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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Fig. 5.4 Wind turbine for mechanical water pumping Fig. 5.5 Stand alone wind turbine for electricity genera- Applications The electricity generating wind turbines can be either grid connected or non-grid connected. For the grid connected wind turbines the generated electricity is fed into the grid system. As a general rule wind turbine capacity up to approximately 15 % - 20 % of the conventional power capacity in a grid system can be connected to the grid without requirements of special measures in order to maintain stable grid conditions. Otherwise the fluctuating power generated by the wind turbines would have an impact on the power quality of the grid system. Detailed grid analysis are required in order to determine the accurate maximum wind power capacity which can be connected to a specific grid system. The planned future interconnection of the northern and the southern grid systems will improve the technology preconditions for large scale utilisation of wind energy in Oman. Up to 15 % of the total capacity within a power system can be wind power. For Oman this corresponds to maximum wind power capacity up to 750 MW. Stand alone systems Small off grid wind turbines are relevant for remote areas and villages for power supply of small electrical equipment and lighting in connection with battery charging/backup. The micro systems are typically used for power supply for small equipment and energy supply for lighting. Mini systems are suitable for off grid application as power supply for house holds radios and small appliances. Small systems are suitable as off grid application as stand alone power system or as integrated system in a hybrid power systems where the wind energy replaces fuel oil in isolated diesel power systems. Page 70 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Wind turbines providing mechanical output are typically used for water pumping purposes or for mill of corn. The capacity of this type of wind turbines is few kWs. Electricity generation The power output generated by a wind turbine is a function of the wind speed at the location where the turbine is erected. The electricity generation starts at a wind speed of approximately 4 m/s at hub height and at 12-13 m/s the output is equal to the rated power. At wind speeds between 13 m/s and 25 m/s the output is almost equal to the rated power. At 25 m/s the wind turbine is stopped in order to limit the loads on the wind turbine. Economic key figures The price for grid connected wind power plants on land is in the order of 1.9 mill USD/MW installed capacity. This includes the wind turbine costs as well as other project costs but excluding costs for land. For off shore wind turbines the price is approximately 40 % higher. The annual operation and maintenance costs are typically 2% of the construction costs of the wind turbine. The cost per kW installed capacity for stand alone systems is in general relatively higher compared to grid connected turbines. Advantage/disadvantage The advantages by utilising wind energy are: • short implementation period compared to conventional power plants • less dependant on fossil fuel • pollution free electricity generation The disadvantages are: • Possible visual impact on the landscape as they are visible in the open areas where the wind speed is high • In case wind turbines are erected close to settlements the noise emission may have a negative impact. Siting of wind turbines shall be made carefully to avoid noise nuisance. • The rotating rotor blades cause shade effects due to the interaction with the sunrays. The flicker can be reduced or eliminated by carefully siting of the turbines Page 71 of 134 .

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