RutgersModelUnitedNations 9 the freedoms and rights he once enjoyed, which creates an even greater desire to regain those freedoms and rights. Stateless people are therefore often very willing to do anything to gain citizenship and relieve their situation. Many stateless people “are required to apply and pay for a travel pass to visit even neighboring villages,” 29 something to which they begrudgingly acquiesce for a government that does not offer anything in return. In other cases, stateless people accept jobs “on a part-time or day laborer basis, meaning that they [have] no contract and benefits and could be terminated at any time.” 30 These instances show how stateless people live at the whims of the governments that control the land on which they live. By giving in to the demands of these states and following the often oppressive rules instituted to hold stateless people in their situation, the populations have shown that they are willing to work, move, and advocate for themselves, as long as there is some hope that they will gain back their basic rights. Sympathetic States In the situation of statelessness, certain states have shown commitment to the eradication of this problem. These states have passed legislation that allows stateless people easier access to gaining temporary work permits, temporary travel documents, or even citizenship. These states have also signed both the 1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons and the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness and have helped to reduce the problem throughout the world. The states willing to help are committed to reducing statelessness by granting citizenship to every person born within their borders, 31 essentially providing nationality to a person who may become stateless until they have claimed another nationality, 32 and 29 Sokoloff, Constantin. Advisory Board on Human Security. “Denial of Citizenship: A Challenge to Human Security.” February 2005, 20. 30 Lynch, Maureen and Perveen Ali. Refugees International. “Buried Alive: Stateless Kurds in Syria.” Washington, D. C. January 2006, 4. 31 UnitedNations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. “1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness.” New York City. August 13, 1961. Article 1. [Accessed on March 4, 2008 at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/o_reduce.htm] 32 Ibid, Article 5.1.
RutgersModelUnitedNations 10 also providing economic and social benefits to stateless people who are found within their borders. 33 These states have clearly preferred to follow policies that enable stateless people to improve their status rather than only looking out for the best interest of the state itself. The optimal outcome for sympathetic states is to stem the creation of subsequently stateless people. For stateless people who already exist, sympathetic states wants there to be a larger number of other states who are willing to give aid. The same treaties and conventions that guide their policies also work to reduce the occurrences of subsequent statelessness in other nations. In this instance, these states, while accepting their role in reducing statelessness, would rather see the issue become a moot point through the creation of policies by all nations that prevent subsequent statelessness from occurring. The motivations for these actions are difficult to determine. It is possible that nations, such as the United Kingdom and Australia, are motivated by a desire to see an end to statelessness throughout the world, but no nation appears to have a standard policy for accepting a subsequently stateless person as a citizen, although many grant them asylum. 34 In this respect, sympathetic nations have hindered their attempts to aid stateless people slightly because individuals without citizenship are often unable to travel outside the borders of the nation in which they reside, which is most often, but not limited to, the nation that is denying them citizenship in the first place. 35 This means that the motivation behind the policies established by these nations are the same as the motivations for the granting of asylum to citizen refugees, those of reducing an international problem and providing assistance to populations and individuals who are in need. Similar to determining the difficulties in the motivations behind the policies of sympathetic nations, it is almost equally impossible to determine the area of compromise 33 UN Economic and Social Council. “1954 Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons.” Resolution number 5158. New York City. September 28, 1954. Article 12-24. [Accessed on March 4, 2008 at: http://www.unhcr.org/protect/46cc46ee2.html] 34 Commonwealth of Australia. “Fact Sheet 62: Assistance for Asylum Seekers in Australia.” January 30, 2007. [Accessed on April 2, 2008 at http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/62assistance.htm] 35 Home Office: United Kingdom Border Agency. “Who Can Claim Asylum.” [Accessed on April 2, 2008 at http://www.ind.homeoffice.gov.uk/asylum/claimingasylum/]