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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman 7.8 Evaluation of the various schemes A comparison and evaluation of the various schemes in relation to renewable energy is summarised in Table 7.1. It lists the general advantages and disadvantages of the various models. It also summarises the discussion of each measure in relation to application in Oman. Table 7.1 Overview of Renewable Energy subsidy measures Instrument PROs CONs Suitable for Oman? Environmental Taxes Creates even playing field for renewable energy Difficult to estimate objectively the optimum level of tax. Tax would increase supply costs and subsidy but not induce change in consumer consumption. Limited Applicability Tax Credits Creates incentives for investors May distort market prices Applicable Green Marketing Based on willingness to pay (WTP) and optional schemes Difficult to control and limited information on consumer WTP Probably very little impact in Oman. Limited Applicability Investment subsidies Increase incentives to establish and invest in renewable energy generation May result in overinvestment May create new subsidy flow in the system to investors. Applicable Feed in Tariffs Efficient in promoting RE if monitored carefully and changed in accordance with technological developments Investor risk if removed for political reasons Applicable Renewable Energy Quotas Effective way to promote renewable energy projects New tendering procedures required but simple to administer. Easily accommodated in OPWP and RAEC tendering systems. Tends to promote established technologies Applicable Page 116 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman 7.9 Model suitable for Oman In this section a proposed suitable financial mechanism for Oman is described. Secondly the required support of different forms of renewable energy (wind and solar) in terms of the cost is estimated. 7.9.1 Large Applications In Oman electricity usage is subsidised at the end-user level. Licensed suppliers receive subsidy from the Government corresponding to the difference between their actual costs and revenue generated from Permitted Tariffs. In other words the end-user tariffs do not reflect actual electricity production costs, but have been set at levels to achieve political objectives. Oman already uses a payment mechanism to disperse subsidies, which can be exploited in promoting renewable energy, if there is political support to a more sustainable development. Generation, transmission, supply and distribution are at least in MIS unbundled. Generation is already privatised and the production purchased from IPP's. New capacity is tendered directly by OPWP, when required. In MIS, a model for application of larger wind and solar system that are feeding the transmission grid could provide OPWP with the obligation to purchase certain amounts, or to establish certain capacities for demand of renewable energy. The purchase process should be the competitive international tendering of a wind farm or alternatively a renewable energy capacity/production of a certain size, where the bidders decide the technology and the OPWP select the tender with the lowest cost per unit. Not much different from the current process for purchase of new capacity. OPWP purchases the production at the full cost from the successful bidder on terms defined in a PPA. The additional cost of renewable energy will be passed on to licensed suppliers, who would receive subsidy corresponding to the difference between their Maximum Allowed Revenue and Permitted Tariff revenue. All elements in the current regulation can be maintained under this framework, as shown in Figure 7.2, where renewable energy production facilities are added to the existing model. A similar model can be applied in Salalah, it will, however, require a revision of the concession agreement with DPC. When the concession agreement terminates, it is expected that the Salalah system will be regulated under the same model as MIS, and a similar model can be implemented. Page 117 of 134 .

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