

the way that we travel and

communicate—right before our eyes!

During the early years of flight and

flying, tinkerers, inventors, engineers,

and scientists tried many different

types of experimental designs and

aircraft in attempts to fly. During the

first part of the twentieth century

there was significant interest in flying

and flying machines. According to

some, the early years of flight could

be characterized as an art and

science because there are many

scientific laws and principles that

govern flight, and flying was an “art”

in the sense that the flyer needed to

understand the aircraft. The Wright

brothers, Orville and Wilbur, the

owners of a successful bicycle shop

in Dayton, Ohio, became interested in

flying and flying machines in 1896

after reading about the death of Otto

Lilienthal. Lilienthal was quite

prominent in influencing the Wright

brothers to pursue their interests in

aviation. Accordingly, they were avid

readers about the latest

developments in flight and

methodically taught themselves

everything to know about flying at

the time. Lilienthal was a significant

player in the development of flight, as

it was through his efforts that the

perception of flight and flying was

more than a pastime for fools and

tinkerers. Although his designs had

flaws, Lilienthal had an immense

influence on aviation. His writings

were translated and distributed

worldwide, and the photographs that

documented his flights visually

proved that a human could launch

himself into the air and stay aloft. He

demonstrated the importance of

identifying the principles that

governed an experiment before

proceeding, and his meticulous

documentation of his research

provided guidance for those who

came after him.

The Wright brothers wrote to Octave

Chanute and Samuel Langley at the

Smithsonian Institution regarding

developments in flight and flying. It is

important to note that the interest in

flight and flying was an international

interest, as there were many people in

Europe constructing flying machines

and experimenting with the principles

of flight. Several historical individuals

were Leonardo Da Vinci, the inventor

of the ornithopter; Daniel Bernoulli, a

Swiss scientist noted for his

discoveries of the mathematical

relationship of fluids flowing along a

surface such as an airfoil; Sir George

Cayley, who realized that the

propulsion system of an airplane

should generate thrust, and the wings

14 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER


should be shaped so as to create lift.

Cayley’s thinking differed substantially

from the thinking at the time, where

the trend was to duplicate or mimic

the flying action of birds. Finally,

Cayley was the first investigator to

apply the research methods and tools

of science and engineering to the

solution of the problems of flight.

The Wright Brothers Fly

There was much design,

experimentation, and development

going on about the time that the

Wright brothers were planning and

designing their gliders and airplanes.

The Wright brothers were very

meticulous in their research and study

and even had written the U.S.

Weather Bureau for a recommendation

for the best place to test

aircraft. The recommendation was

Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The

Wright brothers selected the sand

dunes at Kill Devil Hills, just outside of

Kitty Hawk, where glider tests began

in 1901, with a powered flight in

December 1903. While the Wright

brothers were not the first to fly, it

was their successes that provided the

spirit, interest, and encouragement for

others to follow with further flight and

flying endeavors.

It is significant to note that, in the

decade that followed the Wright

brothers’ famous “first powered

flight,” World War I would soon follow

and aviation would change the way

that battles were won and lost. More

importantly, the nature of aircraft

design and construction would change

drastically in just a few short years

from a maze of fabric, wood spars,

and struts to enclosed metal fuselage

designs that would follow through into

today’s aircraft designs and literally

thousands of aircraft!

Categories of Aviation

As we look at the categories of

aircraft, we will see that there are two

broad categories called “heavier than

air” and “lighter than air,” and by

definition an aircraft is any machine

capable of atmospheric flight. Lighterthan-air

aircraft include balloons and

dirigibles while heavier-than-air

aircraft may be further categorized by

the role for which the aircraft was

designed, such as civil, military,

experimental, or “special purpose.”

Some aircraft may serve several

roles, such as civilian and military as

well as experimental. An example is

the Lockheed L-188 Electra

commercial airliner, introduced in

1957 as a civil transport (that is also

the Orion P3 that is used by NASA

for research and by the military for

antisubmarine and maritime

surveillance purposes such shown in

Figure 1.) Both versions of this

aircraft are still in use today!

Figure 1. Often civil aircraft can meet military

and other specialized aviation needs,

such as the Lockheed L-188 Electra commercial

airliner, introduced in 1957 as a

civil transport. A modified version, called

the Orion P3, is used by NASA for

research and by the military for antisubmarine

and maritime surveillance

purposes. (Courtesy NASA)

Defining Unmanned Flight

Unmanned aircraft may be remotely

piloted or autonomously controlled.

Remotely piloted aircraft such as

NASA’s Altair UAV, (Figure 2) was

first flown in 2003. Remotely piloted

aircraft are piloted by one or more

persons at a control console, (Figure

2B) that fly the aircraft from a remote

location. The Altair UAV is designed

as a long-endurance, high-altitude

platform for the development of UAV

technologies and environmental

science missions. Autonomous

unmanned aerial vehicles, on the

other hand, have self-contained

internal flight and guidance systems

that are programmed for a specific

flight plan or destination. A

combination of GPS (Global

Positioning System) and terrain

mapping radar is used to guide,

direct, and fly the UAV to its

destination. It is significant to note

that remotely piloted vehicles may be

used for a variety of civilian, military,

and research activities whereas the

autonomous aircraft are generally

used for military purposes, such as

Tomahawk “cruise” missiles that

were used during the war in Kosovo

and the First Gulf War.

