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A Tree Bent Young - World Vision Institut

August 2012

A Tree Bent Young

Experiences and promising practices from Empowering

Children as Peacebuilders (ECaP) Hubs of Learning

World Vision East Africa Region Peacebuilding Learning Centre


© World Vision International 2012

Author: Valarie Vat Kamatsiko

All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced in

any form, except for brief excerpts in reviews, without prior permission of

the publisher.

Published August 2012 by World Vision East Africa Peacebuilding Learning Centre

on behalf of World Vision International.

For further information about this publication or World Vision

International publications, or for additional copies of this publication,

please contact wvi_publishing@wvi.org.

Senior Editor: Heather Elliott. Production Management: Katie Klopman,

Duncan Mutavi. Copyediting: Audrey Dorsch. Proofreading: Jenelle D’Alessandro,

Cover Design and Interior Layout: Brandits Ltd/ Jim Asuke.

Cover photo © World Vision

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Foreword

Acknowledgements

Since February 2010, World Vision Rwanda has been hosting the World Vision East Africa Regional Peacebuilding

Learning Centre. Together with the Learning Centre we have been able to accomplish a lot, particularly with regard

to positioning our peacebuilding efforts to become more relevant to the changing context and to have intentional

focus on children and youth. Initially, our focus was on three Area Development Programmes that served as Hubs

of Learning. Currently, these efforts have expanded to all of the 29 Area Development Programmes in Rwanda.

We are also pleased that other World Vision National Offices in the East Africa Region have found our products

useful. The ECaP Guidelines have been embraced by other National Offices. The Guidelines coupled with the

capacity enhancement processes spearheaded by the Learning Centre have propelled new interest in working with

children and youth to build peace in various Area Development Programmes across the Region.

The Hubs of Learning have been instrumental in this process. Initiatives implemented had an intentional focus on

innovation and learning. Children and youth played a central role since emphasis was placed on their meaningful

participation. Our pursuit for excellence through these ECaP initiatives has yielded a great deal. Children have

reported significant changes in their lives – from personal transformation to achieving better positioning in the

community. This we capture in the report. But we are also quick to say that although we have learnt a lot, there

is still much to be learnt.

In this report we share promising practices and learnings from our ECaP Hubs of Learning hoping that World

Vision across the partnership, our partners and other stakeholders will pick a leaf that will help them improve

peace programming with children and youth.

Let’s all do our best to ensure that we empower children as peace builders!

The Peacebuilding Learning Centre (PBLC) expresses its deep appreciation to the children, supporting adults and World

Vision Rwanda staff from the three Hubs of Learning (Kinihira, Nyamagabe and Rugarama Area Development Programmes

[ADPs]) for their commitment to and participation in Empowering Children as Peacebuilders (ECaP) activities as well as their

invaluable perspectives during the documentation process.

We are extremely grateful to the PBLC advisory committee at WV Rwanda for its role in shaping ECaP initiatives and

ensuring that they take root. The advisory committee was composed of George Gitau, national director; Russell Dlamini,

Integrated Programmes director; Pascal Karemera, Programmes Development and Quality Assurance director; Josephine

Munyeli, Peacebuilding specialist; Patrick Ngoma (Kinihira), Jean-Lambert Sebarenze (Nyamagabe) and Jean-Paul Habimana

(Rugarama), area development programme managers; and Valarie Vat Kamatsiko, East Africa regional Peacebuilding advisor.

We appreciate the role of the following members of the review team in shaping the report:

• Russell Dlamini – Integrated Programmes Director, World Vision Rwanda

• Ulrike Krause – Technical Adviser, Peacebuilding, and Point Person for Human Rights and Gender, World Vision

International, Germany

• Tim Midgley – Fragile States Adviser, World Vision UK

We thank World Vision Canada, Germany and Switzerland for supporting these ECaP activities. We also thank everyone

who supported these processes in one way or another. We hope that this document will be useful to ECaP practitioners as

they strive to improve programming processes.

Good reading!

George Gitau

National Director, World Vision Rwanda

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Contents

Abbreviations

Foreword 3

ADP

Area Development Programme

Executive Summary 6

CoP

Communities of Practice

1.0 Background and Overview 8

CWBA Child Well-Being Aspirations

2.0 The Peacebuilding Learning Centre ECaP Initiative with World Vision Rwanda 8

• Focus Areas and Modes of Learning and Empowerment 9

• Target Areas and Groups 10

• Main ECaP Processes and Activities Undertaken 10

3.0 Documentation of Experiences and Learnings 12

• Process and Methodology 12

3.1 Findings from the Documentation Process 14

• Impact Realised So Far 14

• Overarching Learnings 23

ECaP

FGD

HoL

IDP

Empowering Children as Peacebuilders

Focus Group Discussion

Hub of Learning

International Day of Peace

4.0 General Recommendations 24

PBLC

Peacebuilding Learning Centre

References 25

Appendix 1: Children’s Assessment of Asset-Building by ECaP Activities 26

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Executive Summary

Introduction

For about two years, the Peacebuilding Learning Centre (PBLC) was engaged in developing and field-testing

guidelines as well as the Empowering Children as Peacebuilders (ECaP) Programme Development Approach. This

report captures experiences and learnings from three World Vision Rwanda ECaP Hubs of Learning (HoLs). The

report aims to promote learning and improve the ECaP programming processes.

Modes of learning and empowerment

A series of activities based on the ECaP Development Programme Approach were commissioned for the three

HoLs as part of the field-testing process. These included

• capacity-building or learning events that emphasised imparting key peace knowledge, skills, values and attitudes

• the peace journal writing processes that focused on enhancing life skills for peace

• commemoration of the International Day of Peace through awareness-raising and advocacy activities

• strengthening of networking as well as mobilisation and organisation of children and youth for peace

The activities largely targeted children 12 to 18 years old and drawn from communities striving to recover from

the consequences of the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Targeted adults included World Vision staff as well as strategic

partners and community members. In November 2011, ECaP activities were extended to all World Vision Rwanda

ADPs, starting with the peace journal writing process.

