Rutgers Model United Nations - IDIA
Rutgers Model United Nations 1 Introduction Armed conflict is more commonly becoming intrastate as opposed to interstate. This change has prompted both academics and politicians to reevaluate national security and war strategy, as the international community is not effectively equipped to intervene into the affairs of a sovereign state. As such, there has also been a transformation of how international politics have become involved during such crises. This evolution can best be seen through the politics surrounding the Rwandan and Yugoslavian genocides, as the United Nations became involved in state crises, not in interstate conflicts like it had in past. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 have also changed how the international community regards national security. Security threats and terrorist groups do not belong to one state, instead they are networks that operate in numerous states, posing a danger to all states in which they operate and target. The international community has been forced to adapt quickly to rapid changes, and in the process, it has become increasingly apparent that it is ill-equipped to be a relevant actor. One of the key questions that remains to be answered is how both state and international authorities should handle separatist groups. These groups are becoming important non-state actors in this new age of intrastate conflict, seeking to achieve sovereignty for their region or nation. Many separatist groups have adopted paramilitary tactics, similar to those of terrorist groups. Independence movements are regularly seen in developing states, yet are not unheard of in developed states. The availability of weapons and media attention, in addition to increasing ideological fundamentalism, as well as harsh government reactions against these groups only serves to fuels their causes. Arms and media availability enable groups not only to equip these networks but also to preach their message and ideology to a greater audience. The availability of arms and media coverage fuels fundamentalism within populations. In an attempt to suppress conflict, governments react quickly and at times irrationally, giving credence to the claims of separatist groups.
Rutgers Model United Nations 2 Three of the most famous separatist groups or independence movements involve efforts associated with developed states. The Chechens in Russia, Basques in Spain, and Kurds in Turkey and Iraq, have dramatically different culture from that of their greater state. Russia continues to be at odds with numerous separatist movements within Chechnya. Since the 1970s, Spain has also fought to prevent the Basque nation from breaking away from the north of the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, with the invasion and occupation of Iraq, there are three groups are all vying for power. One of these groups, the Kurds, enjoyed de facto statehood under the Hussein regime, with the veritable protection of the international community after the first Gulf War. Each of these groups employs different methods in order to gain greater support. The Chechens have used both terrorist attacks and warfare tactics with Russia in order to gain independence for its people. The Basques, while in the past have resorted to terrorist attack against Spain and France, have focused resources into fighting politically for independence. The Kurds, however, enjoyed de facto statehood under the previous regime, and many believe that the Kurds should separate from Iraq, as they are the most economically developed of the factions in Iraq. The debate over the possible Kurdistan is what has brought this issue to fore, highlighting its importance in the current era of intrastate conflict. These enclaves, or specific regions that are enclosed by larger states, are experiencing many difficulties in the fight to establish sovereignty. Ethnic enclaves, such as in the case of the Basques, Kurds, and Chechens, have been neglected and socially abused for years. These populations are exploited for territory, resources and economic advantages. Background The notion of the modern state hails from Western Europe. The term “state,” unfortunately, has lost its meaning due to its usage in popular culture. Along those lines, many people use the term “nation” interchangeably with state, which is incorrect. In terms of political science and political rule, “state” is defined as an actor, exercising