Rutgers Model United Nations - IDIA
Rutgers Model United Nations 9 values are not often based on the economic power of individuals. Collectively, the UNWTO and consumers often relegate culture to another commodity to be traded. 20 Tourism has often had a negative impact on indigenous peoples, their communities, and the environments of which they are a part. Unsustainable tourism not only damages the environments but also damages the lives of indigenous peoples. It strips them of their human rights, rights of access and ownership to land and natural resources that are essential to food security, self-sufficiency and essentially their cultural identity by commercializing and marketing their cultural heritages, traditions, and knowledge. It is essential for indigenous peoples and local communities to enjoy their lives without hindrance and discrimination and to be prime decision makers in any decisions that impact their cultures and environments. 21 Small Island Developing States In Chapter 8 of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, the United Nations Division for Sustainable Development acknowledges the benefits that tourism has offered to the development of many small island developing states, the programme of actions also notes that, “if not properly planned and managed, tourism could significantly degrade the environment on which it is so dependent.” 22 According to then Secretary General Kofi Annan, tourism offers one of the few opportunities for diversification of the economic market in small islands. Tourism has multiple links with other economic sectors and when integrated into national development plans it can contribute to the growth of all tourism-related activities in all major economic sectors such as agriculture, services, and transportation. While tourism is still relatively undeveloped in some SIDS, in others, tourism has become the major contributor to the Gross National Product. In the future, tourism will play an even Tourism: An NGO Perspective” 19-30 April 1999, New York www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/ngo4.pdf 20 Ibid. 21 Lee Pera and Devorah McLaren “Globalization, Tourism & Indigenous Peoples: What You Should Know About the World’s Largest “Industry” November 1999http://www.planeta.com/planeta/99/1199globalizationrt.html 22 Report of the Secretary General, Commission on Sustainable Development, “Progress in the implementation of the Programme of Action for the sustainable development of small island developing states, addendum--Sustainable
Rutgers Model United Nations 10 more important role in the growth and development of SIDS - - as long as appropriate measures are taken to include all economic sectors so that they can adequately meet the needs of tourists demands for consumer goods and ensure the longevity of local communities, as tourism creates significant social problems in these nations. Potential long-term effects include the reduction of living standards of island populations and a sense of alienation due to their lack of access to limited land resources which could lead to a social rejection of the growth of tourism in these destinations. High levels of tourism that overextend the carrying capacity of these regions also lead to the commercialization of local customs and cultures which are often adapted to fit foreign tastes instead of local. 23 SIDS also experience environmental impacts of tourism disproportionately to other high-volume tourist destinations. Deforestation and unsuitable usage of land causes erosion and the loss of biological diversity. Ecosystems are also being threatened as a result of tourism development which intensifies the interactions of humans with vegetation and wildlife in an attempt to negate the affects. This leads to irreversible damage to valuable and traditional activities. 24 In order to address the effects of tourism felt in SIDS and to help achieve sustainable development investments of both time and money will need to be made. Framework for development that is legally binding would also go far in pulling together major actors to do their parts. Effectiveness of existing framework is often undermined by weakness in the institutional framework and lack of standardizations which needs to be addressed in order for all parties to become more willing to contribute to ensuring that sustainable tourism is reached. Transnational Corporations The problems of tourism in destination countries are often centered around one fact: a large part of world tourism is controlled by tourism companies based in tourism development in small island developing States” 18 April-3 May 1996 http://islands.unep.ch/d96-20a3.ht 23 Ibid.