Figure 2. The Altair UAV is designed as a

long-endurance, high altitude platform for

the development of UAV technologies and

environmental science missions. (Courtesy


Figure 2B. A pilot flies an Altair UAV using

a control panel from a remote ground control

station and utilizing both visual and

telemetered data. Shown here is the pilot’s

view of the flight as if he were actually in

the aircraft. (Courtesy NASA)

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 15


Recently the Predator UAV has been

in the news because of its capability

to carry and discharge ordnance

materials. The Predator MQ-1 is a

U.S. Air Force military version of

NASA’s Altair UAV that has been

used in Afghanistan and Iraq on

military missions (Figure 3).

Figure 3. While the MQ-1 Predator looks

very similar to the Altair UAV, there is a

significant difference in that it is armed

with an AGM-114 Hellfire missile. The

MQ-1's primary mission is interdiction and

conducting armed reconnaissance against

critical, perishable targets. (USAF Photo)

UAVs, unmanned aerial vehicles, and

uninhabited aerial vehicles offer many

advantages over traditional piloted

aircraft. This is particularly true in

environments and areas that are

hazardous, such as military targets

and engagements, forest fires,

weather reconnaissance, and flight


Designs for UAVs vary substantially

in size, function, and cost. Some

UAVs are very small and compare

favorably with “model aircraft” in size

(Figure 4) while others may have

wing spans of a hundred feet and

cost millions of dollars. An example

of a sophisticated UAV is the Global

Hawk UAV that provides Air Force

and joint battlefield commanders

near-real-time, high-resolution,

intelligence, surveillance, and

reconnaissance imagery. Recently

the Global Hawk provided Air Force

and joint war-fighting commanders

with more than 15,000 of these

images to support Operation Enduring

Freedom, flying more than 50

missions and 1,000 combat hours to

date. Cruising at extremely high

altitudes, Global Hawk can survey

large geographic areas with pinpoint

accuracy to give military decisionmakers

the most current information

about enemy location, resources, and

personnel. Once mission parameters

are programmed into Global Hawk

(Figure 5), the UAV can autonomously

taxi, take off, fly, and remain on

station, capturing imagery, then

return and land. Ground-based

operators monitor UAV health and

status, and can change navigation

and sensor plans during flight as

necessary. It should be noted that

UAVs such as the Predator, Altair,

Global Hawk, and others are flight

systems supported by a number of

personnel and consist of a series of

sophisticated communications and

control electronics that are necessary

to fly and navigate the aircraft.

16 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER


Figure 4. Tallil Air Base, Iraq—Staff Sgt.

James Ellis adjusts the camera in a Desert

Hawk. The Desert Hawk is a miniature

unmanned aerial vehicle used by security

forces to see beyond base perimeters,

providing a rapid assessment of threats.

This aircraft is remotely controlled and is

capable of sending real-time video back to

a command center. (USAF Photo)

Figure 5. The Global Hawk UAV provides

Air Force and joint battlefield commanders

near-real-time, high-resolution images and

intelligence. Recently the Global Hawk provided

Air Force and joint war-fighting commanders

a large number of images to

support Operation Enduring Freedom. The

Global Hawk can cruise at extremely high

altitudes and survey large geographic

areas very accurately. It is important to

note that the Global Hawk is an

autonomous UAV rather than a remotely

piloted one. (USAF Photo)

Career Opportunities and


There are many career opportunities

in the aviation industry, from the

research and design of new aircraft

and flying and maintaining aircraft to

planning and constructing airport

facilities. Career areas and specialties

include pilots who fly commercial

airlines, corporate pilots who are

employed by corporations to provide

flight service to company personnel,

and military pilots who fly combat

missions, support and logistics

missions, and reconnaissance

missions. The Federal Aviation

Administration employs pilots, safety

inspectors, a variety of engineers

(electrical, mechanical, civil, and

etc.), air traffic controllers,

transportation system specialists,

supervisors and managers, and many

other career specialties. Air terminals

and airports employ a

variety of skilled

technical personnel to

maintain and repair

aircraft, which

includes avionics, air

frames, control

systems, and engines.

Typically, a

commercial airline

crew will include a

pilot, copilot,

navigator, and flight

attendants; however

the number of crew

will vary based on the

size of the aircraft and

flight destination.

Educational requirements will vary

substantially for aviation careers.

Most technical careers will require a

high school diploma and community

college technical training. Many

technical support personnel obtain

highly skilled technical training

through military service and military

technical schools. Other career paths

may require only a high school

diploma and on-the-job training.

College graduates are typically found

in management, supervision, and

engineering/technical positions.

Learning Activity

In middle school and even in high

school, career planning is often given

little thought or consideration in the

context of its significance. While we

tend to give some thought about

what we may do in the future for a

career or occupation, the real

meaning and significance is generally

not realized until we graduate from

high school, and in some cases from

college, and realize that “Hey, I need

to get a job!” Career planning is really

a step-by-step process that helps us

identify the most satisfying career. It

is a process of self-discovery related

to career opportunities. The five

steps that follow may assist you in

the planning process.

The following questions will help you

identify what your particular needs

may be. A clear insight of your career

planning needs can come from

answering these questions in these

five categories:

1. Interests—What activities do I


2. Abilities—What activities do I do


3. Aptitudes—What activities would

I learn well?

4. Personality—What are my

personal values and qualities?

5. Physical Requirements—What

physical activity is acceptable in

a job?

