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Improving Access to HIV Services for Mobile and Migrant ...

Improving Access to HIV Services for Mobile and Migrant ...

Appendices Bibliography

Appendices Bibliography 1. Component 2: Financing HIV Services for Mobile & Migrant Populations: A rapid and critical overview of the existing situation regarding regional and national health financing mechanisms for accessing health services in general and specifically access of migrants and mobile populations to HIV prevention, treatment, and care services in the Caribbean region. EPOS.Ralph D Barrett. 2. Innovative Financing for Global Health, Sophie Delaunay, Executive Director of the U.S. section of Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF): The Hauser Centre at Harvard University. Blog discussion at http://hausercenter.org/iha/2010/10/13/innovative-financingmechanisms-for-global-health/ 3. Innovative Financing Mechanisms To Advance Global Health. IAVI Insights: policy Brief, 21, June 2009. 4. HEALTH FINANCING – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Evidence from systematic reviews to inform decision making regarding financing mechanisms that improve access to health services for poor people: A policy brief prepared for the International Dialogue on Evidence-Informed Action to Achieve Health Goals in Developing Countries (IDEAHealth). 2006. 5. Health Finance Revisited. A Practitioners Guide. The World Bank. 2006 6. Technical Brief Series - Brief No 12. ENSURING ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES AND FINANCIAL PROTECTION FOR MIGRANTS. The World Bank Organisation. 2010. 7. Gambling with our future: A Call for needed WTO dispute resolution reform as illustrated by the US-Antigua conflict over online gambling. George Washington International Law Review 8. Doing Business in Antigua & Barbuda, Caribbean Export Development Agency, May 2007 9. Caribbean Response to the UK governments Consultation on Reform of Air Passenger Duty. Caribbean Tourism Industry, June 2011 10. Tax on Financial Transactions: An Implementation Guide. UNITAID. 2011. 11. European Commission: Proposal for a COUNCIL DIRECTIVE on a common system of financial transaction tax and amending Directive 2008/7/EC. 29.9.2011. 12. Caribbean Basin HRI Food Service Sector Eastern Caribbean Region Report 2007. USDA Foreign Agriculture: Global Agriculture Information Network. September 2007 13. Press Release 10/232 June 8, 2010: IMF Executive Board Approves Three Year USD117m Stand By Arrangement with Antigua & Barbuda. http://www.imf.org/external/np/sec/pr/2010/pr10232.htm 44

General Overview of Innovative Financing Mechanisms 1. General Overview of Current Revenue Mechanisms a. Role of Public Health Finance i. Principle 1. Raise enough revenues to provide individuals with a basic package of essential services and financial protection against catastrophic medical expenses caused by illness and injury in an equitable, efficient, and sustainable manner. ii. Principle 2.Manage these revenues to pool health risks equitably and efficiently. iii. Principle 3. Ensure the purchase of health services in ways that are allocative and technically efficient. b. Risk Pooling. Risk pooling is the collection and management of financial resources so that large unpredictable individual financial risks become predictable and are distributed among all members of the pool. There are a number of principles that need to be applied in risk pooling mechanisms. i. Fairness (equity) of the revenue collection mechanisms to finance the system (basing financial access on need rather than ability to pay). ii. Economic efficiency of revenue-raising, in not creating distortions or economic losses in the economy. iii. Levels of pooling and prepayment (and the implications for risk and equity subsidization). iv. Numbers and types of services purchased and consumed and their effects on health outcomes and costs (allocative efficiency). v. Technical efficiency of service production (producing each service at its minimum average cost). vi. Financial and physical access to services (including equity in access). c. Most low and middle-income countries have multiple public and private pooling arrangements, and governments should strive to reduce fragmentation (and thereby improve equity and efficiency), lower administrative costs, and provide the basis for more effective risk pooling and purchasing. d. Risk pooling Mechanisms. There are four main health insurance mechanisms are used to pool health risks, promote prepayment, raise revenues, and purchase services: i. State-funded systems through ministries of health or national health services as on the Ministry of Health. The broad coverage means that risks are pooled 45

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