Documentation of experiences and learnings

Documentation of experiences and learnings was built into these processes right from the start. In addition, focus

group discussions (FGDs) and reflective sessions with participating children and adults were conducted. As well, an

adapted version of the Youth Assessment of Asset-Building Programs Tool by Search Institute was administered to

45 children. These processes facilitated triangulation of data and data sources.

• Impact realised so far: These activities have empowered children and young people to acquire new

skills, knowledge, attitudes and experiences, thus leading to personal growth and empowerment. Findings

indicate that children have increased their knowledge, understanding and appreciation of peace; increased

their commitment to learning; acquired positive values and attitudes; enhanced social competencies; increased

confidence, capacity to express their views and positive identity; and become empowered and motivated to

mobilise their peers for peace. As well there is progressive acceptance of children as key actors, thus leading to

better adult support.

they meaningfully participate in planning, choosing and leading ECaP activities.

- It is worthwhile investing in pre-activity preparations to minimise risks or vulnerabilities and ensure

children’s protection and safety.

General recommendations

These recommendations are informed by the experiences and lessons learnt from ECaP activities and processes.

They also take into consideration recommendations made by children on how ECaP processes could be improved

for better results.

1. Promote inclusive club structures (peace clubs and/or associations) as a means of organising and mobilising

children for a shared mission of promoting peace. Clubs and associations should recruit children from

different identity groups and across conflict lines. Clubs and associations are important structures through

which a more systematic approach to enhancing children’s peace knowledge, skills, attitudes and values

can be undertaken. Children organised in clubs and associations can easily gain recognition as well as be

supported.

2. Reinforce adherence to World Vision’s child protection and participation policies, protocols and standards

throughout the life cycle of ECaP initiatives.

3. Create more linkages, collaborations and networking, both horizontally and vertically. While horizontal

linkages can help strengthen the voices of children and young people by drawing from broad participation,

vertical linkages are necessary to bridge voices of children from the local level to the national level and

beyond.

4. Continually enhance the capacity of supporting adults to effectively work with children and youth as well as

to influence adults (parents, caregivers, teachers, government officials and leaders, etc.) to increase their

appreciation and support for children’s peace activities.

• Overarching learnings: A number of lessons for improving future ECaP programming in World Vision

Rwanda and elsewhere were learnt. These include the following:

- A variety of appropriate modes of learning and empowerment, if used together, increase the opportunity

to enhance a wide range of peace skills, values and attitudes.

- Impact is greater where the same children are consistently targeted to participate in ECaP activities.

- Adults were often surprised about what children can do.

- Processes, activities and structures that enable children to gain acceptance and legitimacy as peace builders

in communities are necessary where community and peer acceptance is still a challenge.

- More needs to be done to ensure that children receive support that takes them to another level, where

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


1.0 Background and Overview

For about two years, the Peacebuilding Learning Centre (PBLC) – hosted by World Vision Rwanda – was engaged

in developing and field testing guidelines for Empowering Children as Peacebuilders (ECaP). The ultimate goal

of having guidelines is to promote effective participation of children and youth in peacebuilding programming

processes. This initiative also intended to benefit participating children by enhancing their peace knowledge, skills

and attitudes as well as to prepare participating adults to better empower young people as peacebuilders. ‘Children

as peacebuilders’ and ‘young people as peacebuilders’ are expressions that refer to a broad range of initiatives

targeting children under 18 years or young people between 18 and 20 years of age. These initiatives aim at instilling

a culture of peace among participants and empowering them to take constructive action towards transformation

of their communities. ECaP projects and activities contribute to achieving the following child well-being aspirations

(CWBA) and outcomes:

Girls and boys are cared for,

protected and participating

• Children are cared for in a loving, safe

family and community environment with

safe places to play.

• Children are respected participants in

decisions that affect their lives.

Girls and boys experience love

of God and their neighbours

• Children enjoy positive relationships

with peers, family and community

members.

• Children value and care for others and

their environment.

• Children have hope and vision for the

future.

Girls and boys are

educated for life

• Children make good judgements,

can protect themselves, can

manage emotions, and can

communicate ideas.

• Guideline 1: Determine appropriate programming approaches, content of engagement and activities.

• Guideline 2: Facilitate participation of children and other young people in designing and implementing

peacebuilding initiatives.

• Guideline 3: Ensure children’s and young people’s participation in decision-making and advocacy.

• Guideline 4: Identify and enhance effectiveness of adult-led support networks.

• Guideline 5: Integrate mental health and psychosocial support in initiatives.

• Guideline 6: Address key cross-cutting themes – gender, environment, protection, disability and Christian

commitments.

Effort was made to ensure that World Vision Rwanda child protection and child participation policies, ethical

guidelines and protocols were upheld for every process and activity undertaken. The activities were also guided by

the following child participation principles: ‘an ethical approach (transparency, honesty and accountability); relevant

and voluntary participation; participation with informed consent from children and their parents/guardians that

involves, but is not limited to, sharing the purpose and objectives of children’s participation and the potential risks

and consequences of being involved in the processes; a child-friendly enabling environment; equality of opportunity;

safety and protection of children; and follow-up and evaluation.’

Below we summarise the focus areas and modes of learning and empowerment used, target areas and groups, as

well as the key activities and processes undertaken.

Focus areas and modes of learning and empowerment

The ECaP initiative focused on

• capacity-building or learning events that emphasised imparting key peace knowledge, skills, values and

attitudes among participants

• the peace journal writing processes that focused on building participants’ life skills for peace

• commemoration of the International Day of Peace through awareness-raising and advocacy activities

This report captures experiences and learnings from World Vision Rwanda’s ECaP Hubs of Learning, namely

Kinihira, Nyamagabe and Rugarama ADPs. The report aims to promote learning among ECaP practitioners and

ultimately improve programming processes that seek to empower children and youth as peacebuilders.

• strengthening networking as well as mobilising and organising children and youth for peace

The diagram below presents these focus areas and modes of learning and empowerment.

