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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman Most reliable and economical plants are anaerobic sewage treatment plants where additional organic matter can be added. If a landfill is considered for extraction of gas, then drills and test pumping is needed to evaluate the potential of construction. Electricity generation Gas can after little cleaning be used in a gas-engine to produce electric power preferably in combination with utilisation of the surplus heat i.e. in a CHP combined heat and power plant. In a gen-set utilising biogas about 40% electricity can be gained from the energy content in the gas. Overall efficiency for heat and power depends on the cooling of the flue gasses, but can be up to about 90%. Economic key figures Biogas plants are expensive and are normally only built for solving an environmental problem. The investment costs is about 315 - 940 USD per m 3 biogas produced per day and the yearly O&M cost is about 62 USD per m 3 biogas produced per day (1995 cost level). Technical lifespan is about 20 years. Advantages/disadvantages Advantages • caption of biogas containing CH 4 (CH 4 has a high impact on climate change) Disadvantages • Biogas smells, is toxic and is highly explosive (Traditional proper precautions must be taken in order to avoid hazards in the operation). • Risks for emissions of TOC, CH 4 , CO and NO x Page 84 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman 5.4 Wave energy absorption units Energy conversion principle A wave energy absorption unit utilises the kinetic and the potential energy of the sea waves. The power content in the waves is proportional with the square of the wave height multiplied by the wave length. In principles there are three different types of utilising the wave energy. One type utilises the vertical movement of the water surface. A floating device absorb the vertical movement and transform this movement into a rotation. Another type is based on sluicing the water. By this mechanism the potential energy of water is collected and stored. By letting the stored water fall through a turbine the potential energy is converted into rotational energy. Third type is based on oscillating of an air column. The variation of the water level due to the waves actuate an air column in a chamber. The fluctuating air column acts on a rotor which absorbs the kinetic energy in the air and transform this into a rotational movement. In all the types the movement of the rotational movement is converted into electricity by a generator. Technology A number of different wave energy absorption concepts have been designed and tested as prototypes. Examples of tested concepts representing each of the three types are illustrated below. Fig. 5.14 System utilising vertical movement of the water. Page 85 of 134 .

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