These questions are a “selfinventory”

and should provide you

with some insights as to the types of

career positions and jobs that may be

of interest to you. Searching for

career possibilities and options is a

challenging task, as research and

reading about a career may be

interesting and fascinating but an

entirely different matter when

working in such a position!

Here we have been reading about

unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). As

mentioned earlier, there are many

types of careers in the aviation field;

many of them are technical and

require technical training, while

others are directed toward

supervision, administration,

management, and logistics. While

there are many good “job” or “career”

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 17


Figure 6. The U.S. Department of Labor and the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational

Outlook Web site can provide a wealth of information regarding careers and occupations. The

online handbook is searchable and provides narrative detail about specific careers and jobs.

sites accessible on the Internet, a

really comprehensive listing of jobs

and careers is available from the U.S.

Department of Labor and the Bureau

of Labor Statistics’ Occupational

Outlook Handbook. This resource

is available online at as well

as in a print edition.

Learning Activity Task

Answer the five personal inventory

questions listed above and decide on

several kinds of occupations that

would be of interest to you. Visit the

BLS Occupational Outlook Web site

and review the job/career categories

and research information about the

career choices that you have

selected and that would be of interest

to you (Figure 6).

Prepare a brief summary according to

the categories shown below. Do this

for several career options and select

the option that interests you the

most. Follow up your research with

a visit to a company or company

Web site to see what the actual

employment need is. Review your

academic plans and career choices

and make a list of recommendations

that you need to follow for your

career choice.

• Nature of the work (occupational


• Working conditions

• Employment data (number of

persons in this field)

• Earnings

• Training, other qualifications, and

advancement (skills, aptitudes

and abilities required)

• Education requirements

• Job outlook

• Hours of work

• Job satisfaction

• Location of work

• Employment outlook

• Personal needs

Share your career research

information with several of your

classmates and explain why you

have selected a given career. Ask for

their opinions and recommendations.

Choosing a career is an important

responsibility and one that can lead

to a lifetime of satisfaction and

reward! Have you given any thought

to your career options?


It appears that humans have been

interested in flight for thousands of

years, but it is only recently that we

are able to fly to nearly anywhere on

the earth. Leonardo Da Vinci is well

remembered for his endeavors and

inventions regarding flight. While

there are many inventors and

innovators in the field of aviation, it is

Orville and Wilbur Wright who come

to mind as representing the

development of flight as we know it

today. Their famous powered flight in

December of 1903 marks a change in

the way that humans look at flight

and aviation.

Historically, pilots fly airplanes with

great skill and knowledge by using

the controls in the cockpit of an

airplane. However, we are seeing

that unmanned aerial vehicles, or

UAVs, are being flown by pilots

located on the ground at some

remote location. UAVs offer

advantages over conventional piloted

aircraft because they can be used in

hazardous locations such as forest

fires or military zones. UAVs also can

be used for environmental research,

mapping, and surveying. These

unique aircraft may be small in size,

approaching something similar to

recreational radio-controlled models

but including sophisticated electronics

packages for surveillance, or

may be very large remotely piloted

aircraft such as the Global Hawk or

Altair UAVs. Typically, aircraft are

categorized by the role for which they

were designed, such as civil, military,

experimental, or special purpose.

From a career perspective there are

many opportunities in the aviation

and aviation-related career fields.

There are many technical and

engineering types of careers as well

as administrative, support, and

logistical careers. Why not look at

aviation as a future career that can

be interesting, rewarding, and fun?

Walter F. Deal, III,

Ph.D. is an associate

professor at Old

Dominion University

in Norfolk, VA. He

can be reached via

e-mail at

18 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER



The tenth annual IMSTEA Super Mileage Challenge

was held at Indianapolis Raceway Park on April 25,

2005. Forty Indiana high schools entered 53 cars in

the two classes of competition. This year the field

was seeking to crack the 1,500 mpg barrier! The

students build their own cars under the supervision

of a faculty member and are responsible for the

design and construction of the car and for raising all

funds needed for the project. Engines are furnished

by Briggs & Stratton Corp., but all other items must

be either purchased or donated by sponsors. The

students learn not only the technical and scientific

aspects of building a high mileage car, but also how

to work as a team to solve complex problems.


These students are the future

scientists, engineers, and

technicians who will be

designing, building, and

servicing the cars of the future.

What they learn in this event

may help them to develop cars

that are more fuel-efficient. The

Super Mileage Challenge is

held under the auspices of the

Indiana Mathematics, Science,

and Technology Education


20 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 21




Dustin J. Wyse-Fisher

Michael K. Daugherty

Richard E. Satchwell, and

Rodney L. Custer, DTE

Project Probase was conceived to address

the shortage of standards-based technology

education curricula at the upper high

school level.


Journal manuscripts and national

reports published during the last 20

years (Bensen, 1993; DeVries, 1996;

AAAS, 1989; National Academy of

Engineering, 2002; ITEA, 1996; Zuga,

1989) presented a defensible

rationale for the technology education

profession and focused on the

delivery of technological literacy for

the nation’s youth. This call for action

was affirmed when the International

Technology Education Association

published Standards for Technological

Literacy: Content for the Study of

Technology (STL) (ITEA, 2000/2002).

The new standards provide

professional members with a

structure and framework for future

curriculum development efforts. One

such effort is Project Probase. This

project, funded by the National

Science Foundation’s Advanced

Technological Education program, is

creating a standards-based technology

education curriculum targeted

for 11th and 12th grade students.

