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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Fig. 5.11 Application of solar thermal power plants and photovoltaic systems as function of the installed capacity and the annual global solar insolation, Ref /16/. Examples of applications in • large cities connected to national grid • in rural off grid large cities with a number of diesel units for production of electricity • in rural small villages and in isolated settlements • in desert areas Solar energy can in principle be used for desalination in two ways, with PV electricity for a reverse osmosis process and in a number of ways where heat is used to evaporate the water in a distillation process. Another heat source can be used in this respect for example from conventional power production, a steam cycle or a diesel engine. Further data is needed to analyse this. Electricity generation The technical potential for electricity generation by grid connected PV systems is determined by the area suitable for installation of PV cells (e.g. on buildings, parking areas etc). Assuming that 50% of the houses in Oman are suitable for installation of PV cells and the area available at each house is 20 m 2 in average the total potential area for installation of PV cells on houses is 4,250,000 m 2 . This area of PV cells corresponds to a potential annual electricity generation of 750 GWh/year and an installed capacity of 420 MW, or about 15% of the total capacity today. On top of that PV can be located in the desert. Typical capacity per m 2 of land is about 30 Wp (Watt peak) corresponding to 30 MWp per km 2 . In the long term perspective the theoretical potential for electricity generation by Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems in Oman is huge. CSP plants with storage for supply of electricity as conventional power plants will require 1 km 2 of land use for 10 MW capacity. Theoretically it is possible to supply Oman's present consumption of 13,100 GWh by utilising about 280 km 2 of the desert for solar collectors, corresponding to 0.1 % of the area of the country. Page 78 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman The technical potential for electricity generation by PV systems operating with diesel gen-sets and battery storage capacity in isolated off-grid power systems is assumed to be 20% of the present electricity generation. This corresponds to 70 GWh/year and a solar PV capacity of 40 MW. By using a fraction of 20% a major part of the generated electricity can be used directly and only a minor part has to be stored. The potential for utilising PV cells as power supply for small equipment and lighting is large. Presently the oil industry has PV cell capacity available for operation of small equipment in remote areas. Due to the small capacity of this type of power supply the total potential for this type of solar power supply is relatively small. Economic key figures Solar PV A typical way of showing cost projections for solar PV has three generations of solar PV, see below Fig. 5.12. The present stage of development is stage II, the second generation, where the cost is reduced considerably compared to first generation. The efficiency has also dropped due to introduction of thin film PV. During this decade, up to 2010 it is expected that the cost will decrease further and thin film PV will take over. In the next decade, up to 2020, it is expected that III generation PV cells with much higher efficiency will be further developed and commercialised. This generation is based on multilayer cells, the higher efficiency is important in order to reduce cost of material for the panel as well as for support structures. The life time of solar PV panels is 25 years. Other minor component in a solar PV system such as converter, batteries etc. have shorter life time approximately between 5 - 15 years. This development will bring the cost below 0.5 USD per installed W which will make PV directly competitive on the grid making PV the first choice for roof cover material worldwide. Page 79 of 134 .

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