Fission Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

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Fission Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

Fission Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

Walter F. Henning

(RIKEN, ANL, TU Munich)

3/21‐22/2013

10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

1


Fission Properties of Neutron-Rich Nuclei

Motivation

Predictions from recent theory

Experimental fission barriers

Proposed approach to n-rich isotopes

Summary and outlook

3/21‐22/2013 10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan 2


120

110

100

90

80

SHE: the limits

of heavy nuclei

-3

-2

U

-4 Th

Pb Bi -14

-4

Cold fusion

-6

-5

Neutron capture

-2

-5

Hot fusion -4

-3

-7

-6

Act.+ 48 Ca

120 130 140 150 160 170

180

190

U

Fission termination and recycling of the

r‐process

• r‐process production of 232 Th and 238 U

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Fission in the simple liquid-drop picture

Fissility ~ Z 2 /A

A = constant

N=126

B f

However:

P. Mӧller et al:

Pb Isotopes

N

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4


Predictions from recent theory

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Fisson Barrier [MeV]

16

12

8

4

190 200 210 220 230 240

Mass Number A

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Radium Isotopes

Microscopic features:

Cross sections for reflectionsymmetric

and –asymmetric

fission depend on relative

level densities at saddles as

well as barrier heights and

widths.

• Calculation of microscopic

level densities based on

single particle levels and

many-particle-many-hole

excitations

• Pairing individually for all

configurations within BCS

formalism.

Fission barrier (MeV)

10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

30

25

20

15

N=126

Lead Isotopes

10 N 110 115 120 125 130 135

A 192 197 202 207 212 217

6


3/21‐22/2013

10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

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120

110

100

90

80

SHE: the limits

of heavy nuclei

-3

-2

U

-4 Th

Pb Bi -14

-4

Cold fusion

-6

-5

Neutron capture

-2

-5

Hot fusion -4

-3

-7

-6

Act.+ 48 Ca

120 130 140 150 160 170

180

190

U

Theory of Nuclear Fission: Understanding

the structure and dynamics ofTHE prototypical

many-body process of the nucleus

Fission termination and recycling of

the r-process

• r-process yield for 232 Th and 238 U

3/21‐22/2013 10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan 8


Experimental determination(s)

of fission barriers

3/21‐22/2013 10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan 9


3/21‐22/2013

10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

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Earlier fission barrier studies at low energies

employing direct nucleon-transfer reactions

B.B. Back et al.; Nucl. Phys. A165 (1971) 449

E. Konecny et al.; Phys. Lett. B 45 (1073) 329

C O

(d,p)

Ϭ f /ϭ p

(d,pf)

Ϭ f /ϭ p

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

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Entry Distribution, Fission Barrier, and Formation Mechanism of 254 No

P. Reiter,1,2 T. L. Khoo,1 T. Lauritsen,1 C. J. Lister,1 D. Seweryniak,1 A. A. Sonzogni,1 I.

Ahmad,1 N. Amzal,3 P. Bhattacharyya,4 P. A. Butler,3 M. P. Carpenter,1 A. J. Chewter,3 J. A.

Cizewski,1,5 C. N. Davids,1 K.Y. Ding,5 N. Fotiades,5 J. P. Greene,1 P. T. Greenlees,3 A. Heinz,1

W. F. Henning,1 R.-D. Herzberg,3 R.V. F. Janssens,1G. D. Jones,3 H. Kankaanpää,7 F. G.

Kondev,1 W. Korten,6 M. Leino,7 S. Siem,1,8 J. Uusitalo,1 K. Vetter,9 and I. Wiedenhöver1

E * (MeV)

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

13


Fission probabilities as a function

of nuclear charge of the DI product

Contour plot of fission

probabilities as a function

of excitation energy

P fis

14


How can we experimentally determine

fission barriers of neutron-rich nuclei?