2.0 The Peacebuilding Learning Centre ECaP Initiative with WV Rwanda

A series of ECaP activities that integrated the good practices proposed by the ECaP Development Programme

Approach were commissioned and implemented in the three Hubs of Learning to facilitate field testing of the

ECaP guidelines. The ECaP Development Programme Approach emphasises the importance of child participation

capacity building, education and skills training; club structure; clustering and collaboration; as well as creativity and

ownership as key to achieving success in ECaP programming. The set of ECaP guidelines which underwent field

testing included the following:

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April 2010 to December 2011

2

Ed

Gillis, Children as Peacebuilders: Transforming Conflict by Restoring the Potential of Youth (2005) http://www.cda-cdai.ca/cdai/uploads/cdai/2009/04/gillis01.pdf, accessed November 2011.

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World Vision International, ‘Peacebuilding and Reconciliation: Empowering Children as Peacebuilders’, a World Vision project model, draft version for field testing (2010).

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Valarie Vat Kamatsiko, Guidelines for Empowering Children and Youth as Peacebuilders, (2011), World Vision East Africa Peacebuilding Learning Centre.

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Diagram 1: Focus Areas and Modes of Learning and Empowerment used during the ECaP Guidelines Field Testing Process

Capacity building or

learning events (peace

knowlwdge, skills, values

& attitudes)

• Kigali ECaP Learning Event (April 2011): This was one of the initial activities in field testing the guidelines.

The objectives of the learning event were to raise awareness about the guidelines for empowering children

as peacebuilders as well as to build skills for application of the guidelines during the field testing; enhance

knowledge, skills and attitudes for peace; build strategic relationships and networks to promote peace and

reconciliation; and generate ideas to further improve the guidelines. The three-day activity benefited 42

children and 18 supporting adults (staff and strategic community members) from the three HoLs. Furthermore,

the learning event served as a platform at which issues raised by participating children – for example, landrelated

conflicts and violence against children – were presented to representatives of the Ministry of Youth,

UN agencies and other stakeholders for consideration.

Peace journal

writing process

(life skills for peace)

ECaP

Activities

Network building,

mobilisation &

organising

International day

of peace activities

(awareness raising &

advocacy)

• Nairobi Regional ECaP Learning Forum (August 2011): Forum Launching Youth for Peace (FLY4Peace)

was organised to scale up ECaP programming across World Vision East Africa national offices and their

contribution to child well-being aspirations and outcomes. The Learning Forum also aimed to test the ECaP

guidelines and the proposed methodologies/approaches with children, youth and adults from other contexts

and to promote use of these approaches as a good practice. Four participants from Rwanda (three young

people and one staff member) joined others from four national offices (Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan and

Uganda) to learn and share experiences. A regional ECaP network was launched, with children determining its

focus, structure, membership and leadership. Children from the East Africa Region meet every August. The

network was deemed a necessary structure through which other children would be mobilised to promote

ECaP good practices and approaches. A regional news bulletin was also initiated - Leaflets of Peace - to enable

network members to share information, experiences and to keep connected.. In addition, advocacy tools/

resources (Children’s Peace Declaration and slogan in form of a poster) were developed by children and are

currently being used in ECaP initiatives at national office level. The ECaP capacity of a total of 18 children and

15 supporting adults was enhanced.

Target areas and groups

The ECaP activities were implemented in three WV Rwanda ADPs – Kinihira, Nyamagabe and Rugarama – which

served as HoLs. One ADP was selected from each of the three WV Rwanda regions of operation. These ADPs

provided testing ground for the ECaP Guidelines and activities. The activities targeted children and youth of the

age range 12–18, although a few youth over 18 but under 20 years old were also included. Children and youth

were drawn from communities striving to recover from the consequences of the 1994 Rwanda genocide. Adults

selected to participate in the activities were identified from strategic partners. These were individuals trusted by

their communities and who, in one way or the other, provided support to participating children and youth. These

included World Vision staff, strategic partners and community members from the participating ADPs.

In November 2011, ECaP activities were extended to all World Vision Rwanda ADPs. This expansion started with

the peace journal writing process.

Main ECaP processes and activities undertaken

Development and field testing of ECaP guidelines: The Peacebuilding Learning Centre led the process of

developing and field testing the ECaP Guidelines. The process actively involved children and youth from Rwanda

and other national offices, including Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, South Africa and South Sudan. In addition, relevant

communities of practice (CoP) and entities across the World Vision partnership were involved in the development

process. The following activities were implemented based on the ECaP guidelines.

• International Youth Leadership Forum hosted by WV Rwanda (August 2011): The forum targeted

over 70 children and youth from Canada, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Tanzania and largely

focused on unity, peacebuilding and reconciliation and how these relate to the broad theme of ‘cared for,

protected and participating.’ This forum built on an earlier programme supported by World Vision Canada

whose outputs, among others, included enhancing dialogue and learning on international development among

youth through cross-cultural exchange and leadership training as a means to having more youth actively involved

in global citizenship in Africa and Canada. It was another opportunity where some of the ECaP content and

methods were experimented with, targeting children and youth from other contexts.

• International Day of Peace (IDP) Celebrations (September 2011): Children from Kinihira, Nyamagabe

and Rugarama ADPs came together to commemorate the IDP under the global theme ‘Make Your Voice Heard!’

The activities were hosted by Nyamagabe ADP in collaboration with the local government and the wider

community. With about 1,500 children, youth and adults in attendance, the IDP presented an opportunity for

participating children to raise public awareness about the need for peace and raise attention of leaders to the

issues affecting them. The young people who participated in the Nairobi Regional ECaP Learning Forum had an

opportunity to share their experiences and learning with the rest of the participants. In addition, participating

children visited the Murambi Genocide Memorial to learn about the country’s horrific past and increase their

appreciation for peacebuilding efforts in Rwanda.

