RenewableEnergyResources in Oman 2.2 Conclusions 2.2.1 Renewable energy resources in Oman The study finds significant potential sources of renewable energy in the Sultanate of Oman. The findings for each type of renewable energy are as follows: Solar Energy: Wind Energy: Biogas: Geothermal Energy: The level of solar energy density in Oman is among the highest in the world. There is significant scope for developing solar energy resources throughout Oman and solar energy has the potential to provide sufficient electricity to meet all of Oman’s domestic electricity requirements and provide some electricity for export. High solar energy density is available in all regions of Oman: areas of highest density are dessert areas. Areas of lowest density are coastal areas in the southern part of Oman; The study has identified significant wind energy potential in coastal areas in the southern part of Oman and in the mountains north of Salalah. Wind speeds in these areas are comparable to recorded wind speeds at inland sites in Europe where large numbers of wind turbines are installed and operational. Wind speeds are observed to be highest in summer months which coincide with peak periods of electricity demand in Oman; Material from waste water and agricultural waste is available in northern parts of Oman. In the south, biogas material is available from waste water, agricultural waste and animal dung. However, a large amount of waste material is presently used as fertiliser. Animal waste is spread over large areas making collection of sufficient quantities of animal waste difficult and expensive. For these reasons the study finds only limited potential for biogas electricity production; The study reviewed borehole temperature data and found temperatures to be below that required to allow the direct use of water for steam plants. On the basis of the data reviewed, the study finds the potential for utilising geothermal energy for electricity production to be limited; Wave Energy: Is available along the Arabian Sea coast but the energy density is relatively low compared to other locations world wide. The potential use of wave energy is considered marginal compared to solar and wind energy resources. Page 14 of 133 .
RenewableEnergyResources in Oman 2.2.2 Renewable energy technologies relevant forOman Solar energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems Two main types of solar cells are used to make solar modules. The first generation are silicon wafer-based with silicone cells which has been dominating the market. The price of this type of cell has reduced considerably over the years. The advantages of the crystalline solar cells are that they are efficient, reliable with long lifetime and a long record of proven durability. Therefore, they are often the preferred solutionfor solar based electricity productionon buildings. Thin film solar panels are less efficient and have a shorter lifetime. Thin film is increasingly used in small applications. It is generally expected that in the long term thin film technology with multi layer cells will be widely used and attain efficiencies beyond 25%. The major advantage of thin film is that they use less material and are therefore potentially less expensive than conventional PV technology. The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a well proven technology for producing electricity. PV systems are either grid connected (with electricity fed directly into the grid system) or PV systems used in off-grid applications in small power systems in combination with diesel power gen-sets. Both types of solar PV system are relevant forOman. The solar PV technology is suitable for use in northern parts of Omanfor producing electricity for the Main Interconnected System. The solar PV technology is also suitable for electricity generation in off-grid power plants in rural desert areas where the solar energy can reduce diesel fuel use. Solar energy resources are highest in northern parts of Oman and in desert areas. The efficiency of PV cells is influenced by high air temperature and dust contamination. We estimate the environmental conditions in Oman would reduce the efficiency of PV cells by approximately 10 % compared to standard conditions (this does not affect our recommendations for the use of this technology in Oman). Solar energy, solar thermal plants Solar energy can also be used to sustain solar thermal plants in what are referred to as, Concentration Solar Power (CSP) systems. In CSP systems the solar insolation is concentrated and used to produce steam which is converted into electricity as in conventional power plant. CSP systems store heat recovered during the day for use at night thereby enabling continuous electricity production. CSP technology is expected to be fully developed within the next decade and may provide capacity ranging from a few MW up to several hundred MW. We believe CSP is very well suited to conditions in Oman. Wind energy, grid connected wind turbines Modern grid connected wind turbine technology has been developed over the last twenty years. The typical capacity of a modern grid connected wind turbine is in the range of one to five MW. Wind turbine designs can accommodate high wind or low wind conditions. Page 15 of 134 .