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HARN - Nanotech Regulatory Document Archive

HARN - Nanotech Regulatory Document Archive


4.2 THE CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ASBESTOS TOXICITY 4.2.1 Synthetic Vitrous Fibre (SVF) and an emerging fibre pathogenicity paradigm By the last few decades of the 20 th century asbestos had become the most epidemiologically studied of all industrial materials (McDonald 2000) and was also the focus of a huge amount of toxicological research. This in turn led to an emerging understanding that not all asbestos types, nor size categories within any type were equally harmful. Whilst the epidemiological studies were often complex and difficult to interpret in view of the complexities of exposure (different fibre types, different sizes, combined exposures etc) the general conclusion could be drawn that amphibole asbestos was more carcinogenic than chrysotile and that in cohorts exposed to chrysotile alone mesothelioma was very rare (McDonald 2000). Where carcinogenic effects had been seen in chrysotile-exposed population this was considered to result from a amphibole fibres, most often tremolite, that were present along with the chrysotile (McDonald & McDonald, 1997). A full toxicological understanding, however, was not fully gained until there was a focus on SVF, occasioned by the banning or virtual banning, by tight workplace regulation, of asbestos. This led directly to growth in replacement ‘man-made vitreous fibres’ eventually named SVF, many of which had superior resistive properties compared to asbestos. Importantly for fibre toxicology, this research eventually placed all fibres, including asbestos and the SVF, within one single paradigm, exemplified by the classification in Figure 2. Table 1 Asbestos/ fibre-related diseases and their incidence in various populations and in experimental rodent studies Disease Description Seen in asbestosexposed humans?* Asbestosis/ interstitial fibrosis Bronchogenic carcinoma Mesothelioma Pleural plaques Interstitial fibrosis of the lung parenchyma, also called honeycomb lung when severe Malignant tumour of the epithelial cells of the airways Malignant tumour of the mesothelial lining of the pleural and peritoneal cavities Benign flattened fibrous lesions on the chest wall Seen in asbestosexposed rats?** * Very high exposures were encountered in the past in the older studies ** Very high lifetime exposures often used in rat studies Seen in SVFexpose d humans ?*** Seen in SVFexposed rats?** yes yes no yes yes yes no yes yes yes no yes yes no Yes **** no Page 12

*** Exposure in these newer, cleaner industries (compared to asbestos) were generally below the levels at which asbestos would have been expected to cause disease (Boffetta et al, 2000) **** low levels of pleural plaques seen in the ceramic industry (Boffetta et al, 2000) This development of this over-arching ‘fibre toxicology paradigm’ is fundamentally important since it identifies the possession of a high aspect ratio (length to width ratio) as the paramount characteristic and not the chemical make-up nor any other classification. e.g. asbestos. There are two caveats to the primacy of shape over composition for fibres, however, in that chemistry is seen as important in determining fibre bioperstistence and may be important for the extra carcinogenicity of a small number of highly pathogenic fibres (see below). The paradigm is centrally important in the present review since carbon nanotubes fulfilled the criterion of high aspect ratio and so they can be legitimately considered as to whether they exemplify the paradigm or not. Figure 2 A classification of industrial fibres (from Bernstein et al. 2005) 4.2.2 The current fibre pathogenicity paradigm There are boundaries as to what we classify as fibres that are to be considered an inhalation hazard. The WHO define a fibre as a particle longer than 5m, less than 3 µm in width and having an aspect ratio of >3:1 (WHO/EURO Technical Committee for Monitoring and Evaluating MMMF 1985, WHO 1997). This is not a health-based criterion but one based on a practical definition of a respirable fibre. The fibre toxicology paradigm can be seen as an extension of this definition, in that length, thinness and aspect ratio are all important. However the research into the characteristic of fibres that imbues them with pathogenicity has refined the definitions of length and included bioperstistence. Width Width or diameter as it pertains to fibres is important because of the central role that fibre diameter plays in controlling aerodynamic diameter (D ae ) and the dependence of pulmonary deposition on D ae . The proportion of fibres that deposits beyond the ciliated airways is the fraction that is the slowest clearing. This is because clearance from beyond the ciliated airways is dominated by macrophage-mediated clearance (Gehr, Brand & Heyder 2000), requiring macrophages to load up then migrate to the foot of the muco-cilary escalator (MCE) prior to MCE clearance. Therefore the fibres Page 13

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