• Peace journal writing process (November and December 2011): The purpose of the peace journal

writing initiative is to provide an opportunity for children and youth peacebuilders to learn that their thoughts,

feelings and words can be transferred from their minds onto paper for others to read and use for conflict

transformation and social change while developing specific life skills for peace. The peace journal writing process

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


is expected to develop the following life skills for peace amongst participating children: free expression and

communication skills; interpersonal and social skills; cooperation and teamwork skills; critical thinking, analysis

and reflection skills; and creativity skills. The training and orientation on peace journal writing included 186

children and 51 supporting adults selected from all World Vision Rwanda ADPs, after which children – with the

support of adults – engaged in the writing process for two months. This involved meeting in groups to share

and reflect on their experiences. Of the 186 children trained, 118 were able to submit their journals for analysis,

and a synthesis report has been compiled. As a follow up, 45 children from Kinihira, Nyamagabe and Rugarama

ADPs participated in reflection sessions with a focus on the peace journal writing process. The process is still

ongoing. Other activities scheduled to build onto these include sharing the synthesis report with participating

children and adults and integrating the learnings into ECaP programming. The thoughts and reflections of

participating children and youth will feed into the on-going promising practice and learnings documentation

process aimed at improving ECaP programming.

• Uganda Regional ECaP Capacity Enhancement Forum (November 2011): A capacity enhancement

learning forum, building on the Nairobi forum, was conducted for World Vision staff from the East Africa Region.

This particular forum contributed to enhanced capacity of a core group of 30 staff from Burundi, Ethiopia,

Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda in ECaP. Staff were introduced and trained in application of

the newly developed ECaP guidelines. A core group of ECaP practitioners with relevant knowledge, skills and

attitudes to facilitate the scale-up process was also formed. Three staff from World Vision Rwanda were part

of this learning forum and, together with others, they drew action plans to roll out the training to reach more

staff in their respective national offices.

• Children’s assessment of ECaP activities, using an adapted version of the Youth Assessment of Asset-Building

Programs Tool by Search Institute. The tool assesses the contribution of ECaP activities in the following seven

areas: adult support, empowerment, boundaries and expectations, commitment to learning, positive values,

social competences, and positive identity. Assessment using this tool was done by 45 children (19 from Kinihira,

13 from Nyamagabe and 13 from Rugarama) in July 2012. Children were given a tool with a set of statements

and they were expected to reflect on the ECaP activities they have been involved in and state whether they

strongly agreed (SA), agreed (A), disagreed (D) or strongly disagreed (SD). The statements children reflected

on and the results are presented in Appendix 1 and discussed in the next section. The information provided in

Table 1 gives more details about the 45 children who participated in the group reflections on the peace journal

writing process and children’s assessment of ECaP activities using the adapted Search Institute tool.

Table 1: Details of children who participated

Age groups

Below 10 11–13 14–16 17–18 19–20

0% 26.7% 48.9% 20.0% 4.4%

Sex

Membership in peace clubs

Boys Girls Yes No

46.7% 53.3% 77.8% 22.2%

In school or not in school

3.0 Documentation of Experiences and Learnings

Process and methodology

A process to capture experiences, good practices and learnings from the field-testing processes to inform and

strengthen current and future programming was built into this project right from the start. The processes and

methods (highlighted below) facilitated triangulation of data and data sources.

Primary school Secondary school Vocational training school Not in school

24.4% 75.6% 0% 0%

ECaP activities children participated in

Kigali ECaP learning event 12 (26.7%) International Day of Peace 19 (42.2%)

Nairobi ECaP learning forum 2 (4.4%) Peace journal writing process 29 (64.4%)

Gashora youth leadership forum 3 (6.7%) Others – peace activities by ADPs 24 (53.3%)

• Feedback from children and adults on ECaP activities usually solicited through activity evaluations. This was

done through group reflections or individual written reflections.

• On-going documentation of experiences and learnings from the three HoLs (ADPs). A tool was designed and

given to the ADPs to facilitate documentation. Children also contributed to this process by writing about their

experiences with ECaP.

• Focus group discussions (FGDs) with participating children and adults from the three ADPs. A total of 19

children and five adults participated in three FGDs. Each FGD targeted participants from one ADP – eight were

from Kinihira (three girls, three boys and two male adults), seven from Nyamagabe (two girls, three boys, one

female adult and one male adult) and nine from Rugarama (six girls, two boys and one male adult). All the three

FGDs were conducted in November 2011.

• Group reflections on the peace journal writing process with participating children from three ADPs. Five group

reflections were conducted in July 2012 involving a total of 45 children. Three group reflections were conducted

in Kinihira with 19 children, two in Nyamagabe with 13 children and two in Rugarama with 13 children.

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Thomas H. Berkas and Kathryn L. Hong, First Steps in Evaluation: Basic Tools for Asset-Building Initiatives (2000), Search Institute. Minneapolis.

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


3.1 Findings from the Documentation Process

Graph 1: Commitment to learning

Impact realised so far

Commitment to Learning

These activities have empowered children and young people to acquire new skills, knowledge, attitudes and

experiences, thus leading to personal growth and empowerment. Over the long term, this can benefit the entire

society and play an important role in conflict transformation, peacebuilding and positive social change.

Children have increased knowledge, understanding and appreciation of peace

Children appreciated that their participation in ECaP activities had increased their knowledge about peace, conflict

and other related themes. ‘We studied in different sessions about psychosocial support, conflict resolution in

families and fighting against violence. All of this we did not know before and we did not know how to share such

information with others. Today we have learnt about gender equality and how both male and female complement

each other in peacebuilding. We have also learnt about writing about what we have seen and about ourselves to be

able to help others where possible’, wrote a group of children.

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Learn more about

new things

Try harder in school

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Didn’t Answer

The use of different modes of learning and empowerment enabled them to understand better what they were

learning. One child put it this way, ‘What pleased me most were the techniques they used to make sure that

everyone plays a role in the sessions. The groups, the games, the songs, the pictures were all used to equip children

to become peacebuilders.’ Other indications of increased knowledge and understanding are highlighted below.

`‘I also learnt the importance of peace in development and the effects

of missing peace which include the following: conflict, unemployment,

insecurity, orphans and refugees. This International Day of Peace

helped me to know the bad history of Rwanda because we visited the

Genocide Memorial of Murambi in Nyamagabe.’

- Extracted from a story reflecting on participation in the

International Day of Peace by Telesphore Bigirimana, age 15,

Kinihira ADP

‘Most important is that we all

worked towards the same goal. We

came together in groups, discussed

and came to the same level of

understanding.’

