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Rutgers Model United Nations - IDIA

Rutgers Model United Nations - IDIA

Rutgers

Rutgers Model United Nations 11 economically-developed nations. Relationships between these transnational corporations (TNCs) and host countries are vastly unequal and although tourism has some positive attributes for developing countries it does not negate the negative impacts. TNCs are often accused of draining developing economies of vial resources needed by both local peoples and travelers. 25 Efforts need to be made on the part of TNCs to assume responsibility and accountability for economic and social issues created by their domination of the travel industry in destination countries. Possible Causes Over the last century, tourism and travel have become among the largest contributors to the degradation of our environment. Proliferation of pleasure travel has meant that the tourism industry in many areas of the world has become a destructive force leading to overdevelopment of resources and the loss of culture, to name a few areas of concern. In order to find viable solutions to sustaining tourism, it is critical to acknowledge the causes that have spurred the need for such policies. Although tourism is regarded as having a less destructive impact on the environment than other industries, its size and widespread presence has created negative physical and social environmental damage. Tourism’s interest in sustainable development is therefore natural because there is no tourism activity that does not depend upon the environment in some way, no matter how small. Tourism is often referred to as a resource industry, dependent on both nature and cultural heritage. The promotion of sustainable tourism has been brought about by a wide variety of factors including environmental and cultural losses, predicted massive growth in the tourism arena in the coming years, and the globalization of the world economy. 26 24 Ibid. 25 “Benefits and problems that tourism can bring to developing countries”, http://beemanet.com/2003/peace/column/tourism.html 26 Kathleen L. Andereck, “The impacts of tourism on natural resources” June 1993 www.seagrant.umn.edu/tourism/pdfs/ImpactsTourism.pdf

Rutgers Model United Nations 12 Dependence upon Natural Resources One of the major forces leading to implementing sustainable tourism practices into the tourism arena was the fact that many destinations simply ignore the tourists’ dependency on resources. Natural resources in every state supply tourists with energy for heating and cooling, safe drinking water, food, shelter, and sanitation. The exertion of pressure on these natural resource systems often leads to a decline in the sustainability of that environ over time. Tourism has a widespread impact on air and water quality in particular. Air pollution is largely the result of emissions from vehicles and airplanes. Although tourism is only a small part of the overall emissions problem the recent ozone and greenhouse effect crisis make tourism-related air pollution a concern. Additionally, heating systems in tourist-related buildings emit some polluting substances although this is very minimal compared to that of vehicle emissions. Water resources are always a prime attraction for tourism therefore creating a larger opportunity to suffer impacts. Water pollution is a result of waste generated by tourist facilities and occurs in a variety of areas including inland lakes and streams as well as the open sea. Water pollution is an increasingly serious problem is some areas, especially the Mediterranean and for Small Island Nation States. In areas where fresh water is scarce, the above average usage of water resource needed for tourism are damaging to local life. 27 In finding sustainable solutions to tourism that focus on both the needs of the local population and travelers alike, the preservation of natural resources is essential. Resource depletion simply leads to a tourist industry that is unsustainable. Globalization The tourism industry in the last quarter-century has also seen the widespread impacts of globalization. While citizens of most industrialized nations view the ability to travel as an extension of wealth, third world states use it as a means to build wealth. Tourism for these nations means that foreign investment and trade will grow, in turn, so will their economies. As one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy, many

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