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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Fig. A 6.2 Example of

Fig. A 6.2 Example of rural system for power supply of few houses Parabolic Dish with Stirling Electricity Heat / cool Large PV Battery Water Solar PV on Grid Solar Thermal Diesel Inverter Small consumers Inverter DIESEL ENGINE 90 / 400 C 70 / 120 C Desalinati on Solar PV on grid Solar Thermal Large consumers nearby 9 / 14 C 70-150 C Heat driven cooling 30 C Application 3. Rural, small village Electricity supply to single users in off grid locations (so-called stand alone systems) with small demand can be supplied with the so-called solar home systems. These systems typically include a battery bank and a converter to convert DC to AC. There is no back up. Small systems supply only DC electricity for lighting and small appliances, for example a radio or television. Fig. A 6.3 Example of single solar home system Central PV Electricity Heat / cool Water Solar PV on Grid Solar Thermal Inverter consumers Inverter Battery

Renewable electricity supply to off grid locations with higher demand (small villages) are often referred to as a hybrid system. There will be a mini grid, solar PV panels, diesel engine a central battery bank, a bi-directional DC-AC converter and sophisticated control. In Oman, the system could not be made without diesel backup due to the large difference between summer and winter consumption. As indicated below the system could include parabolic dish with Stirling engine. The heat from the diesel engine could be used for desalination or cooling. Fig. A 6.4 Example of system for rural village Large PV Parabolic Dish with Stirling Electricity Heat / cool Water Solar PV on Grid Solar Thermal Inverter Diesel consumers DIESEL ENGINE Inverter Battery Application 4. The desert The desert with its favourable solar conditions has a potential of developing into the major source of energy supply for a country like Oman. The resources available are enormous and might be a major export to Europe sometimes in the future, export of clean energy following depletion of the oil resources. With a high percentage of solar electricity (and wind electricity) there will be a surplus in the winter which could be exported to Europe where the consumption is highest in the winter. The technologies to apply are large scale solar PV and in the future the large scale solar thermal power. The advantage with the latter is that power can be supplied all the time, not only when the sun is shining. In order to do this either the supplementary fuel should be renewable (e.g. biomass) or the technology for storage of high temperature heat should be applied. Geothermal energy may be an option at places. Alternatively solar desalination plants would allow for production of biomass to supplement the solar thermal power plant at night. Calculations show that using only 1 % of the desert and semi desert areas of the world for such technologies could provide the present electricity consumption for the entire world. The future perspective in the diagram below, shows the power plant running on solar or on the heat storage (molten salt). Surplus electricity can be used for production of hydrogen for transport or directly used for charging batteries in electric cars during off peak periods. The heat is used for heat driven cooling in local area and for desalination to produce piped water.

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