– Boy, FGD Kinihira ADP

With specific reference to the peace journal writing process, children acknowledged that they had learnt a lot about

the problems affecting their communities since they had to scan the environment. They learnt about different types

of conflict and how conflicts in their communities are solved. ‘We got a lot of knowledge regarding peace and how

conflicts can be resolved. Our ideas were broadened and we felt good that we are learning and growing in this area.

Our interest in the subject of peace and conflict has been increased. We value any topic on peace. We can now

project what is likely to happen in the future and how this could be solved. Unity and reconciliation are necessary

in our community’ (children from Nyamagabe).

But even when they greatly appreciated the increased knowledge and understanding, children in all the three

ADPs demanded more training and other forms of capacity building in different areas related to peace to broaden

learning. They also indicated the need for having a continuous learning process.

An overwhelming 96 per cent of the children strongly agreed that the ECaP activities motivated them to want

to learn more about new things. There were 4 per cent who agreed to the statement. Children acknowledged

they had learnt a lot – gaining knowledge and skills for today but also for use in future. For instance, children

from Kinihira mentioned that they were happy to have acquired skills they could use later in life as journalists,

researchers or investigators. They appreciated that they had basic skills if they wanted to join the media world

and that they knew the importance of presenting things without bias. Whereas 82 per cent strongly agreed that

peace activities had made them want to try harder in school, 16 per cent only agreed to the statement. Of the 45

children, 2 per cent did not respond either in agreement or disagreement with the statement.

Children have acquired positive values and attitudes

Children reported that participation in ECaP activities had transformed their values and attitudes, in addition to

helping them change their own behaviour. Some indicated that they are now more conscious about what goes on

around them, have a more caring attitude towards others, have respect for self and others and are more tolerant.

Presented below are some voices of children on this.

‘Whenever we contributed ideas, we didn’t

criticise each other. We received each

other’s ideas with respect. I could see that

God had given us peace.’

– Boy, FGD Kinihira ADP

‘After I learnt how to solve problems at Gashora [during the

International Youth Leadership Forum], I have helped my family

very much. In my family we would keep quiet whenever there

was an issue. After Gashora, I encouraged everybody to share

and talk about the problems affecting us.’

– Girl, FGD Rugarama ADP

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From a story by children belonging to Peace Makers Group reflecting on participation in the Kigali ECaP Learning Event, April 2011.

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From a story by a child belonging to Abakunda Amahoro Group reflecting on participation in the Kigali ECaP Learning Event, April 2011.

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World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Furthermore, children indicated that ECaP activities had enabled them to spend time in more constructive and

worthwhile activities. For instance, children from Nyamagabe and Rugarama pointed out that they were not idle

during school holidays. They had activities to occupy them instead of going to watch videos or engage with bad groups.

In Graph 2, we present the perspectives of the 45 children who assessed the extent to which ECaP activities promoted

positive values. Children assessed this area by individually reflecting on the following statements:

• Since I got involved in these peace activities respecting other people’s feelings has become more important to me.

• Since I got involved in these peace activities caring about others has become more important to me.

• Since I got involved in these peace activities being responsible for what I do has become more important to me.

Graph 2: Positive Values

‘Before participating in these activities,

I would find some children fighting and I

would assist. Now I ask them what the

problem is. Then I try to reconcile them.’

– Girl, FGD Kinihira ADP

‘I have managed to resolve conflicts between my school mates.

When they are quarreling about something, I teach them tolerance

and peace. I realised that what I was doing was important. I also

managed to talk to a family where there was misunderstanding

between a wife and husband. Whenever the husband came home

drunk, he abused and insulted his wife saying, “You have nothing

in this house.” They often quarreled over property…’ Asked how

she managed to start off the discussion, she explained. ‘I had put

on a T-shirt with a message of peace. This gave me a starting point.

They asked me what the message was about and we started the

discussion. Later I explained to them that property in a family is

shared.

Positive Values

– Girl, FGD, Rugarama ADP

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

The views of 45 children on the extent to which ECaP activities promoted social competencies are presented in

Graph 3. These children considered the following statements:

• These peace activities have helped me make better decisions.

• These peace activities have helped me get along with others.

• These peace activities have helped me make and keep friends.

Graph 3: Social Competencies

Respecting others

Caring about

others

Being responsible

Social Competences

As indicated above, 76 per cent of the 45 children strongly agreed that their involvement in ECaP activities had

enabled them to develop a deeper sense of respect for other people’s feelings, while 22 per cent agreed to be

experiencing this transformation in their lives. However, a minority of 2 per cent strongly disagreed. The reasons

for this were not clear. Regarding whether caring for others has become more important to the children as a

result of participating in ECaP activities, 67 per cent strongly agreed and 33 per cent of the children agreed to have

developed a similar asset. Responsibility is another positive value children have gained through these processes.

While 84 per cent of the children strongly agreed that being responsible for what they do had become more

important to them, 16 per cent of the 45 children only agreed with the statement.

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Children have increased social competencies

Make better

decisions

Get along

with others

Make and

keep friends

One of the things children said they appreciated about ECaP activities was being able to make new friends, including

building relationships beyond their communities and schools. They said this was made possible by the activities that

exposed them to new environments and enabled them to interact with children from other parts of the country

and beyond. As indicated earlier, children valued the knowledge and skills gained during participation in various

activities. As indicated below, they are now using the knowledge and skills to help others to resolve conflicts nonviolently

and to resist negative peer pressure and dangerous situations such as engaging in fights.

16

17

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


From this analysis, ECaP activities have provided children with a platform to boost their social competencies. While 85

per cent of the children strongly agreed that participation in ECaP activities has helped them make better decisions,

13 per cent agreed to the statement. Only 2 per cent of the children disagreed. Regarding whether ECaP activities

had helped children get along with others, 87 per cent strongly agreed while 13 per cent agreed. Similarly, 85 per

cent of the 45 children strongly agreed that their participation in ECaP activities had helped them make and keep

friends. While 13 per cent also agreed, 2 per cent strongly disagreed. This could be explained by what the children in

Nyamagabe said during the peace journal writing reflection sessions. ‘The activities have been a good opportunity to

meet other youth, to know each other and make friends. We talked and worked together.’ However, they had this

to say on what they thought should be done differently. ‘We should be given more and continuous opportunities to

meet in small groups. Groups and connections formed should be enhanced. Groups should be maintained so that we

continue to work together.’

