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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Appendix 11 Examples of

Appendix 11 Examples of Tax Credit Schemes Examples of national tax incentives for renewable energy Austria Private investors get tax credits for investments in using renewable energies (personal income tax). The amount is generally limited to about 3,000 € per year. Belgium 13.5 – 14% of RES-investments deductible from company profits, regressive depreciation of investments. Reduced VAT on building refurbishing if energy efficiency is included (6% instead of 21%). Denmark The first 3,000 DKK of income from wind energy are tax free. France A deduction of 15% investment costs with a maximum of 3000 € per person and reduced VAT (5.5%) on renewable equipment (not applicable to installation costs) is available. Germany Losses of investments can be deducted from the taxable income. This fact increases return on investments into wind projects. Greece Up to 75% of RES-investments can be deducted. Ireland Corporate Tax Incentive: tax relief capped at 50% of all capital expenditure for certain RESinvestments. Portugal Up to 30% of any type of investments on RES can be deducted with a maximum of 700 € per year. A reduction in VAT (12%) on renewable equipment. Spain Corporation Tax: 10% (up to 20% in some autonomous regions) tax liability instead of 35% for investments in environment friendly fixed assets. The Netherlands EIA scheme: RES-investors (most renewable energy systems) are eligible to reduce their taxable profit with 55% of the invested sum. Lower interest rates from Green Funds: RES-investors (most renewable energy systems) can obtain lower interest rates (up to 1.5%) for their investments. Moreover, dividends gained are free of income tax for private investors.

Appendix 12 Details on 20 kW grid connected solar PV pilot project Analysis The analysis below has been made with the PC programme HOMER ( Version 2.19, refer to https://analysis.nrel.gov/homer/) with the following assumptions. • For the analysis of the performance the following has been used. • Cost of PV, 6800 USD per kW • Maintenance of PV, 0 % • Lifetime of PV, 25 years • Derating factor, 90 % (10% losses due to high temperature, dust etc.) • Cost of converter, 700 USD per kW • Converter efficiency, 90 % • Life time of converter, 15 years, reinvestment cost 500 USD per kW • Operation and maintenance cost of converter, 7 USD/year per kW • Scaled annual global insolation, 5.44 kWh/m2 • Calculation interest rate, 8 %. • Project life time, 25 years • Slope of panels, 25 degree. • Azimuth of PV, south facing. • Ground reflection, 20% The cost break down is shown in below table. The major cost is the annualised cost of PV. The annual production of electricity with this system is calculated to 33962 kWh, corresponding to 1698 kWh per installed kW peak power. Compone nt Initial Capital Annualized Capital Annualized Replacemen t Annual O&M Annual Fuel This lead to a unit cost of 14442 / 33.962 = 425 USD per MWh. The cost of PV is expected to drop significantly. The following graph show the influence of the cost on a reduction to 25 percent of today's cost. Fig. A 12.1 Cost of electricity from a 20 kW PV system as a function of a drop in cost of PV and components. Total Annualiz ed ($) ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/yr) ($/yr) PV Array 136,000 12,740 0 0 0 12,740 Converter 14,000 1,312 250 140 0 1,701 Totals 150,000 14,052 250 140 0 14,442

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    2. Mazoon Electricity Company Eng.

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