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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

6.2 Examples of

6.2 Examples of applications at various types of areas. The following table and the text below, show possible or recommended applications of solar technologies for city, rural locations and desert environment. Application Solar PV Solar thermal power Solar thermal City (larger cities connected to national grid) Rural off grid city (larger city with a number of diesel units for production of electricity). Grid connected PV owned by utility. Grid connected PV, private. Street light with battery. Not grid connected solar PV cooling. Solar PV desalination (reverse osmosis) with storage of water. Grid connected PV owned by utility. Grid connected PV, private. Street light with battery. Not grid connected solar PV cooling. Solar PV desalination (reverse osmosis) with storage of water. Not applicable Thermal driven desalination. Thermal driven desalination. For production of hot tap water to replace electricity. For thermal driven cooling processes (e.g. absorption and adsorption cooling cycles), to replace electricity. To produce low to medium temperatures for industrial purposes. For production of hot tap water to replace electricity. For thermal driven cooling processes (e.g. absorption and adsorption cooling cycles), to replace electricity. To produce low to medium temperatures for industrial purposes. Rural, small village Desert Solar home systems for single consumers. Central solar PV plant with mini grid and back up, typical diesel. (hybrid system). Can include wind energy. Pumping and irrigation. Large PV power plant without storage. Supply to national grid. Large PV power plant with large scale storage (battery or other). Supply to national grid. Mobile power supply with or without battery. Solar PV desalination (reverse osmosis) with storage of water. Water pumping and irrigation. Not applicable. Large scale solar thermal power plant with backup (gas) and possibly short term storage of heat. Supply to national grid. Thermal driven desalination. For production of hot tap water to replace electricity. For thermal driven cooling processes (e.g. absorption and adsorption cooling cycles), to replace electricity. To produce low to medium temperatures for industrial purposes.

Application 1. City A major application here is grid connected solar PV. This will feed into the grid in the same way as wind energy does. The PV can be located anywhere and be privately owned is the legal set up making this possible. The PV is connected to the grid via a converter and the surplus of electricity can be transferred to the grid. For this a tariff for selling and for buying is needed. In some countries the tariffs are the same for selling and buying in order to promote PV. As long as the peak power demand coincides with the solar insulation (mid day) the solar PV can represent a real capacity on the grid. One MW solar PV will replace one MW conventional power plant. An important aspect here is that the time for realising solar PV capacity is much shorter than for conventional power (perhaps 1 year instead of 10 years). In Oman there seems to be two peaks in the use of electricity, midnight and midday. If the midnight peak is the biggest the PV will not represent a capacity. A way to deal with this could be to do other things to reduce the midnight peak through other measures. PV street light with battery can be an option in parts of a city and will reduce the midnight peak. Solar PV desalination can operate when the sun is shining and the water stored. Solar thermal power is not applicable as an integrated part of the city. The solar thermal applications which include solar thermal energy for heating of water and for cooling are essential for the city. These are demand side applications where it is the consumers who do the investment. The advantage with these technologies is that they reduce the consumption of electricity and also the demand for capacity of power plants. Possible approaches to promote these technologies are regulations and encouragements. For example it could be made forbidden to use electricity for heating of water and a grant could be provided for solar cooling. Application 2. Rural off grid city It is here considered that there is a supply based on a number of smaller units (e.g. diesel) to supply the city but that it is not connected to the national grid. For this purpose the applications mentioned under "city" are all relevant. As the cost of electricity is higher the demand side applications will be more favourable and a higher percentage of solar will be feasible. Diesel engine can be made of more than one unit and a smaller battery bank can be included for improved fuel efficiency. Heat from diesel engines (cooling and exhaust gas) can be used for operation of heat driven cooling (adsorption or absorption machine). The cooling from this could be supplied to larger consumers (office, shops etc.) via district cooling.

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