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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Solar heat • Typical max capacity per m2 of panel, today, 600 W per m2. • Typical max capacity per m2 of panel, future, 600 W per m2. Electricity generation PV cells Today's PV module converts from 5-15 percent of the solar energy directly to DC electricity. This DC electricity can be stored in batteries and converted to AC electricity in a converter to be used in conventional appliances. With a typical maximum solar insolation of 800 W/m2 a PV module produces maximum about 100 W per m2 of collector. The efficiency of a solar PV module depends on the environmental impact such as the surrounding air temperature and the dust contamination of the surface of the PV cells. The reduction of the efficiency of a solar PV cell due to high air temperature is estimated to 8% for Omani conditions and the reduction in efficiency due to dust contamination is assumed to be 2%. Details on the influence of air temperature on the PV cell efficiency is enclosed in Appendix 6. Fig. 5.6 Solar PV panel. Solar thermal plants In a solar thermal plant the solar energy is used to produce high temperature steam which is used in turbines to generate electricity. The efficiency of a solar thermal power plant depends on the concentration ratio of the collector as higher temperatures give higher conversion efficiency in a steam turbine. Three different concepts of solar thermal plant exist: • Parabolic trough system (one dimensional concentration, 400 o C) • Dish system (two dimensional concentration) • Solar tower with mirrors directing solar radiation to a tower, representing the highest concentration ratios giving up to 1000 o C. Page 74 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman The parabolic trough has been dominating but the solar tower is under rapid development and may be dominating in the long term. The dish system is typically made with a stirling engine and generator in the focal point of the dish to produce power directly. Fig. 5.7 Solar thermal concepts: parabolic trough, dish system and solar tower for production of high temperatures for solar thermal power. Solar thermal power or Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) produces heat which is easier to store than electricity and therefore the system can be made to supply electricity as a conventional power plant. With the storage the power supply can be varied over the day according to the need. The CSP can be made with or without conventional fuel (gas) as backup. For Oman an interesting option is a CSP where the heat from the condenser in the steam cycle is utilized for desalination. Systems with storage are being demonstrated today but the combination with desalination has not been made. As mentioned this technology can together with PV develop to be the main technology for electricity in Oman and even give the basis for export. The potential for production of solar energy is more or less independent on the season in Oman with a slight decrease in winter time. The consumption is higher in summer due the need for air condition. It is too costly to oversize renewable energy systems to be able to supply 100 % renewable energy. It is therefore feasible to export the surplus production in the winter to Europe where the need is highest in winter. Seasonal storage can only be considered on the very long term. Demonstration projects under construction today with this technology is about 10 to 50 MW but it is expected that the future optimum size will be much higher, perhaps 200 or 300 MW. Page 75 of 134 .

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