The curriculum is designed to prepare

the students for post-secondary

education in engineering or other

technical fields through a series of

complex, context-based technological


The Need

Project Probase was conceived to

address the shortage of standardsbased

technology education curricula

at the upper high school level as well

as to provide the more specialized

knowledge base mandatory for postsecondary

engineering or technical


Although a number of technology

education curriculum projects have

been completed during the past

decade (e.g. Integrated Mathematics,

Science, and Technology – IMaST;

the Center to Advance the Teaching

of Technology and Science – CATTS),

most of the curriculum projects have

been focused at the basic levels of

technological literacy. Additionally,

most of these curriculum projects

were initiated to develop curriculum

materials for use in the middle school

or early high school levels.

Technology education programs

designed to impact students at the

11-12th Grade levels, however, are

struggling for a focus and direction

(Wicklein, 2003). There is a serious

gap between the general

technological literacy curricular

emphasis (appropriate K-10) and the

curriculum developed for the postsecondary

professional and

technician-oriented programs (Custer

& Daugherty, under review).

Probase Overview

The Probase curriculum has been

designed to address several needs.

Specifically, Probase will promote

technological literacy, facilitate the

delivery of Standards for

Technological Literacy, deliver

technical content in a


fashion, and meet the need for a

focused, upper-level technology

education curriculum.

The Probase curriculum is being

developed by four groups, all of

which have specific roles in the

curriculum development process. The

first group is the project leadership

team that manages the daily

operations of the project, edits the

curriculum, and prepares it for the

various stages of testing. The

steering panel, comprised of

representatives from community

colleges, secondary level technology

education teachers, and content

matter experts, provides oversight

and guidance to the project. A third

group, the community college

consortium, consists of leaders from

six Illinois-based community colleges

who have been instrumental in

developing a set of bridge

competencies—skills and knowledge

that will allow students to enter

community college technical

programs more successfully—and to

ensure that they are infused

throughout the curriculum. Finally,

the national curriculum writing team

gathers for a two-week-long summer

writer’s symposium. The writer’s

symposium consists of intense

brainstorming, conceptualizing,

22 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER


writing, and rewriting, and at the

conclusion of the symposium, solid

draft materials of the learning units

are submitted to the Probase

leadership team for refinement,

revision, and layout.

Project Goals

The primary goal of Project Probase

is to develop technological-problembased

curriculum materials for 11th

and 12th Grade technology education

students. The materials are designed

to serve as a foundation for a range

of post-secondary programs,

including engineering education at

the four-year level and technical

education at the two-year level. The

materials are being developed based

on two foundations: (a) a set of

enduring understandings derived from

STL, and (b) bridge competencies,

specifically designed to fill the void

between high school and postsecondary

technical education.

Enduring Understandings

A key resource for the project

consisted of the Understanding by

Design model (Wiggins and McTighe,

1998), which emphasizes the

importance of beginning the

curriculum development process by

identifying enduring conceptual

knowledge and ways of assessing

that knowledge. This is done prior to

selecting lessons or activities, which

opposes the commonly-practiced

focus of activity-based curriculum.

Consistent with the Understanding by

Design model, Project Probase began

by distilling nine enduring

understandings and related essential

questions from STL. The term

“enduring understandings” refers to

“the big ideas, the important

understandings that we want

students to ‘get inside of’ and retain

after they’ve forgotten many of the

details” (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998,

p.10). Before becoming an enduring

understanding, each concept had to

filter through four questions:

1. Is the concept something

important to know as an adult?

2. Does it reside at the heart of the


3. Does it require the uncovering of

abstract and often misunderstood


4. Does it offer potential for

engaging students?

(Wiggins & McTighe, 1998)

Upon passing through the filter, each

enduring understanding was then

further “unpacked” to be meaningful

for learning and instruction. All

enduring understandings were

therefore further clarified through the

use of essential questions that a

successful student would be able to

answer upon completing the unit of


Bridge Competencies

The second conceptual foundation for

the project consists of a set of bridge

competencies, designed to “bridge”

the gaps between secondary and

post-secondary education. The

Project first identified the base-level

competencies required in engineering

or technician-level post secondary

education. Through a series of focus

group sessions with members of the

Probase leadership team and

members of the community college

consortium, the process generated a

set of six main Bridge Competency

categories that were compiled from

several hundred uncategorized

characteristics. These categories are:

academic, communicative, computer,

logic, social, and technical


Learning Units

Once the conceptual foundations

were established, the primary

curriculum development work began.

The Probase curriculum consists of

eight learning units, seven of which

come directly from the contexts

identified in STL. The titles for the

learning units in the Probase

curriculum include: Transportation

Technologies, Information and

Communication Technologies, Energy

and Power Technologies,

Manufacturing Technologies,

Construction Technologies, Medical

Technologies, and Agriculture and

Related Biotechnologies. At the

encouragement of the steering panel,

one final unit, Entertainment and

Recreation Technologies, was added.

Each of these learning units is based

on the conceptual foundation and is

delivered through a set of

technological problem-solving

activities. The type of problemsolving

approach used depends on

the unique content of the learning

unit as well as the expertise and

judgment of the curriculum writing


Each of the eight learning units

consists of 40 hours of instructional

time (approximately nine weeks) and

may be offered on a nine-week, onesemester,

or one-year basis. While

completing each of the eight learning

units, student teams are challenged

to solve primary and secondary

engineering design problems by

conducting research, gathering

information, asking technical

questions, and studying core

technological concepts.

