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11 | Creating viable

11 | Creating viable business models for inclusive growth through the National Optical Fiber Network Business Models Education The Indian education sector features high on the Government’s economic growth agenda. Government expenditure on education (as a percentage of total expenditure) has increased from ~10 percent in FY08 to ~12 percent in FY13 19 . Specific focus has been laid on elementary education, as evident from the 23 percent increase in allocation (including State schemes and centrally sponsored schemes) for elementary education between FY11 and FY13 20 . In the same period, the per-student allocation has increased from ~INR 9,400 to ~INR 11,500. Despite this increasing support from the Government, learning levels across the country have declined, as revealed by successive rounds of the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 21 . Chart 4: Declining learning levels in rural India Percentage of all children enrolled in Std. III who can read a Std. I level text Source: ASER 2012 (Rural) Findings 19 Economic Survey 2012-13 20 Accountability Initiative and Assessment Survey Evaluation Research (ASER), ‘Do Schools Get their Money? PAISA Report 2012’ 21 ASER, ‘ASER 2012 (Rural) Findings’

Creating viable business models for inclusive growth through the National Optical Fiber Network | 12 Data available from the District Information System for Education (DISE) indicates that an overwhelming 83 percent of rural students attended government-run primary schools in 2012 22 . Therefore, declining learning levels in government schools in rural India, coupled with high drop-out rates and skewed Pupil-Teacher Ratio (PTR) poses a significant challenge to human resource development in the country. Educatonal effectiveness can be improved through the use of ICT. The benefits of ICT intervention in education are already evident in various parts of India. For instance, ICT intervention in Government-run schools in Delhi resulted in ~8 percent reduction in drop-out rate and ~17 percent increase in enrolment in Class VII students. For schools without ICT intervention, the figures were around 6 percent and 14 percent, respectively. The combined impact of various ICT interventions (such as MIS implementation, online attendance, online marksheet, programmed decision on teacher transfer, etc.) was a significant increase of 375 percent in the number of schools with more than 90 percent result in CBSE Class X and XII over a three year period (2004-05 to 2006-07) 23 . Exhibit1: ICT-enablement in tribal education, Andhra Pradesh With the help of ICT, the Tribal Welfare Department of the Government of Andhra Pradesh has set up a Students’ Academic Monitoring System (SAMS), which contains profiles of students, teachers, and parents, attendance information for students and teachers, progress cards, consolidated management information reports and dashboards, staff list, Inter and SSC Results, etc. This system is available on the website of the Andhra Pradesh Tribal Welfare Residential Educational Institutions Society (APTWREIS), popularly known as “Gurukulam”. The website also features information about the Gurukulam institutions, their location across the state, their achievements, budgets, important Government orders and circulars, RTI, citizens’ charter and contact information. This initiative is a big facilitator for the APTWREIS for achieving its objective of managing the enrollment of tribal children in schools and reducing their drop-out rates. The ICT initiative has also won the Tribal Welfare Department a National Award for e-Governance in 2012-13. Source: 16th National Conference on e-Governance, February 2013, Informatics (An e-governance publication from NIC) The private sector has also taken several initiatives towards improving the state of Indian education through ICT. Some cases in point are Microsoft India’s Shiksha program and Sahaj e-Village’s e-learning offering, described below. Case study 1: Microsoft - Project Shiksha Proposition: In 2003, Microsoft launched Project Shiksha, which uses ICT to train teachers and students in Government-run schools. Total budget (announced at launch): USD 20 million (approx. INR 93 crore at 2003 conversion rates) Delivery mode: PPP (integrated with Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in many states) Project partners: State governments, educational institutions, Government schools, state-run District Institutes for Education and Training (DIETs) Reach: Trained over 7,32,000 government school teachers till date (as per the Microsoft India website accessed on 31 May 2013), who in turn, have impacted over 360 lakh students across the country by imbibing the learnings in their pedagogy Business model: Non-profit (CSR initiative) Impact: 250 percent over-achievement on five year target (reach to 80,000 teachers) within four years of operation Sources: e-India ICT Event, November 2012, Microsoft India website, SSA website (Tamil Nadu), The Hindu, Microsoft India press release dated January 14, 2008 22 DISE, ‘Elementary Education in Rural India Where do we Stand?, Analytical Report 2011-12’ 23 ‘Compendium of e-Governance Initiatives in India’, University Press, 2008

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