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Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Study on Renewable Energy Resources, Oman - authority for ...

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman 5.6 Non energy benefits The potential renewable energy (at least wind and solar) technologies analysed in this report will all replace natural gas ( in MIS and Salalah) or diesel (in RAECO) as fuels. Renewable energy projects have zero green house gas emissions so the replacement will result in a reduction of the emissions of CO 2 . Key to the carbon emission reduction is the properties of the various fuels analysed. The table below summarizes these properties as defined by the UN's International Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Table 5.2 shows the assumed fuel properties and the carbon content per unit. The top four rows shows 'clean' contents of the fuels, while the last four shows the carbon content in electricity production assuming 10% T&D losses and the efficiencies indicated. The column Carbon Content per MWh shows the carbon emission per MWh electricity replaced by carbon neutral renewable energy production. The most interest in the Oman context is mainly natural gas and to a smaller extent diesel. As the table shows carbon emission the emissions from natural gas are comparable smaller than for HFO, diesel and coal. These values are used latter in the study to calculate the potential carbon emission reductions. Table 5.2 Assumed Fuel Properties and carbon emissions Fuel type Heat Content IPCC Carbon Content Coal, high-grade* 28 MJ/kg 25.8 tC/TJ Carbon emission per MWh consumed Efficiency in use Fuel oil 40.3 and 42 MJ/L 21.1 tC/TJ Natural gas 40 MJ/Nm 3 15.3 tC/TJ Diesel 50 MJ/L 20. tC/TJ Electricity - Gas fired 3.6 MJ/kWh 48.7 tc/TJ 175 kg/MWh 34% Electricity - Fuel Oil Fired 3.6/kWh 61.7 tC/TJ 222 kg/MWh 38% Electricity - Coal fired 3.6 MJ/kWh 86.9 tC/TJ* 312 kg/MWh 33% Electricity - Diesel 3.6 MJ/kWh 59.0 tC/TJ 212 kg /MWh 38% Page 90 of 134 .

Renewable Energy Resources in Oman 5.7 Energy efficiency Renewable energy should always be seen together with efficient use of energy as the cost of supply is expensive and efficient use therefore important. Ideally energy efficiency should have a priority until the cost of saving equals the cost of producing. For Oman probably the most important in this respect is standards and requirements related to cooling, insulation of flat roofs and walls, improved windows and shading is essential. It also includes labelling, requirements for periodic mandatory check, standards etc. The European Unions actions in this respect can be used as an inspiration. These aspects is not included into the present study but should always be kept in mind. Page 91 of 134 .

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