At the beginning of each learning

unit, students are engaged in a

“hook” activity, called the Preliminary

Challenge. These hands-on activities

are designed to pique students’

interest and establish a focus for the

unit. They are then introduced to the

unit’s Primary Challenge, which is a

complex problem designed to initially

exceed the competence levels of

most high school students and to

engage students with the unit’s

enduring concepts and essential


Following this introduction, students

work in cooperative teams to

examine core concepts, conduct

research, solve secondary-level

design problems, and implement

technological assessment techniques

in the effort to solve the Primary

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 23


Challenge. This conceptual and skill

development is constructed using the

learning-cycle strategy. Each learning

cycle focuses on one or sometimes

two main concepts and builds

student knowledge of them through

four phases of learning called

Exploration, Reflection, Engagement,

and Expansion.

In the Exploration phase, students

explore concepts, interact with

materials, collect and record data,

and make predictions. For example,

in one learning cycle of the

Transportation Technologies learning

unit, students explore the concept of

propulsion through torque and gear

ratios. Students begin the learning

cycle by investigating what torque is

and how it is measured. They

construct an apparatus that allows

them to test and measure the amount

of torque needed to hold a weight of

1000 grams at various centimeter

increments along a PVC pipe.

The Reflection phase requires

students to look back on what they

explored and answer questions

related to a particular concept or

concepts. This stage often includes a

concept-focused class discussion.

Building on the same example from

above, students might answer and

discuss questions such as “Why did

the torque pipe become too hard to

hold up as the weight moved farther

from the person holding it?” or “What

would the torque be at the 90 cm

point of the torque pipe?” Students

also reflect back on their experiences

of exploring gear ratios.

The curriculum then moves on to the

Engagement phase. Here, students

apply knowledge gained in the

Exploration to solve a problem

(usually unrelated to the Primary

Challenge). The example learning

cycle challenges the students to

apply their knowledge about torque

and gear ratios by asking them to

design and construct a vehicle that

pulls with the greatest possible force.

Finally, students enter the Expansion

phase, where the concepts are

expanded and generalized to broader

situations. This section often requires

students to conduct reading and

research to draw conclusions about

the concepts. Returning to the

example, students have the option of

setting up an experiment to test the

torque produced by a bicycle,

preparing a presentation on torque

and gear ratios suitable for a

hypothetical middle school

technology education class, or finding

a discarded device with gears and,

through reverse engineering,

determining why gears may have

been used and what gear ratios

were used.

The end of the Expansion phase takes

students back to the Primary

Challenge and allows them to apply

the knowledge directly to the robust

challenge, and answer the question,

“What have we learned in this

learning cycle that can help us solve

the Primary Challenge?” In this case,

students have learned about

propulsion, torque, and gear ratios,

and can use this knowledge to help

them solve the Primary Challenge,

which in general terms consists of

designing and constructing a method

for transporting precious cargo

across a terrain to several specified


Pilot and Field-Testing

After initial development and

substantial refinement, each learning

unit is being subjected to a rigorous

pilot and field-testing process at

schools around the nation. Based on

feedback from these test sites and

recommendations from the project’s

steering panel and external evaluator,

revisions are made. Once these

revisions have been made, the

materials are field-tested in two

different schools. After field-testing

has been completed and feedback

has been obtained, the curriculum

will be revised one additional time

before being submitted for publication

to the Center for the Advancement of

Teaching Technology and Science.


In summary, the content of the

Probase curriculum is grounded on

two primary sources: STL and the

bridge competencies. As a

constructivist-based curriculum,

students build on prior knowledge as

they solve complex problems. The

core competencies for the curriculum

are delivered through the implementation

of engineering design

problems that engage students in

technological design, invention,

innovation, troubleshooting

techniques, experimentation, and

research and development.

Eight learning units are currently

being developed, grounded in

standards-based content and

delivered through technological

problem-solving activities. The

concept-rich curriculum provides a

comprehensive foundation of

technological knowledge and skills,

not only needed to “bridge” students

to community college technician

education programs and university

level engineering programs but also

for an advanced level of technological

literacy. For more information, visit

the project’s Web site at


American Association for the Advancement

of the Sciences (AAAS). (1989).

Technology: A Project 2061 panel

report. Washington, DC: Author.

Bensen, M. J. (1993). Gaining support for

the study of technology. The

Technology Teacher, 52(6), 3-5, 21.

Custer, R. L., & Daugherty, M. D. Bridge

competencies necessary for community

college technical programs. Manuscript

submitted for publication.

De Vries, M. J. (1996). Technology

education: Beyond the technology is

applied science paradigm. Journal of

Technology Education, 8(1), 7-15.

International Technology Education

Association (ITEA). (2000/2002).

Standards for technological literacy:

Content for the study of technology.

Reston, VA: Author.

International Technology Education

Association. (1996). Technology for all

Americans: A rationale and structure for

24 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER


the study of technology. Reston, VA:


National Academy of Engineering. (2002).

Technically speaking: Why all

Americans need to know more about

technology. Washington, D.C. National

Academy Press.

Wicklein, R. C. (2003, November). Five

good reasons for engineering as the

focus for technology education. Paper

presented at the 90th meeting of the

Mississippi Valley Technology Teacher

Education Conference, Nashville, TN.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (1998).

Understanding by design. Alexandria,

VA: Association for Supervision and

Curriculum Development.