Children have increased confidence, capacity to express their views and positive identity

Because of the child-friendly facilitation methodologies and techniques used, children reported high self-esteem and

boosted confidence. Most activities required children to actively participate by taking on different roles, sharing their

own experiences and contributing to discussions based on what they know. Their contributions were acknowledged.

A comment from the Kinihira event is an example of what children said: ‘Some people are shy to express themselves

through speaking but through journal writing they expressed themselves and will be able to reach a wider audience.’

Working in small teams and groups to accomplish specific tasks as well as using games, role plays, songs and teaching

aids such as pictures gave each participant an opportunity to contribute – making each child feel important and valued.

‘Journal writing enabled us to believe in ourselves. We now know that we have the ability and potential,’ reported

children from Nyamagabe. The testimonies below show increased self-esteem and confidence.

‘The teaching methodology was another factor that contributed to the

success of this event. Group discussions created an environment that

allowed interactions among people from different ADPs. Presentations

also raised confidence amongst different representatives of groups.’

– Maniriho Ildephonse, accompanying adult and teacher, Kinihira ADP

‘These ECaP activities have empowered me. I was shy. I couldn’t even stand in class to read or say something. Even when

called upon I would say no. Now I am happy to contribute and participate.’

– Girl, FGD Kinihira ADP

‘I was uncomfortable standing

before people. Participating in ECaP

activities has helped me a lot. I now

have no fear speaking in public.’

Girl, FGD Rugarama ADP

Furthermore, children acknowledged that they had learnt how to creatively teach, communicate and express

themselves about peace and other topics using their talents.

Graph 4: Positive Identity

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Have a lot to

be proud of

Positive Identity

Can do things

I did not think

I could do

Feel successful

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Didn’t Answer

Reflecting on the statement ‘These peace activities have helped me realise I have a lot to be proud of,’ 87 per cent

of the 45 children strongly agreed, while 13 per cent agreed to it. Whereas 80 per cent strongly agreed that ECaP

activities have helped them learn they can do things they did not think they could do, 20 per cent agreed. Lastly,

on whether ECaP activities have helped children feel successful in the activities they have been a part of, 64 per

cent strongly agreed, 25 per cent agreed, and 7 per cent disagreed with the statement. This could be attributed

to the complaint by children that adults and their peers pay limited or no attention to what they say or even do.

They requested that advocacy be done on their behalf to get people interested in what they are doing or saying.

‘Sometimes when we go to do peace work, we are not given attention by adults. Adults do not take us seriously.

We need adults to support us in this so that what we say and do can be valued by adults,’ said children from

Kinihira. There were 4 per cent who did not provide a response as to whether they agreed or disagreed with the

statement.

Children have become empowered and motivated to mobilise their peers for peace

Many children attested that participation in ECaP activities had empowered them and motivated them to voice

their opinions and promote peace amongst their peers, family members and community. Many pledged to become

agents of peace after participating in activities. ‘Today we have decided to be peace makers in our families and to

be agents of peace always either at home or in our communities and we will do this through our character, dances,

role plays and other things.’ For some, this has been put into action. As indicated below, they have taken their own

initiative to mobilise other children and involve them in peace-related activities.

In addition to the above, children assessed the extent to which ECaP activities promoted positive identity by agreeing

or disagreeing to the following statements:

• These peace activities have helped me realise I have a lot to be proud of.

• These peace activities have helped me learn I can do things I did not think I could do.

• These peace activities have helped me feel successful in the activities I have been a part of.

Their responses are presented in Graph 4.

18

8

From a story by children (Peace Makers Group) reflecting on participation in the Kigali ECaP Learning Event, April 2011.

19

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


‘After the April training, we started a club at school [Matunguru

Primary School]. It now has 31 members. We have been able to

compose poems, music and traditional songs with a message of

peace and participated in a competition with other schools.’

– Boy, FGD Rugarama ADP

‘I have worked with others to start

Inyange Peace Club at village level in

Gashenyi I in Rugarama.’

– Girl, FGD Rugarama ADP

By and large, the following reflection from Kinihira further explains how ECaP activities, with specific reference to

the journal writing process, contributed to empowering participating children. ‘We felt that we have a role to play in

promoting peace and fighting conflict. We felt we were playing an active role. We were given a platform to give our

ideas on peace on a large scale, not only in Kinihira but other people can read what we wrote. This can help change

people’s mindset for peace and this can transform our communities. We will be able to contribute to promoting

peace in other places where we cannot reach physically. The reports that will be written with information from our

journals will be the vehicle to achieve this. We felt our right to a voice to give ideas was respected and promoted.

Before that we did not think we would write something and be taken seriously.’ Supporting this, children from

Nyamagabe noted, ‘We had a lot of zeal knowing that what we are writing will reach more people.’

To further explore how participating children felt empowered by ECaP activities, they reflected on the following and

the responses are captured in Graph 5.

• In these peace activities, I am given a chance to help others.

• I get to help plan, choose, or lead the activities.

• The adults who work with us in these peace activities make me feel important.

Graph 5: Empowerment

Empowerment

Children have been increasingly accepted and supported as actors for peace

The adults and children alike who participated in ECaP activities acknowledged that adult community members,

including leaders, are increasingly valuing children and youth as an important resource, with ability to contribute

ideas for the betterment of society. This, they said, was a result of improved positioning of children in their

communities after community members learnt of what children were engaged in. Adults (World Vision staff and

strategic partners) who have been participating in ECaP activities have also experienced a change in attitude. They

attributed this to activities that gave them an opportunity to witness, first hand, what children are capable of doing;

and as a result, they appreciate and acknowledge the capacity that children have. The following statements are a

sample of what both children and adults said in relation to this.

