RenewableEnergyResources in Oman 4.1 Wind energy 4.1.1 Wind data The assessment of the wind energy resources is based on the wind data measured at twenty one stations in Oman under the responsibility of DGCAM. The wind data is measured at 10 m above ground level. The details of the stations including their locations are included in Appendix 3. Five stations with the highest wind speeds (in 2005) were identified based on the data from Ref /7/. For these stations the hourly wind speed data for 2006 was received from DGCAM. The annual mean wind speed in 2005 and in 2006 was almost identical. The wind conditions at 80 m above ground level were estimated which is equal is to the hub height of a modern large wind turbine, having a capacity in the order of 2-3 MW. The calculation is based on the hourly wind speed data for 2006 received from DGCAM. The high wind speeds are found along the coast from Masirah to Salalah. The highest wind speeds are in the Dhofar Mountain Chain north of Salalah. The low wind speed areas are in the north and western part of Oman. The measured annual mean wind speed at 10 m and the estimated annual mean wind speed at 80 m above ground level at each of the five selected met station is shown in Fig. 4.1. Details on the calculation of the monthly mean wind speed and the wind rose at each of the five selected stations are included in Appendix 3. Fig. 4.1 Annual mean wind speed at 10 m and at 80 m above ground level at five meteorological stations. 9.0 8.0 Annual mean wind speed, m/s 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 Qairoon Hariti Thumrait Masirah Joba Sur Location 10 m agl 80 m agl The highest wind energy speeds are observed during the summer period. The summer period is also the period with the highest electricity demand in Oman. The monthly wind speed variation at each of the five stations is included in Appendix 3. Page 54 of 134 .
RenewableEnergyResources in Oman The wind monitoring masts at Thumrait and Qairoon Hariti were inspected as part of the study in order to evaluate the measuring conditions. The measuring conditions have been evaluated as acceptable but due to some complexity of the terrain around the masts more detailed wind analysis are required in order to determine the wind energy resources more accurately. Photos of the meteorological stations at Thumrait and Qairoon Hariti and the surrounding landscape are included in Appendix 2. 4.1.2 Wind energy resources A rough estimate of the wind energy content at 80 m above ground level has been made at each of the five selected met stations based on the hourly mean wind speed data for 2006 received from DGCAM. The calculation sheet is enclosed in Appendix 7. The annual wind energy content at each met mast is indicated on Fig. 4.2. The energy is specified as kWh per year through a vertical area of one m 2 , kWh/year/m 2 . Fig. 4.2 Energy content in the wind at 80 m above ground level at five meteorological stations. 5000 4500 Energy content, kWh/m2/year 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Quiroon Hariti Thumrait Masirah Joba Sur Location 4.1.3 Potential capacity for grid connected wind turbines As a general rule based on experiences the maximum wind power capacity should not exceed approximately 15 % - 20 % of the existing conventional power capacity of the system in order to avoid disturbances in the power quality due to the fluctuating power generation by the wind turbines. In case of sufficient grid capacity a higher percentage of wind turbine capacity can be connected to the grid. In Oman the future power system will have a total capacity of 5000 MW (2015) and the power system in the north and in the south will be interconnected. The technical future potential for installation of wind turbine capacity in Oman will be at least 750 MW. Another technical limitationfor installation of wind power capacity is the availability of open land without obstacles for erection of the turbines. Page 55 of 134 .