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INTRO (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual INTRO (7 ...

INTRO (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual INTRO (7 ...

HOSTNAME (7)

HOSTNAME (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual HOSTNAME (7) NAME hostname —host name resolution description DESCRIPTION Hostnames are domains, where a domain is a hierarchical, dot-separated list of subdomains; for example, the machine monet, in the Berkeley subdomain of the EDU subdomain of the Internet would be represented as monet.Berkeley.EDU (with no trailing dot). Hostnames are often used with network client and server programs, which must generally translate the name to an address for use. (This function is generally performed by the library routine gethostbyname(3).) Hostnames are resolved by the Internet name resolver in the following fashion. If the name consists of a single component, i.e. contains no dot, and if the environment variable “HOSTALIASES” isset to the name of a file, that file is searched for any string matching the input hostname. The file should consist of lines made up of two white-space separated strings, the first of which is the hostname alias, and the second of which is the complete hostname to be substituted for that alias. If a caseinsensitive match is found between the hostname to be resolved and the first field of a line in the file, the substituted name is looked up with no further processing. If the input name ends with a trailing dot, the trailing dot is removed, and the remaining name is looked up with no further processing. If the input name does not end with a trailing dot, it is looked up by searching through a list of domains until amatch is found. The default search list includes first the local domain, then its parent domains with at least 2name components (longest first). For example, in the domain CS.Berkeley.EDU, the name lithium.CChem will be checked first as lithium.CChem.CS.Berkeley.EDU and then as lithium.CChem.Berkeley.EDU. Lithium.CChem.EDU will not be tried, as there is only one component remaining from the local domain. The search path can be changed from the default by a system-wide configuration file (see resolv.conf(5)). SEE ALSO gethostbyname(3), resolv.conf(5), mailaddr(7), named(8) HISTORY hostname appeared in 4.2BSD. NetBSD 3.0 December 30, 1993 1

MAILADDR (7) NetBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual MAILADDR (7) NAME mailaddr —mail addressing description DESCRIPTION Mail addresses are based on the Internet protocol listed at the end of this manual page. These addresses are in the general format user@domain where a domain is a hierarchical dot separated list of subdomains. For example, a valid address is: eric@CS.Berkeley.EDU Unlike some other (now obsolete) forms of addressing, domains do not imply any routing, or the existence of aparticular host. Simply because mail may be sent to ‘‘user@somedomain.com’’ does not imply that there is any actual host named ‘‘somedomain.com’’, and does not imply a particular routing of the message. Routing is performed by Mail Transport Agents, such as sendmail(8), based on policies set in the MTA’ s configuration. Abbreviation Under certain circumstances it may not be necessary to type the entire domain name. In general, anything following the first dot may be omitted if it is the same as the domain from which you are sending the message. For example, a user on ‘‘calder.berkeley.edu’’ could send to ‘‘eric@CS’’ without adding the ‘‘berkeley.edu’’ since it is the same on both sending and receiving hosts. Whether abbreviation is permitted depends on how your site is configured. Case Distinctions Domain names (i.e., anything after the ‘‘@’’ sign) may be given inany mixture of upper and lower case. Most hosts accept any combination of case in user names, although there are exceptions. Postmaster Every site is required to have a user or user alias designated ‘‘postmaster’’ towhich problems with the mail system may be addressed, for example: postmaster@CS.Berkeley.EDU Obsolete Formats Certain old address formats, such as UUCP ‘‘bang path’’ addresses, explicitly routed internet addresses (socalled ‘‘route-addrs’’ and the ‘‘percent hack’’) and others have been used historically. All these addressing formats are now considered obsolete, and should no longer be used. To some extent, sendmail(8) (when running with normal configuration files) attempts to provide backward compatibility for these addressing forms, but in practice many ofthem no longer work. Users should always use standard Internet style addresses. SEE ALSO mail(1), sendmail(8) D. H. Crocker, Standard for the Format of Arpa Internet Text Messages, RFC, 822, August 1982. HISTORY mailaddr appeared in 4.2BSD. NetBSD 3.0 June 16, 1998 1

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