Zuga, K. (1989). Relating technology

education goals to curricular planning.

Journal of Technology Education, 1(1),


The authors can be reached via

e-mail at

This is a refereed article.

Author’s Note:

The manuscript is based upon work

supported by the National Science

Foundation under Grant No. 0202375.

The Government has certain rights in

this material. Any opinions, findings,

and conclusions or

recommendations expressed in this

material are those of the authors

and do not necessarily reflect the

views of the National Science


Dustin J. Wyse-

Fisher is a technology

teacher at Morton

High School in

Morton, IL.

Michael K. Daugherty

is Coordinator,

Technology Teacher

Education at the

University of

Arkansas in

Fayetteville, AR.

Richard E. Satchwell

is Program Director,

Adventure of the

American Mind at

Illinois State

University in

Normal, IL.

Rodney L. Custer is



Chairperson at

Illinois State


Normal, IL.

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 25




Thomas L. Erekson

Remarks from the Maley Spirit of

Excellence Breakfast

International Technology Education

Association Conference

Kansas City, MO

April 4, 2005

I am honored to have been invited to

share some thoughts and

perspectives with you this morning.

May I begin by providing a

perspective on this event—the Maley

Spirit of Excellence Breakfast. First,

let me define the words:

• Maley – a dynamic leader who

gave all of his time and talents to

technology education.

• Spirit – an enthusiasm and energy

for living.

• Excellence – the quality or state

of being outstanding.

• Breakfast – the first meal of the

day, generally early in the


Dr. Don Maley was a leader in our

profession who demonstrated

outstanding enthusiasm and energy

for living and doing. We are at this

breakfast meeting to share in his

vision for excellence, and I hope that

my remarks will motivate each of us

to step up with energy and

enthusiasm to promote and lead in

our profession as Dr. Maley did.

What makes a person a leader? Is it

position? Is it power, real or

perceived? Is it level of educational

attainment? Is it charisma and

personality? Is it performance? Is it

all of these, or is it none of these?

We can learn much about leadership by

observing models, or examples, of people

who are, or have been, leaders.

There are many perspectives on

leadership and how best to develop

leaders. When I reflect on the career

of Dr. Maley, I think of a person who

set the pace and demonstrated a

model of leadership. We can learn

much about leadership by observing

models, or examples, of people who

are, or have been, leaders. My intent

this morning is to share several

vignettes of educational leaders with

you and glean from these vignettes a

list of key characteristics we should

emulate. Therefore, this morning I will

share examples, or profiles, of

leaders with you, many in technology

education. Some you will recognize

by name, others will likely be new to


Elmer Traman—Passion for


When I reflect on people who have

been an influence in my life, I

remember the teachers who loved

teaching—those who had a passion

for teaching. One of my teachers who

had such a passion was Elmer

Traman, an industrial arts teacher at

Benjamin Franklin Junior High School

in Aurora, Illinois. Mr. Traman was

nearing retirement in the early 1960s

when I was a student in his industrial

arts classes, but his students knew

that he truly loved teaching. He not

only taught us the industrial arts

content, but he effectively built our

confidence. As a result, we

accomplished much more than would

normally have been expected. When I

applied for admission to college at

the age of 21, I originally listed

“undecided” as my major on the

application form. However, before

sending the application, I once more

reviewed the options in the college

catalog, and as I saw the “industrial

arts teaching” major I thought of Mr.

Traman, his passion for teaching, and

how he made junior high enjoyable

for me. Based on my reflections of

his passion for teaching, I decided to

list “industrial arts teaching” as my

major—after all I could always

change it later. I never changed my

major, and I am very pleased that

Mr. Traman set a positive model of

passion for teaching in industrial arts.

John Wagley—Pass It On

John Wagley was the industrial

education department chair at

Belvedere High School, Belvedere,

Illinois in the 1970s. I met John in the

fall of 1973 as a result of being

assigned to student-teach at

Belvedere High School. John was

active in the Illinois Industrial

Education Association (IIEA), as were

the other industrial education

teachers at Belvedere High School. I

attended a local roundtable meeting

that fall, and John encouraged me to

attend the state conference in

February after graduation. As a new

industrial arts teacher at Danville

High School, Danville, Illinois, my

department chair was pleased when

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 27


I told him that I wanted to attend that

IIEA state conference. I attended the

state conference, and John Wagley

was genuinely pleased to see me


Three and a half years later, shortly

after starting my job as an assistant

professor at Northern Illinois

University, I visited Belvedere High

School to touch base with John and

the other teachers. John had just

been elected President-Elect of

IIEA and he encouraged me to get

involved in the state association. He

indicated that he needed to appoint a

secretary for IIEA and he thought that

I would do a great job. I said yes and

was appointed secretary. He also

made arrangements for me to make

a presentation at the upcoming

conference—my first conference


As IIEA Secretary, I traveled with

John (and often his wife) to several

IIEA Board meetings over the next

three years. I specifically remember a

trip to a Board meeting in Normal,

Illinois. John, his wife, and I were

having dinner, and when it came time

to pay, John picked up the tab. I

protested, but John and his wife said

“pass it on” when you are in a

position to do so. John exemplified

the “pass it on” philosophy of

leadership by helping the newcomers

get involved. He instilled the “pass it

on” philosophy in me. As a result, I

have tried to follow John’s “pass it

on” philosophy when I was in a

position to do so. After successfully

publishing several articles and

receiving some research grants as a

faculty member, I involved new

faculty members and graduate

students in co-authoring articles and

research proposals. I was passing on

the opportunity to be involved in the


Franzie Loepp—Take the

High Road (Jettison Your


I first met Franzie Loepp, now an

emeritus distinguished professor from

Illinois State University, during my

first semester of teaching at Northern

Illinois University. At that time NIU

and ISU were collaborating in a twoday

retreat for our student teachers.

