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Environmental Report 1998

Environmental Report 1998

Conventional Emissions

Conventional Emissions Emissions to the Air The melting and incineration facilities at Studsvik are specialized to condition low level waste. Compared with conventional smelting plants and incinerators, these are small-scale facilities. This, together with the fact that cleaning systems are used, means that emissions to the air are low. Monthly Limits Exceeded Emissions to the air and water are normally far below the regulatory limits. However, in July 1998, there was a deviation in the emissions from the incineration facility and the monthly limit for mercury emissions was exceeded. Due to a delay effect, increases were also observed during the next two months. An investigation into the source of the emission and into measures to prevent a recurrence has been carried out. The source has been estimated to be about 0.03 liters of mercury which, in spite of explicit regulations prohibiting mercury, had been included in the combustible waste. Since we can, with certainty, state that the mercury originated from a hospital or research institution, we can prevent this incident from recurring by improving our inspection of combustible waste received from these customers. In future, all combustible waste from hospitals and research institutions will be inspected for mercury, with the help of a specially trained dog. Emissions to Water Emissions of heavy metals to the Baltic Sea from Studsvik in 1998, compared with emissions from the Trosa River in 1996, are reported below (source: Statistics Sweden). To give an idea of the extent to which phosphorus, nitrogen and heavy metal emissions to water contribute to overfertilization, ecotoxicity effects and human toxicity effects, the variations in the potential contributions to these effects since 1995 and the contribution to the effects in 1998 are presented below, in a national perspective. Characterization factors from CIT Ekologik (Chalmers Industriteknik) in Gothenburg have been used to convert the emissions in grams into units used to show the potential environmental impact (overfertilization, ecotoxicity and human toxicity effects). Data from CIT have also been used to calculate the extent of the potential effects of emissions in 1998 in relation to the total impact in Sweden for one year. Emissions to the Baltic Sea from Studsvik in 1998 and Trosa River in 1996 (kg/year) 200 150 170.000 Studsvik Trosa River 100 50 43.000 38.000 0 9.500 0.030 1.900 0.970 0.210 0.020 0.180 0.220 0.002 Cadmium Copper Lead Cobalt Chromium Manganese* Mercury* *) Data for Trosa River not available 14

Potential contributions to overfertilization from emissions to water Potential contributions to ecotoxicity effects from emissions to water EP compared with the levels for 1995 (%) 200 150 100 50 ECA compared with the levels for 1995 (%) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 The relative change in the total potential contribution to overfertilization from emissions to water from 1995 to 1998. The difference between the potential contribution to overfertilization between the years is due to variations in activities. The comparison is based on phosphorus and nitrogen emissions as well as on the specific EP (Eutrophication Potential) of the substances. The relative change in the total contribution to the ecotoxicity effects from emissions to water from 1995 to 1998. The comparison is based on emissions of chromium, copper, lead and cobalt (from 1997, cadmium and mercury are also included which explains the increase in 1997) as well as on the specific ECA (Ecotoxicity Concentration Aquatic Emission). Potential contributions to human toxicity effects from emissions to water The effects of overfertilization, ecotoxicity and human toxicity from emissions to water, 1998 HWC compared with the levels for 1995 (%) 100 Share of the estimated total impact for the whole of Sweden 0.000020 80 60 40 20 0.000015 0.000010 0.000005 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 0.000000 Overfertilization Ecotoxicity effects 0.0000000008 Human toxicity effects The relative change in the total potential contribution to the human toxicity effects from emissions to water from 1995 to 1998. The comparison is based on emissions of chromium, copper, lead and cobalt (as of 1997, cadmium and mercury are also included) as well as on the specific HCW (Human Toxicity Concentration Water). The size of the bars in the diagram reflects the variations in the activity as well as an increase in environmental consciousness (improved procedures for the management of chemicals). Total potential contribution to overfertilization, ecotoxicity and human toxicity effects of emissions to water in 1998 from the activities at Studsvik, compared with the estimated total impact for Sweden. The emission values for Studsvik are based on the same data as the other diagrams on emissions to water from the activities at Studsvik. As can be seen from the diagram, Studsvik’s potential contribution to the environmental impact in Sweden is very small (less than 15 millionths). 15

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