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3 years ago

monarch-esa-petition-final_61585

monarch-esa-petition-final_61585

pesticides commonly used

pesticides commonly used for Mormon cricket and grasshopper control: diflubenzuron (Dimilin), carbaryl (spray and granular formulations), and malathion (USDA APHIS 2002). All pesticides that can be used to control native grasshoppers are thought to be highly toxic to all life stages of the monarch butterfly, since they are broad-spectrum insecticides, with the exception of diflubenzuron which is primarily toxic to the larval stage. Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits the action of the enzyme acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) that is an essential component of insect, bird, fish, and mammal nervous systems. Carbaryl has “very high” toxicity levels for terrestrial invertebrates (Cox 1993), including butterflies. Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide and is highly toxic to a broad range of insects including butterflies. Dimilin is the trade name for the pesticide diflubenzuron. Dimilin acts as an insect growth inhibitor by arresting chitin synthesis, i.e., the formation of an insect’s exoskeleton. Dimilin is lethal to lepidoptera caterpillars at extremely small quantities (Martinat et al. 1987). Dimilin caused 100 percent mortality of Douglas-fir tussock moth larvae up to seven weeks following application (Robertson and Boelter 1979). Another study found residue on foliage 21 days after application (Martinat et al. 1987). Sample et al. (1993) found that after Dimilin spraying, the number of lepidoptera larvae was reduced at treated sites. Herbicides In addition to indirect effects of herbicides on the monarch population via loss of milkweeds, as described in the Modification and Curtailment of Habitat section of this petition, some herbicides also exert toxic lethal and sub-lethal effects against butterflies (Russell and Shultz 2009). Herbicides may directly harm exposed insects, such as monarchs. Some herbicides have been shown to leave residues that cause lepidopteran larvae to stop feeding on herbicide- exposed plants, and also some herbicides directly inhibit enzymes within the exposed insects (Russell and Shultz 2009, Bohnenblust et al. 2013). For example, glufosinate may have direct effects on lepidopteran pollinators when larvae eat glufosinate-containing pollen, nectar or leaves, either after direct over-spray or from drift. Glufosinate is one of the herbicides utilized on several currently grown genetically engineered, herbicide-resistant crops, and several new genetically engineered crops resistant to glufosinate and oher herbicides are slated for introduction in the coming years (Table 1); should these crops be approved for planting, glufosinate use could rise significantly. Laboratory experiments with the skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlias) showed that larvae fed glufosinate-coated leaves were injured or killed by inhibition of glutamine synthase, at doses comparable to the amount that might realistically be acquired by feeding on GLA [glufosinate]- treated crops. These studies were done with the active ingredient, not a full formulation, and so may have underestimated field toxicity (Kutlesa and Caveney 2001). Although monarchs will not use these crops as host plants for larvae, glufosinate may accumulate in nectar, pollen and guttation liquid of treated crops and be consumed by monarch butterflies. Also, glufosinate may drift onto milkweeds, exposing immature stages of monarchs to residues. In sum, a plethora of pesticides used in a variety of applications threaten monarch adults and larvae across their range. Monarch ESA Petition 100

Global Climate Change The monarch butterfly and its habitat are threatened by global climate change which will have significant physiological and ecological ramifications for monarchs (York and Oberhauser 2002, p. 297, Oberhauser and Peterson 2003, p. 14063, Zalucki and Rochester 2004, Batalden et al. 2007, Stevens and Frey 2010, Saenz-Romero et al. 2012). Global climate change threatens monarchs and their habitat due to increasing temperatures, increased frequency and intensity of severe drought and storm events, and curtailment of both summer and winter range due to changes in vegetation and climatic conditions. The terms ‘‘climate’’ and ‘‘climate change’’ are defined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The term ‘‘climate’’ refers to the mean and variability of different types of weather conditions over time, with 30 years being a typical period for such measurements, although shorter or longer periods also may be used (IPCC 2013a). The term ‘‘climate change’’ thus refers to a change in the mean or variability of one or more measures of climate (for example, temperature or precipitation) that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer (Ibid.). Climatic conditions influence monarch population dynamics with weather conditions directly affecting monarch reproductive success (York and Oberhauser 2002, Zalucki and Rochester 2004, Batalden et al. 2007). Zipkin et al. (2012) identify climate as a major driver of monarch population dynamics. Monarch butterfly recruitment is constrained by both regional temperatures and milkweed distribution (Zalucki and Rochester 2004). Prolonged cold and rainy conditions can reduce egg-laying and increase development time, but prolonged dry, hot conditions can reduce fecundity and adult lifespan (Zalucki 1981). Climate change poses a significant threat to long-term monarch survival because of the profound influence that climate has on monarch phenology and fecundity (Zalucki and Rochester 2004). Climate can directly affect adult activity and larval development, or indirectly impact monarchs by reducing the growth and vitality of milkweed, nectar sources, and/or the forests monarchs use to overwinter (Zalucki and Rochester 2004, Zipkin et al. 2012, p. 3041). As climatic changes affect habitats, monarchs will have to adjust their seasonal movement patterns to attempt to accommodate changing conditions as currently suitable locations for breeding, nectaring, and overwintering are lost (Batalden et al. 2007, p. 1371). Climate change models predict an increase in summer mean temperatures across the United States (IPCC 2013b). Increasing summer temperatures directly threaten monarchs and their habitat. Monarch summer breeding range is likely to be curtailed due to increasingly hot temperatures and loss of milkweed. High temperatures limit monarch reproductive success, and temperature rises expected from global climate change could reduce the area of suitable breeding habitat available for monarchs. Climate change models predict that annual mean maximum temperature is expected to increase across the continental United States, with mean predicted increases ranging from 3.6˚F to 9.0˚F (Alder and Hostetler 2013). Increased temperatures threaten monarchs with direct mortality and with reduced reproductive success. Constant temperatures between 31°C and 35.5°C (88-96°F) are lethal for monarch Monarch ESA Petition 101

MONARCH CONSERVATION
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