Franzie always was upbeat and

displayed a positive attitude.

Furthermore, he always exhibited the

highest moral and ethical standards

in his professional and personal life.

Most of my interactions and

collaborations with Franzie were

professional, and I found that he was

a very good sounding board for new


There was a situation in my career,

however, in which I felt that I had

been unfairly criticized, and the

criticism had been disseminated

widely. I felt that the

misrepresentations were libelous and

I was contemplating contacting an

attorney. Before doing this, I sought

advice from a few trusted colleagues,

Franzie being one. In discussing the

situation with Franzie, he specifically

advised me to “take the high road” in

this situation. He suggested that by

taking the high road—that is not

getting into a public (or private)

conflict—I would gain respect in the

profession. As I reflected on Franzie’s

advice, I realized that he was right. I

decided to take the high road in this

situation—it meant that I had to

jettison my ego and move forward.

This, by the way, was some of the

best advice I ever received.

Don Maley—Collaborative


Don Maley, a strong leader, served

the profession in many ways. In the

late 1980s, Don was the chair of the

ITEA Government Relations

Committee. At the same time, I was

the AVA Vice President for the

Industrial Arts Division (now

Technology Education Division). At

this time both AVA and ITEA were

developing position statements about

the pending reauthorization of the

Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education

Act. Given my role as a member of

the AVA Board’s Legislative Committee

and being very knowledgeable

on the issues of reauthorization, I

prepared a white paper for the

Industrial Arts Division. I shared this

with Don and, since we had worked

closely together, he used my white

paper as the basis for ITEA’s

positions on reauthorization. I should

add that for several years Don and I

would run sessions at both AVA and

ITEA to educate the profession on

legislative issues and effective

techniques for influencing congress.

This collaboration was effective, as

Don and I presented a unified front

for the profession.

I recall, however, that at that time

there was some divisiveness in the

profession, as some had embraced

“technology education” while others

were hanging on to “industrial arts.”

This led to some heated debates and

personality conflicts. At a meeting

with a few leaders from ITEA and the

AVA-IAD, Don Maley presented the

ITEA positions on reauthorization.

As the ITEA position paper was

distributed, the then U.S. Department

of Education specialist for industrial

arts said something like “Dr. Maley, it

would have been nice if you would

have discussed this with Tom

Erekson and the leadership of the

Industrial Arts Division before

publishing ITEA’s positions.” Don

replied something like, “Actually, Tom

wrote almost all of this position

paper—the positions are almost

congruent, and we are presenting a

unified front for the profession.”

Collaboration leads to synergy.

Doug Polette—Risk-Taker

Doug Polette was the technology

teacher education program leader at

Montana State University. In the late

1980s the state of Montana was

facing serious budget challenges. As

a result, several programs that were

duplicated across colleges and

universities were targeted for

elimination. Since the industrial arts

teacher education program at MSU

28 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER


was clearly the strongest in the

state, Doug and his colleagues felt

that they would be held harmless.

They were shocked, devastated, and

demoralized to learn that their

program was on the list to be

eliminated. They were committed to

fighting to save the program, but

soon realized that the serious budget

situation in the state would make

saving any programs on the “list”

almost impossible.

Doug questioned whether they should

fight to keep an outdated industrial

arts teacher education program. He

decided the best defense would be a

good offense—he took a risk. That is,

the faculty agreed with the university

system administration that the

industrial arts teacher education

program should be closed. However,

there was a new educational

initiative called “technology

education,” and Montana needed a

program to prepare technology

teachers. So, Doug and his

colleagues developed a proposal for a

new program in technology teacher

education, and while the industrial

arts program was going through the

elimination process, the new program

was making its way through the

university and system administration

for approval. This was a great risk

because there was no guarantee that

the new program would be

approved—the old program would,

however, be eliminated. Doug and his

colleagues were successful, as the

new program was approved and

continues as a strong program today.

By taking this risk, they not only

saved their program, but they were

able to make the extensive changes

needed to transition from industrial

arts to technology education in a very

short time.

Paul DeVore—Lead by

Actions and Stay Out in


Paul DeVore is a visionary leader in

our profession—a person who gets

out in front and who leads by his

actions. He advocated technology

education in the 1960s, when the

majority of the profession was still

supporting industrial arts. Many of

his writings provided a philosophical

foundation for the standards-based

technology education of our day.

While a PhD student at Penn State,

Paul came across an intriguing

journal, Technology and Culture,

which led to his study of technology

and his advocacy of it as the content

base for our profession. He became

the chair of a large industrial arts

teacher education department, albeit

a traditional department. He spent a

sabbatical at the University of

Maryland, interacting with leaders

like Lee Hornbake, Walter Waetjen,

and Don Maley, and studying

technology at the Smithsonian. These

experiences forever changed him and

his outlook on the profession.

Paul returned to his department after

the sabbatical but was visited by

Tom Brennan, a faculty member at

West Virginia University (WVU). The

dean at WVU had just placed a

moratorium on the undergraduate

industrial arts teacher education

program and was releasing three

faculty members who did not hold

terminal degrees. The dean, Stanley

Eichenberry (later the president of the

University of Illinois) thought that a

new vision was needed for the

program at WVU; after all WVU is the

state’s land grant research university.