15


Earlier fission barrier studies at low energies

employing direct nucleon-transfer reactions

B.B. Back et al.; Nucl. Phys. A165 (1971) 449

E. Konecny et al.; Phys. Lett. B 45 (1073) 329

RIBs and

inverse kinematics

C O

(d,p)

Ϭ f /ϭ p

(d,pf)

Ϭ f /ϭ p

3/21‐22/2013

10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

16


(p,2p)

(p,2p)

4

He Zn

(p,2p)

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Production Cross-sections of Neutron-Rich Pb and Bi Isotopes

in the fragmentation of 238 U

H. Alvarez-Pol et al.; Eur. Phys. J. A 42 (2009) 485

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

19


Pb and Bi isotopes observed

in 238 U fragmentation

Fission barrier (MeV)

30

25

20

15

Pb

N=126

234

U 23 5 U

238

U

10

N 110 115 120 125 130 135

A 192 197 202 207 212 217

232

Th

232

Th

209

Bi

204 206 207 208

Pb Pb Pb Pb

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

20


Neutron rich regions with known production cross sections

from 238 U fragmentation

H. Alvarez-Pol et al.; Eur. Phys. J. A 42 (2009)485

J. Kurcewicz et al.; Phys. Lett. B 717

(2012) 371

Published production cross

sections for neutron-rich

isotopes in the fragmentation

of 238 U

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

21


Countrate estimates:

Fragmentation yield for 238 U beam and ϭ=100nb

10 pnA 238 U

250 mg/cm 2 Be target

100 nb fragment cross section (~ 198 Pt, 214 Pb, 217 Bi)

1 day beam on target

N=8.6 x 10 6 fragment events per day

Fission yield for (p,2p)

8.6 x 10 6 /day ( 214 Pb or 217 Bi)

1g/cm 2 H 2 target

100μb/MeV (p,2pf) cross section

1 day beam on target

N=5 x 10 2 events/day•MeV

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

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Approach at high energies with RIBs

in inverse kinematics: nucleon knockout

i.e., (p, 2p) or (p, pn) etc…

p

p

FDC2

SAMURAI

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10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan

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SAMURAI

Commissioning

May 2012

Commissioning

Set‐up

• All the detectors and

DAQ commissioned with

beam and calibrated

• HI‐neutron coincidences

– 17 C 16 C+n 15 B+n

– 15 C 14 C+n

– 14 Be 12 Be+2n

- RIKEN: K. Yoneda, N. Fukuda, N. Inabe, T. Isobe, T.

Kubo, K. Kusaka, T. Motobayashi, J. Ohnishi, H. Otsu,

H. Sato, Y. Shimizu, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi

- Tohoku U: T. Kobayashi, K. Takahashi, K.

Sekiguchi

-Tokyo Tech: T. Nakamura, N. Kobayashi, Y. Kondo,

R. Minakata, S. Nishi, S. Ogoshi, T. Sako, R. Tanaka

- Kyoto U: Y. Matsuda, T. Murakami

- Kyushu U: T. Teranishi

-France: F. Delaunay, J. Gibelin, M. Miguel

- Germany: T. Aumann, Y. Togano

- Korea: Y. Sato, J. Hwang, S. Kim


RRC

RILAC

RIBF Layout

ZeroDegree (ZDS) (2008)

SAMURAI

RIPS

(2011)

fRC

SRC (2007)

IRC

BigRIPS

(2007)

SHARAQ

(2009)


K.‐H. Schmidt et al

Nucl. Phys. A 665 (2000) 221

238

U

208

Pb

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Fission‐Fragment Mass Distribution

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H. Alvarez‐Pol et al

Phys. Rev C 82 (2010) 041602®

• Beam: 10 8 / sec 238 U

• 100pb sensitivity in 2 days

• Factor 5 reduction

per each additional neutron

3/21‐22/2013 10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan 28


120

110

100

90

80

SHE: the limits

of heavy nuclei

-3

-2

U

-4 Th

Pb Bi -14

-4

Cold fusion

-6

-5

Neutron capture

-2

-5

Hot fusion -4

-3

-7

-6

Act.+ 48 Ca

120 130 140 150 160 170

180

190

U

Theory of Nuclear Fission: Understanding

the structure and dynamics ofTHE prototypical

many-body process of the nucleus

Fission termination and recycling of

the r-process

• r-process yield for 232 Th and 238 U

3/21‐22/2013 10th ASRC Workshop, JAEA, Tokai, Japan 29

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