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Help others

Plan, choose

& lead others

Feel important

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Didn’t Answer

Young people’s empowerment can be looked at by considering whether young people perceive that the community

values youth, whether youth are given useful roles in the community as well as whether youth provide service to

others. In this regard, ECaP activities provided children an opportunity to help others. Of the 45 children participating,

89 per cent strongly agreed that the peace activities provided them with such an opportunity. The remaining 11 per

cent agreed this was the case. That said, however, only 38 per cent strongly agreed that they got involved in planning,

choosing or leading these peace activities. Most children (44 per cent) agreed that they were involved in planning,

choosing or leading the activities. However, 18 per cent disagreed they were ever involved in planning, choosing

or leading any activity. There were 2 per cent who did not provide a response to this statement. Considering the

statement ‘The adults who work with us in these peace activities make me feel important’, 82 per cent strongly agreed

that they were valued and treated as a useful resource during peace activities. The remaining 18 per cent agreed that

this was the case.

‘The village leaders now invite me to

meetings and I contribute. This is after

people in my village heard that I had

attended ECaP training.’

– Boy, FGD Kinihira

‘As a parent, participation in these activities has helped me to

give children an opportunity to share their opinions. Even in local

government, I try my best to give an opportunity to young people

to share. I now have more knowledge that kids have impact on

peace.’

– Male accompanying adult and youth representative in Gasaka

Sector, FGD Nyamagabe ADP

‘We have seen that young people have great ideas about how peace can be upheld. Giving them an opportunity to

express themselves is a good thing. For instance, during the International Day of Peace celebrations, kids, through

drama, were able to raise some key issues, such as parents giving them bad names relating to poverty, sadness and so

on. Children advised against such names and made their preference of names that connote blessings, hope and other

good things known. We now realise that children have a lot to contribute to resolving conflicts in their communities

and do well in teaching peace to fellow children.’

World Vision Staff, FGD Nyamagabe ADP

This has translated into better adult support. Information in Graph 6 tells us the extent to which children who

participated in ECaP activities felt supported by the adults who work with them by assessing the following three

statements:

• The adults who work with us in these peace activities really care about me.

• The adults who work with us in these peace activities listen to what I say.

• The adults who work with us in these peace activities make me feel like I belong.

20

9

Berkas and Hong, (2000).

8

From a story by children (Peace Makers Group) reflecting on participation in the Kigali ECaP Learning Event, April 2011.

21

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Graph 6: Adult Support

Overarching learnings

Adult Support

A number of learnings from these processes are useful for future ECaP programming in World Vision Rwanda and

elsewhere. These include the following:

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Adults care

about me

Adults listen to

what I say

Adults make me

feel I belong

Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

• A variety of appropriate modes of learning and empowerment, if used together, increase the

opportunity to enhance a wide range of peace skills, values and attitudes – while keeping the

interest among children high – and lead to achieving better results.

• Impact is greater where the same children are consistently targeted to participate in ECaP

activities. There was noticeable difference in impact between those ADPs that targeted the same children to

participate in all ECaP activities and those that targeted different sets of children for the different activities.

• Adults were often surprised about what children can do. Although it is becoming increasingly

understood that children and young people have a much greater capacity to participate than generally

believed, there are many adults who still think that children do not have much to offer. ECaP initiatives should

therefore increase opportunities for adults to interact with children in an environment conducive to children’s

participation.

22

A supportive adult environment was deemed a vital external asset in enabling children to meaningfully participate and

develop knowledge and skills as well as positive values and social competencies for peace. Children received support

from World Vision staff and other supporting adults who were identified from their communities and schools. Of

the 45 children who participated in this assessment, 53 per cent strongly agreed that adults really cared about them.

Another 44 per cent agreed this to be the case. However, 2 per cent of the children strongly disagreed with the

assertion that adults really cared about them. On whether children felt that adults listen to them, 58 per cent of the

children strongly agreed that the adults listened to what they say; 33 per cent agreed that this was the case. Despite

those who agreed, 7 per cent of the children disagreed that adults listened to what they had to say, while another 2

per cent strongly disagreed. All the children, however, felt that the adults who worked with them provided them with

a greater sense of belonging – 78 per cent strongly agreed, while another 22 per cent agreed. Of all the seven areas

that were assessed, adult support seems to be an area of growth that still needs great attention.

For instance, children from Nyamagabe had this to say during group reflections on the peace journal writing process:

‘We had people to help, support and advise us. These were World Vision staff, our parents and others. The way our

parents received the idea was good. They liked the idea that youth were involved in this process. We felt supported

by the community. However, not all parents gave us all the support we needed. Some, including other community

members, did not quite understand what we were doing and thought we were wasting time. It is important that

sensitisation be done in our communities to increase understanding and support for the activities.’

• Processes, activities and structures that promote the acceptance and legitimacy of children

as peace builders in communities are necessary where community and peer acceptance is

still a challenge. Although some children felt comfortable taking the peace message to their schools and

communities, others expressed concern that they are dismissed, taken to be young with nothing much to tell

those older than them. Children recommended that the ADPs should organise peace activities in schools and

communities where they are given an opportunity to speak or lead peace activities in the presence of ADP

staff. ‘I think our colleagues can then respect us,’ said a child from Kinihira ADP. Information sharing and

consultations with parents and influential community members should also be done. If children’s families and

communities are fully aware of planned activities and see them as important and not intended to disrupt social

structures, then they will be more willing to support, participate and fully embrace children’s peacebuilding

efforts and their intended objectives. Additionally, endorsement of children’s peacebuilding activities by the

community enhances respect for and self-esteem of young people.

• More needs to be done to ensure that children receive support that takes them to another

level where they meaningfully participate in planning, choosing and leading ECaP activities

– although there was an indication that children are receiving relatively good support from the adults who

work with them. In addition, a conducive environment for children and youth to participate meaningfully in

peacebuilding are a must, including ensuring that appropriate structures and policies are put in place.

• It is worthwhile investing in pre-activity preparations to minimise risks or vulnerabilities and

ensure children’s protection and safety.

- Early notification, mobilisation and preparation of children to participate in ECaP activities are critical for

their effective participation. ‘We should be invited in good time. What if I do not have washed clothes?

Would I come?’ one of the girls asked as a way of explaining her concerns.

