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Optical properties of zirconia–titania–ORMOSIL films for temperature ...

Optical properties of zirconia–titania–ORMOSIL films for temperature ...

Optical properties of zirconia–titania–ORMOSIL films for temperature

Optics Communications 251 (2005) 322–327 www.elsevier.com/locate/optcom Optical properties of zirconia–titania–ORMOSIL films for temperature tuning distributed feedback waveguide lasers Xiao Lei Zhu a, *, Lei Shi b , Jacklynn Chan b , Jun Wang b , Chao Ye b , Dennis Lo b a Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 800-211, Shanghai 201800, China b Physics Department, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China Received 14 September 2004; received in revised form 27 February 2005; accepted 7 March 2005 Abstract The zirconia–titania–ORMOSIL waveguide thin films with considerable optical quality were prepared by the sol–gel process. The refractive index (n) and the extinction coefficient (k) were determined by a scanning ellipsometer. Wavelength tunable output of distributed feedback waveguide lasing was demonstrated in Rhodamine 6G doped ZrO 2 – TiO 2 –ORMOSIL thin films by varying the temperature, and about 5.5 nm wavelength tuning range was achieved around the emission wavelength of 599 nm. The thermal-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of the active ZrO 2 –TiO 2 –ORMOSIL films was deduced. Ó 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 42.55.Mv; 42.70.Jr; 42.79.Gn Keywords: Thin film; Waveguide; Dye lasers; Temperature tuning 1. Introduction The active films of zirconia–titania (ZrO 2 –TiO 2 ) prepared by sol–gel method usually have undesired stress inside the film body after drying and * Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 2169918633; fax: +86 2169918800. E-mail address: xlzhu@siom.ac.cn (X.L. Zhu). aging at room temperature, the surface shrinkage or the different expansion coefficients between film and substrate will result in film cracked. So it is difficult to prepare high optical quality waveguide ZrO 2 –TiO 2 thin films with thickness up to about 10 lm. But it was proven that the incorporation of organic molecules into the host matrix of sol– gel film could act as a network modifier increasing the flexibility of the network structure, the modi- 0030-4018/$ - see front matter Ó 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.optcom.2005.03.013

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