4 years ago



Zalucki, M.P., L.P.

Zalucki, M.P., L.P. Brower, and M.A. Alonso. 2001a. Detrimental effects of latex and cardiac glycosides on survivial and growth of first-instar monarch butterfly larvae Danaus plexippus feedin on the sandhill milkweed Asclepias humistrata. Ecological Entomology 26:212 – 224. Zalucki, M.P., S.B. Malcolm, T.D. Paine, C.C. Hanlon, L.P. Brower, and A.R. Clarke. 2001b. It’s the first bites that count: Survival of first-instar monarchs on milkweeds. Austral Ecology 26:547–555. Available from 9993.2001.01132.x/full (accessed June 19, 2013). Zalucki, M.P., and W.A. Rochester. 2004. Spatial and Temporal Population Dynamics of Monarchs Down Under: Lessons for North America. Pages 219 – 228 in K. S. Oberhauser and M. J. Solensky, editors. The Monarch Butterfly: Biology and Conservation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Zalucki, M., W. Rochester, K. Oberhauser, and M. Solensky. 2004. Spatial and temporal population dynamics of monarchs down-under: lessons for North America. Pages 219 – 228 in Monarch butterfly biology and conservation. Cornell University Press Ithaca, USA. Zipkin, E.F., L. Ries, R. Reeves, J. Regetz, and K.S. Oberhauser. 2012. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly. Global Change Biology 18:3039–3049. Available from (accessed June 11, 2013). Zollinger, R. 1998. Common milkweed control. NDSU Crop and Pest Report, North Dakota State University, July 30, 1998. Available from (accessed August 20, 2014). Monarch ESA Petition 146

Appendix A: Non-migratory Populations of Danaus plexippus plexippus Non-migratory populations of Danaus plexippus plexippus outside of the Americas During the mid- to late-1800’s and into the 1900’s monarchs spread across the Pacific to Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, and many islands of Oceania (Brower 1995, Zalucki and Clarke 2004, Fig. 1, p. 114; see Figures 1 and 2 below). During this same time period, monarchs also colonized islands across the Atlantic, such as Bermuda and the Madeira and Canary Islands, and are now resident in the Azores and coastal areas of Spain as well (Haeger et al. 2011). Various lines of evidence point to more than one introduction event in the Pacific, with populations in Hawaii and Australia likely forming independently (Shephard et al. 2002, Lyons et al. 2012), and other Pacific islands being colonized by radiation from original areas (Zalucki and Clarke 2004, Fig. 1). Introduction and spread in the Atlantic and Spain have not been as well studied, but monarchs are regularly found off-course during fall migrations as far as the United Kingdom (Vane-Wright 1993, Brower 1995, p. 354). Figure 1, Appendix A. 1985 Range of Danaus plexippus plexippus outside the Americas. Figure 2 from Vane-Wright 1993, original legend. Monarch ESA Petition 147

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