Environmental Report 1998
Environmental Impact and Measures Environmental Impact Regulatory Limits Result, 1998 1) Result, Previous Years Studsvik’s Objective Releases of radioactive substances to water from activities at Studsvik. 0.1 mSv/year (water and air) Total (water) 1998: 0.0004 mSv Total (water) 1995: 0.0003 mSv 1996: 0.0005 mSv 1997: 0.0004 mSv Less than one hundredth of the limit. Releases of radioactive substances to air from activities at Studsvik. 0.1 mSv/year (water and air) Total (air) 1998: 0.00002 mSv Total (air) 1995: 0.00003 mSv 1996: 0.00003 mSv 1997: 0.00002 mSv Less than one thousandth of the limit. Emissions of heavy metals, phosphorus and nitrogen to water from activities at Studsvik. Emissions, 1998 (kg/year) Mn 0.2 Cr 0.2 Cu 1.0 Pb 0.2 Co 0.02 Cd 0.03 Hg 0.002 P 53 N tot 47 Emissions 1997 (kg/year) Mn 0.4 Cr 0.5 Cu 1.0 Pb 2.0 Co 1.0 Cd 0.1 Hg 0.003 P 12 N tot 53 As of the year 2000, reduce emissions of heavy metals, phosphorus and nitrogen to lower levels than in the past years. Emissions of mercury to the air from the incineration facility at Studsvik. 30 µg/m 3 norm Max measured in 1998: 642 µg/m 3 norm Max measured in 1997: 55 µg/m 3 norm Less than the limit. Emissions of hydrocarbons to the air from the incineration facility at Studsvik. 100 mg/m 3 norm Max measured in 1998: 90 mg/m 3 norm Max measured in 1997: 20 mg/m 3 norm Less than the limit. Emissions of dust to the air from the melting facility at Studsvik. 25 mg/m 3 norm (corresponds to about 500 g/tonne of smelt) 1998: about 20 g/tonne of smelt 1997: about 20 g/tonne of smelt Reduce specific dust emissions from the melting facility so that total emissions do not increase, in spite of expanded melting capacity. Electricity consumption at the melting facility at Studsvik. 1998: 0.76 MWh/tonne of smelt 1997: 0.77 MWh/tonne of smelt Keep the specific energy consumption in the melting facility at the same level as in 1998. Production of radioactive waste packages. All of the produced waste packages must fulfil the requirements of the type descriptions. 3) 10 1) Each year, Studsvik submits a large quantity of information to the county administrative board in Södermanland county, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). These reports are available in their entirety from the regulatory authorities as well as from Studsvik. 2) In cases where mercury is found in combustible waste, the waste has originated from waste producers other than the nuclear power industry. 3) The type descriptions contain information concerning performance requirements, properties, test results and control measures.
Special Measures and Activities in 1998 Results of Measures and Activities carried out in 1998 Previously Implemented Methods Special Measures and Activities Planned for 1999 Expected Results in 1999 The treatment procedure for effluent from fuel investigations has changed. In future, the effluent will be directly cast in concrete. It is expected that, as of 1999, the measures will allow the objective to be met with an adequate margin. A precipitation process is used for water cleaning. Two-stage precipitation process (previously single-stage). Investment in additional cleaning systems. Objective attained. The ACL radioactive laboratory is being closed down. When ACL is closed down, the emissions to the air will be reduced. Combustible waste from hospitals contains I-125. Nowadays, this type of waste is stored to allow the radioactivity to decay before combustion. Continued closure of ACL. Objective attained. The development of methods for improved water cleaning was started in 1998. The development work is continuing. Studsvik has a laundry where protective clothing is washed and where, environmentallyadapted phosphate-free detergents are used nowadays. The water cleaning process will be optimized and supplemented. The aim is to reduce radioactive releases as well as conventional emissions. No expected tangible effect before the year 2000. An investigation into how mercury can be avoided in waste for incineration has been conducted. The reception control will be improved. Suppliers of combustible waste are informed that the waste may not contain mercury and PVC. From March to October, a specially trained dog will seek out mercury in combustible waste from hospitals and research institutions. 2) Objective attained. An improved test method for detecting PVC in suspected waste has been introduced. The new method for testing PVC is more reliable than that previously used. The incineration facility has been rebuilt. It now meets very high requirements with respect to flue gas cleaning. Objective attained. The plans to expand the melting facility include filters with improved efficiency. If the facility is expanded, the emissions can be expected to be reduced. Providing that a license is obtained, the melting facility will be expanded in 1999. No expected tangible effect before the year 2000. The operating conditions in the melting facility have been optimized. The measures implemented in 1998 are expected to have an impact in 1999. Objective attained. Work to repair previously manufactured waste barrels has started. Type descriptions have been prepared for each type of waste produced. 3) The work on repairing defect waste barrels will be completed. Objective attained. Note that the various examples are not ranked. 11