Rutgers Model United Nations - IDIA
Rutgers Model United Nations 3 globally. 3 September 1985: Travelers Bill of Rights and Tourist Codes In 1985, members of the World Tourism Organization gathered in Bulgaria to pen the first Travelers Bill of Rights and Tourists Code. The bill effectually drew up the duties and responsibilities of state parties, host communities, tourism professionals, and tourists. The document has not been disseminated throughout the world community, however, and is essentially ignored, resulting in irresponsible tourism practices. 4 Some critics say that the document is outdated currently, and would need to be updated should it ever be used in the future. April 1989: The Hague Declaration In April of 1989, the World Tourism Organization met in The Hague, Netherlands to consolidate the environmental concerns of the agency into one document. The Hague Declaration on Tourism notes the inter-relationship between the environment and tourism and sought measures to ensure that natural, cultural, and human environments were protected as a condition for the development of tourism around the globe. 5 3-14 June 1992: UN Conference on Environment and Development In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 3-14 June 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development-- often referred to as the Earth Summit (UNCED) -- marked the beginning of the international recognition of the need for sustainable development. The Earth Summit was also the beginning of the call for a sustainable approach to tourism marked with the creation of Agenda 21, the blueprint for sustainable development. The document covers a wide range of topics and addressed many issues raised by the principle. Agenda 21 does not specifically address tourism but it does make 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 4 Organization of World Heritage Cities World Symposium, “Of comfortable tourists and happy residents of World Heritage Cities” 19-23 September, 2005http://urbo.ovpm.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=viewpub&tid=4&pid=27 5 Perez-Salom, J-R. 2001. Sustainable Tourism: Emerging Global and Regional Regulation. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review. Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Rutgers Model United Nations 4 several references to tourism in connection with human settlements, deforestation, and education 6 27-28 April 1995: First World Conference on Tourism In 1995, the World Tourism Organization, in conjunction with the European Union, (EU) United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) hosted the First World Conference on Tourism in Lanzarote, an island of the coast of Spain. The conference produced the charter for sustainable tourism, which outlines what was encompassed by sustainable tourism development and the eighteen points that were fundamental to sustainable tourism. 7 Transport and the environmental repercussions therein was a specific focus of the charter and the conference, as well as setting definitions for a myriad of tourism-specific terms such as “standards,” “cultural heritage,” and “resource.” 6-8 March 1997: International Conference of Environment Ministers on Biodiversity and Tourism In 1997, the German Federal Environment Minister hosted the International Conference of Environment Ministers on Biodiversity and Tourism, held in Berlin, Germany. The conference was attended by a multitude of nations as well as numerous national and international organizations who were representatives of their geographical region as well as important destinations for international tourism. The conference was proposed as a means to drafting the “Berlin Declaration” which was to be the first international ministerial declaration on sustainable tourism in order to promote a global agreement on sustainable development. The two main goals of the conference were: first, to define requirements for environmentally compatible forms of tourism that ran parallel to the guiding principles of sustainable development that had been proclaimed at the Earth Summit in 1992; second: sustainable tourism would be mainstreamed in order to 6 7 Ibid. Ibid.