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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Advantages/disadvantages The advantages and disadvantages for solar thermal power plants and large PV plants are compared in below Table 5.1. Table 5.1 Advantages and disadvantages for solar PV and CSP Solar PV CSP ‐ Concentrating Solar Power Advantages Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Low or no pollution The high cost at present. Low or no pollution The high cost at present Very flexible from small to very large plants. Only produce electricity when the sun is shining. Can be made with heat storage to supply electricity constantly as a base load plant. Only for larger plants, in the future more than 100 MW or perhaps 200 MW. Cost reductions expected to make PV directly competitive to conventional power Electricity is produced directly and electricity is difficult (expensive) to store. Cost reductions in the same magnitude as for PV expected or possible. Certain parts (storage and heat transfer media) still under development. sometimes with in the next few decades. Used off grid as well as on-grid. Suitable for desert location. Longer implementation time than PV. Can serve other purposes if integrated into buildings, shading, roofing etc. Excess heat from power production can be used for desalination. Uses only direct radiation. Potential converted percentage of solar insolation lower than with PV. But excess heat can be used. Feed into the grid in urban areas give less losses. Proven technology with long life time Low maintenance and simple to apply. Page 82 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman 5.3 Biogas production Energy conversion principle Organic matter in effluent water from sewage treatment plants and other biomass (e.g. organic household waste or waste from food industry or manure/dung from animals etc) is converted biological to biogas by bacteria under anaerobic conditions i.e. without presence of oxygen. Ideally the substance processed should have an organic content of about 8-10% weight VS (volatile solids) which is max. for pumping, but plants are seen with operation up to 30% VS (dry process) and down to 2-3% VS (biofilter plants). The degassed material can be used as fertiliser and soil conditioner, provided that it does not contain to high content of environmental harm full substances. The biogas produced consists of 60-70% CH 4 (Methane) and 30-40% CO 2 (Carbon Dioxide) plus traces of other gasses hereunder H 2 S (Hydrogen Sulphide) typically 300-3000 PPM, which smells and is poisonous. The process temperature is typically 35 o C or 52-55 o C. At high temperature the process is faster but also more sensitive and less reliable. Biogas can also be extracted from old landfills with large depths and more than 200,000 tonnes tipped. But the production of landfill gas is very dependent on the composition of waste and age of the landfill and the principles of operation. Applications The production and utilisation of biogas can be based both on small and large plants. Maximum size is in the range of 30,000 Nm 3 biogas per day delivered at a constant level. The size of plant possible is normally limited by the amount of organic waste available. Gas production is normally in the range of 25-60 Nm 3 per m 3 raw material. The biogas with 65% CH 4 has a lower calorific value (LCV) of about 23 MJ per m 3 . Landfill gas has normally only 40-60% CH 4 due to some 10% mixture with air. Parasitic energy demand is about 2.8 MJ per m 3 and 0.14 kWh electricity per m 3 biogas produced. The gas can be used directly for heating purpose e.g. production of hot water or steam for industry. The gas can also be cleaned and compressed for use in vehicles, e.g. waste lorries, taxies, busses, normal cars etc. Finally the gas can also be fed into gas distribution pipes and used several kilometres from site of production. Technology Biogas technology is considered well proven and fully commercial and developed technology for the wet processes, but for semidry and dry processes used for processing organic household waste, the experience is mixed with room for improvements. Page 83 of 134 .

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