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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Wind turbines designed for low wind conditions are characterised by a large swept rotor area in relation to the capacity, and an increased hub height. Low wind turbines are suitable for wind conditions in Oman. Modern wind turbines are equipped with cooling systems enabling operation under extreme environmental conditions such as the high air temperatures which occur in Oman. Utilisation of the wind energy resources in the southern part of Oman should be further investigated. We recommend a detailed wind resource survey and further analysis of the potential connection of wind turbines to the Salalah Power System. Other renewable energy technologies The study finds only limited potential for producing electricity using other renewable energy resources such as geothermal energy, wave energy and biomass. Consequently, we are not recommending the implementation of large scale electricity production based on these energy resources at this time. 2.2.3 Technical potential of renewable energy Solar energy, photovoltaic systems The theoretical potential for electricity production in Oman using solar energy is significant. The technical potential for electricity generation by grid connected PV systems is determined by the area available for installation of PV cells (e.g. on buildings, parking areas etc). Assuming that 50% of the houses in Oman are suitable for installation of PV cells and the area available at each house is 20 m 2 the total potential area would provide space for an installed capacity in the order of 420 MW, and a potential annual electricity production of 750 GWh/year which corresponds to 5 % - 6 % of the present annual electricity demand (13,900 GWh in 2007). PV systems can also be located in the desert. Typical capacity per m 2 of land is about 30 Wp (Watt peak) corresponding to 30 MWp per km 2 . The technical potential for electricity generation by PV systems operating with diesel gen-sets and battery storage capacity in isolated off-grid power systems is assumed to be 20% of the present electricity generation. This corresponds to 70 GWh/year and a solar PV capacity of 40 MW. By using a fraction of 20% a major part of the generated electricity can be used directly and only a minor part has to be stored. The potential for utilising PV cells as power supply for small equipment and lighting is large. Presently the oil industry has PV cell capacity available for operation of small equipment in remote areas. Due to the small capacity of this type of power supply the contribution to the total electricity generation by solar power is relatively small, but should not be overlooked. The potential for producing electricity using PV systems is highest during the summer which coincides with the period of peak electricity demand in Oman. Page 16 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Solar energy, solar thermal plants From a long term perspective the theoretical potential for producing electricity using Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems in Oman is significant. CSP plants with storage for continuous supply of electricity as conventional power plants require 1 km 2 of land use for 10 MW capacity. Theoretically it would be possible to supply all of Oman's present electricity consumption of 13,900 GWh by utilising about 280 km 2 of desert area for solar collectors, corresponding to around 0.1 % of the Sultanate’s land area. Wind energy, grid connected wind turbines The use of wind turbine capacity in a grid system is generally limited by technical considerations. If wind turbines account for a high percentage of total generating capacity, fluctuations in the energy output of wind turbines may adversely affect power quality in terms of frequency and voltage fluctuations, unless special measures are implemented to regulate wind turbine output. The present technical potential for grid connected wind turbines in Oman is approximately up to 50 MW, corresponding to 20 % of the present installed capacity of the Salalah Power System (251 MW). In 2014 commissioning of the new Salalah IWPP will increase the amount of generating capacity connected to the Salalah Power System to 580 MW and the potential wind turbine capacity will increase to around 120 MW. The interconnection of the Main Interconnected System and the Salalah Power System would further increase the potential for wind turbine capacity to at least 750 MW. This corresponds to an estimated net annual energy output of at least 2300 GWh/year. The potential for grid connected wind turbines would be even higher if the interconnected system had the capacity to transmit electricity to all load centres in Oman from the southern part of the country where wind energy resources appear to be abundant. Wind energy resources are highest during the summer period which coincides with the period of peak electricity demand. Wind energy, off-grid wind turbines The study finds the potential for off grid wind turbine applications to be limited. These types of applications may be relevant for electricity supply to consumers in rural areas where wind speeds are high e.g. along the coast in the southern part of Oman and where no grid connection is possible. Page 17 of 134 .

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