Water as the Historical Scene for the Alliance of Civilization
SOUTHEAST MEDITERRENEAN REGION AND NEAR EAST (1) ( from Öziş, Ü. 1994 modified) • Katinah Dam ( named as Homs dam also) located on Syrian part of River Orontos, built during the Era of Firavun Sethi I about 1400 BC , restored by Roman Emporer Dioklesian at about 300 AC. • Two reservoirs remains at Rasshamra, near Laskiye from 1200 BC • Marip ( also named as SeddelArim) being the most important irrigation dam of a few reservoirs built on Dene River, during the Saba Kingdom, today Yemen, at about between 1000 750 BC. Marip dam, mention also in Holy Koran, Sura 34, is 14m high, 680 m crest length, masonary dam built by using selected and well cut Stones, fixed by lead bars, equipped by masonry spillway, damaged in about 400 AC.
SOUTHEAST MEDITERRENEAN REGION AND NEAR EAST (2) ( from Öziş, Ü. 1994 modified) • The masonary dams of Kayin, Ajilah, Bawian, built on the Khosr and Gomel tributaries of Tigris River at about 690 BC for water supply to Ninova city, today near Musul city, by Asurian King Sanakherib, and water transmission canals are the the oldest examples of Basin management in the region. The Jervan water arches built on the the water transmission canals of this system are the best examples and they were also applied in Roman period. • At Paletsine Sinnor tunnels to access to Gihon springs providing water to Kudüs city, The Siloan canal from 100 BC, and later Hezekiah tunnel of 530m to provide water to the city of Kudüs. • The water cistern carved in rock near the city of Masada are good examples from the same era.