Rutgers Model United Nations - IDIA
Rutgers Model United Nations 5 Kurds.” The current political representation of Kurdistan ranges from a province in Northern Iran to the non-political regions in Iraq and Turkey. Many nations across the world are fighting for autonomy. For example, the Tamils currently are fighting a bloody civil war within Sri Lanka for independence. The civil war in Rwanda between the Hutu and the Tutsi Nations resulted in genocide. Many developing states fall victim to nations fighting over the state. The Kurds, Chechens, and the Basques represent a problem to surrounding developed states. The Basques present a security dilemma for Spain as the militant wing of ETA attacks civilian populations. Chechnya’s fight for independence poses a security threat to Russia. While at the same time, Russia’s actions to suppress Chechen rebellion caused a humanitarian crisis within Chechnya. The Kurds represents a problem for the United States of America as they work to reconstruct Iraq. Each nation, the Kurds, Chechens, and Basques, is at a different point in asserting its right to self-determination of peoples and each have taken a different path to reach that point. The UN position on independence movements is not clearly defined. The United Nations supports national sovereignty, while at the same time supports the selfdetermination of peoples. The United Nations lack of stance on this issue causes many issues while attempting to resolve tensions with ethnic enclaves fighting for independence. One major issue is the classification of these groups, as many states regard these groups as terrorist factions. Another issue complicating matters are the tactics employed by separatist factions. Some groups utilize political means in attempts to gain independence, while others use violence, or a combination of both. Oftentimes, governments take oppressive action to control separatist groups, causing humanitarian crises. The question then arises, if the United Nations offer humanitarian support to these groups. The most pressing issue is the establishment of peace between the state and separatist nations. The United Nations must discern a clear policy on the independence movements of ethnic enclaves.
Rutgers Model United Nations 6 Basque Provinces Scholars are not positive of the origins of Basque culture. It is believed that in the Early Middle Ages the territory between Spain and France, known as Vasconia, became united under the plebian system. The word Basques is derived from the region of Vascones, or Vasconia in English. It is also thought that Basque culture dates back to pre- Roman times. Many experts think that the Basques have descended from the early inhabitants of Western Europe. This hypothesis would explain why the Basque language bears no resemblance to any language currently spoken in the world. Basque culture for the most part is a rural agrarian society, dependent upon herding and agriculture. Traditionally, the Basque people have practiced Roman Catholicism, but there has been an increasing trend in atheism and agnosticism. The location of the Basque province, to the south of the Pyrenees Mountains, makes it an ideal location for mining. Within the last fifty years, the Basque region has developed a strong economy, especially within the metallic and mining industries. 4 The healthy economy of the Basques has served to fuel their fight for independence. The Basques political fight for autonomy gained most of its support during the rule of Francisco Franco from 1936 until 1975 in Spain, when Franco stripped all democratic, autonomy, and cultural rights from the Basque people. 5 Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) began as a reaction to Franco autocratic rule. During this time, ETA enjoyed widespread support, not only from the Basques but also from the Spanish population for their work countering Franco. After the death of Franco in 1975, ETA began losing support from the greater Spanish population, because ETA transferred its attention to Basque independence. To accomplish an independence movement, they began utilizing violent means in order to gain attention to their cause. ETA, in its fight for independence, often utilized questionable tactics, targeting civilian populations, rightfully demonizing the group. While ETA has moved away from such methods the 4 Juan Diez Medranno. Divided Nation: Class, Politics, and Nationalism in the Basque Country and Catalonia. Cornell University Press, 1995, 230 5 Medranno 116.