Paul expressed some interest in the

chair’s position at WVU, quite a risk

at the time. He was hired and began

in August of 1967—a department

with one faculty member, a suspended

undergraduate program, and

no graduate programs.

Paul instituted a series of symposia

to develop a vision for the future of

the unit. These symposia involved

experts from both on and off campus,

and throughout the symposia series

each of the deans at WVU was

invited to provide perspectives (and

buy-in). The result of the symposia

series was to focus the department’s

resources on graduate education—

graduate education programs in

technology education. Thus, WVU

developed the first true graduate

programs in technology education,

approved in 1969-1970. It is

interesting to note that the president

of WVU was the one who thought

that the program’s name should be

“technology education.” He called

Paul, and the name was changed

from industrial education to

technology education—the first

department to use the name.

Paul is a person of action, and the

development of the first graduate

program specifically in technology

education shows his leadership

through his actions. He got out in

front in technology education and

never looked back. The program at

WVU has had significant impacts on

the profession, including encouraging

Davis Publications to publish a series

of books on technology education. It

also directly led to the first

undergraduate program in technology

education at Eastern Illinois

University, as Don Lauda, one of

Paul’s WVU faculty members, went

to EIU as leader of the School of

Technology, hiring John Wright, a

WVU PhD graduate, to help with the


Tommy Tomlinson—

Educational Statesmanship

Robert M. “Tommy” Tomlinson was

my graduate advisor at the University

of Illinois for both my master’s and

doctoral degrees. As I recall, he never

was elected to national office in a

professional society, nor was he a

department chair or dean. However,

he knew how to get his students

involved in the profession. Every year

he took two doctoral students to the

Mississippi Valley Conference and, as

a doctoral student, it was my turn to

go with him in November of 1976. He

made sure that we were introduced

to all of the leaders in attendance,

including H. H. London, Harold

Silvius, Don Lux, and Jerry Streichler,

to name a few. Tommy also made

THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2005 29


sure that we met the other Illinois

doctoral graduates who were in

attendance. We had dinner with two

Illinois alums and, at dinner, one

asked if Illinois was inculcating us in

the doctrine of “educational

statesmanship.” Somewhat

bewildered by the question, I asked

what was meant by the term. He

responded that “educational

statesmanship” was a concept in

which Illinois graduates were

expected to be leaders in the field of

education, not just leaders in

industrial education. That is, Illinois

graduates were expected to “stand

up” for our profession and justify its

existence in the “language” and

research of other education

disciplines. I realized that Illinois was

inculcating its graduate students with

educational statesmanship—we

were expected to become educational

leaders who would stand up

and be counted.

Tommy Tomlinson saw to it that we

were so prepared. Tommy was a

very good debater. He would often

(almost always) initiate a debate, and

advocate for one side whether or not

he agreed with the proposition, as he

believed that it was through debate

that ideas were often generated and

clarified. These discussions and

debates motivated his graduate

students to search the literature and

to discuss issues with others. This

model of standing up and being

counted was powerful. There are

times when it has served me well

(and a few times when I wish that I

had just kept my mouth shut!).

class from him when he returned

from his sabbatical. I soon learned,

however, that he was very

approachable and friendly with his

students. He truly cared about each

student, taking time to learn about

each of us. He always had a positive

attitude around his students, and he

sought ways to build our confidence.

You see, he knew that there is

correlation between confidence and

accomplishment. That is, a confident

person (student) accomplishes more.

As a result of his positive attitude

and confidence-building skills, Rupert

seemed to be able to get his students

to accomplish more than we thought

we could.

Gleaning Traits of Leaders

I hope that you have enjoyed

listening to my reflections of people

who have influenced my life. The key

question is “So what?” What can we

glean from these vignettes that we

should emulate? I believe that we

learn that we should:

• Have a passion for teaching and

for our profession.

• Pass it on and share opportunities

with others.

• Always take the high road and

jettison our egos.

• Become educational statesmen

and women.

• Always work collaboratively.

• Lead by our actions and stay out

in front.

• Be risk-takers.

• Have a positive attitude.

A final trait, noted by Nibley (1984),

is consistent with jettisoning your

ego: “A leader will be able to admit

that he or she made a mistake, has

learned from it, and makes changes

to see that it doesn’t happen again”

(p. 19).

enemy in war and the main office in

peace” (p. 19). People like John

Wagley, Don Maley, Elmer Traman,

Franzie Loepp, Tommy Tomlinson,

Doug Polette, and Paul DeVore

emulate this.


Nibley, H. (1984). Leadership Versus

Management. BYU Today, p. 19.

Thomas L. Erekson

is the Director of the

School of Technology,

Ira A. Fulton

College of Engineering


Technology, at

Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

He can be reached via e-mail at

Rupert Evans—Positive


As a graduate student I heard a lot

about Rupert Evans, then a faculty

member at the University of Illinois, a

former dean there, and the fourth Life

Chair of the Mississippi Valley

Conference, who was on sabbatical. I

was in awe of his accomplishments

and reputation, and probably

somewhat intimidated taking my first

Let me close my remarks with

another quote from Nibley: “Leaders

are movers and shakers, original,

inventive, unpredictable, imaginative,

full of surprises that discomfort the

30 September 2005 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER



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