- Assessment of venue and location where ECaP activities are planned to take place is an important part of

pre-activity processes to ensure a safe and secure environment. Consideration should be given to specific

vulnerabilities and risks that children may face and mitigation measures put in place.

- Managing community and participants’ expectations is better achieved if integrated in pre-activity processes.

Participants, their family and community members should be sensitised about the goals and objectives

of ECaP initiatives in order for them to appreciate their contribution to more peaceful communities

and to children’s personal growth, rather than to expect monetary or material rewards in exchange for

23

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


participation. Explaining this challenge, one of the boys had this to say. ‘Other people think that we get

money by coming for these activities. They start demanding for it. We tell them that we just go to learn.

They think we don’t want to share with them.’

References

4.0 General Recommendations

These recommendations are informed by the experiences and lessons learnt from ECaP activities and processes.

They also take into consideration recommendations made by children on how ECaP processes could be improved

for better results.

1. Promote inclusive club structures (peace clubs and/or associations) as a means of organising and mobilising

children for a shared mission of promoting peace. Clubs and associations should recruit children from different

identity groups and across conflict lines. Clubs and associations are important structures through which a more

systematic approach to enhancing children’s peace knowledge, skills, attitudes and values can be undertaken.

Children organised in clubs and associations can easily gain recognition as well as support. Existing clubs and

associations should be supported and not undermined, and children should be facilitated to initiate clubs and

associations where they do not exist. Clubs and associations linked to schools or other institutions such as

churches and other religious institutions may be more sustainable.

Thomas H. Berkas and Kathryn L. Hong, 2000, First Steps in Evaluation: Basic Tools for Asset-Building Initiatives.

Minneapolis: Search Institute.

Ed Gillis, 2005, Children as Peacebuilders: Transforming Conflict by Restoring the Potential of Youth,

http://www.cda-cdai.ca/cdai/uploads/cdai/2009/04/gillis01.pdf, accessed November 2011.

2. Reinforce adherence to World Vision’s child protection and participation policies, protocols and standards

throughout the life cycle of ECaP initiatives.

3. Create more linkages, collaborations and networking, both horizontally and vertically. While horizontal linkages

can help strengthen the voices of children and other young people by drawing from broad participation, vertical

linkages are necessary to bridge voices of children from the local level to the national level.

Valarie Vat Kamatsiko, 2011, Guidelines for Empowering Children and Youth as Peacebuilders. World Vision East

Africa Peacebuilding Learning Centre.

4. Continually enhance the capacity of supporting adults to effectively work with children and youth as well

as influence adults (parents, caregivers, teachers, government officials and leaders, etc.) to increase their

appreciation and support for children’s peace activities.

World Vision International, 2010, ‘Peacebuilding and Reconciliation: Empowering Children as Peacebuilders’.

A World Vision Project Model, draft version for field testing.

24

25

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Appendix 1

Children’s Assessment of asset-building by ECaP activities

A Tree Bent Young

Assessed Area

Support: To what extent do youth feel support by the adults who work

in our youth programs?

The adults who work with us in these peace activities really care about me

The adults who work with us in these peace activities listen to what I say

The adults who work with us in these peace activities make me feel like I

belong

Empowerment: To what extent do youth feel empowered by our youth

programs?

In these peace activities, I am given a chance to help others

I get to help plan, choose, or lead the activities

The adults who work with us in these peace activities make me feel

important

Boundaries and Expectations: To what extent do our youth programs

have reasonably high expectations of the youth involved?

The adults who work with us in these peace activities challenge me to do my

best

Being involved in these peace activities has taught me rules about what is

okay to do and what isn’t

SA

24

(53%)

26

(58%)

35

(78%)

40

(89%)

17

(38%)

37

(82%)

34

(76%)

39

(87%)

A

20

(45%)

15

(33%)

10

22%)

5

(11%)

19

(42%)

8

(18%)

8

(18%)

6

(13%)

D

0

(0%)

3

(7%)

0

(0%)

0

8

(18%)

0

(0%)

3

(6%)

0

(0%)

SD

1

(2%)

1

(2%)

0

(0%)

0

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

O

-

-

-

-

1

(2%)

-

-

-

Experiences and promising practices from

Empowering Children as Peacebuilders (ECaP)

Hubs of Learning

Commitment to Learning: To what extent do our youth programs

encourage increased commitment to learning?

Being involved in these peace activities makes me want to learn more about

new things

Being involved in these peace activities has made me want to try harder in school

Positive Values: To what extent do our youth programs promote positive

values?

Since I got involved in these peace activities respecting other people’s feelings has

become more important to me.

Since I got involved in these peace activities caring about others has become

more important to me.

Since I got involved in these peace activities being responsible for what I do has

become more important to me.

Social Competencies: To what extent do our youth programmes promote

social competencies?

These peace activities have helped me make better decisions.

These peace activities have helped me get along with others.

These peace activities have helped me make and keep friends.

Positive Identity: To what extent do our youth programmes promote

positive identity?

These peace activities have helped me realise I have a lot to be proud of.

These peace activities have helped me learn I can do things I did not think I could

do.

These peace activities have helped me feel successful in the activities I have been

a part of

43

(96%)

37

(82%)

34

(76%)

30

(67%)

38

(84%)

38

(85%)

39

(87%)

38

(85%)

39

(87%)

36

(80%)

29

(64%)

2

(4%)

7

(16%)

10

(22%)

15

(33%)

7

(16%)

6

(13%)

6

(13%)

6

(13%)

6

(13%)

9

(20%)

11

(25%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

1

(2%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

3

(7%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

1

(2%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

1

(2%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

0

(0%)

-

1

(2%)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

(4%)

KEY

26

SA A D SD O

Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Disagree Did not respond

27

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012

World Vision East Africa, Regional Peacebuilding Learning Centre Report, August 2012


Notes:

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Contact

World Vision East Africa Regional Office

Karen Road, off Ngong Road

P. O. Box 133 - 00502

Karen, Nairobi, Kenya

Tel: +254-20-883

World Vision - Rwanda

P. O. Box 1419

Kacyiru Sud

Tel: +250-511772, 585329

www.wvi.org

‘Our vision for every child, life in all its fullness;

Our prayer for every heart, the will to make it so’

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