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Environmental Report 1998

Environmental Report 1998

Radioactive Releases

Radioactive Releases Releases of radioactive substances into the air from the activities at Studsvik are monitored at the point of release. Effluent which is released into the Baltic Sea is also monitored. The analysis results are expressed in becquerel (Bq). Using results from modeling calculations, the activity data are converted into estimated doses to a hypothetical individual residing in the vicinity of Studsvik. Doses Far Below Limits As can be seen in the diagrams below, releases to water and the air in 1998 resulted in doses that are far below the applicable limit of 0.1 millisievert (mSv) per year. Doses from releases to the air are less than one thousandth of the limit and the dose from releases to water are less than one hundredth of the limit. The table below compares the annual dose from the activities at Studsvik with the dose from other radiation sources. Radiation Source Dose (mSv/year) Radon in housing (average value, Sweden) 2 Natural background radiation (average value, Sweden) 1 X-ray (average value, Sweden) 0.7 Round-the-world trip by plane 0.2 Modern wristwatch with self-illuminating dial 0.1 Biofuel-fired district-heating plants (releases to the air)

Use of Resources Electricity, heat, oil, water and chemicals are used in the activities conducted at Studsvik (see tables below). Waste Heat From Incineration Facility Heat, distributed by Vattenfall Fastigheter AB, is used for the heating of premises. The heat comes from Studsvik’s incineration facility as well as from Vattenfall Fastigheter’s biofuel-fired boiler at Studsvik. During operation, the incineration facility contributes about 1 megawatt. The facility has delivered a total of just over 4,000 megawatt hours, which comprised half of the heat used at Studsvik during 1998. Oil is used as a support fuel in the incineration facility in order to obtain a more efficient combustion process. Consumption in 1998 of electricity, heating, oil and water Electricity Heating 13 000 MWh 9 000 MWh Oil (Fuel oil class EO1) 360 m 3 Water 14 000 m 3 Deionized water 2 600 m 3 Chemicals for Water Cleaning and Laundry The cleaning of effluent and the washing of protective clothing accounted for the largest quantities of chemicals used by the activities at Studsvik in 1998. Furthermore, small quantities of chemicals were used by different laboratories. Consumption in 1998 of chemicals Ferrous sulfate Potassium hexacyanoferrate Sulfate of copper Concentrated sulfuric acid 110 kg 90 kg 24 kg 150 liters 25 per cent caustic soda 600 liters Detergents Rinsing agent about 2 700 kg about 400 kg 17

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