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International Press Corps Background Information - IDIA

International Press Corps Background Information - IDIA

Rutgers Model United

Rutgers Model United Nations 1 Introduction Tony Schwartz, the author of Media The Second God once said, “Godlike, the media can change the course of a war, bring down a president or a king, elevate the lowly and humiliate the proud, by directing the attention of millions on the same event and in the same manner.” 1 His saying reflects the power that media has on the world today. The Diamond Sutra, printed in China in the year 868 is known today as the world’s earliest dated printed book. 2 Since its publication, the influence of media has expanded to all seven continents and is a revolutionary tool to the development of the global economy. With the discovery of the printing press, television, radio, and the internet, media has branched out from its humble origins. Mass media, a section of media that is specifically designed to target a large audience such as a national state, is a commonly used type of media that is used in the world today. Through recent technological improvements, mass media now includes different types of Internet media such as blogs, message boards, podcasts, and video sharing. Media has evolved throughout the centuries from its birth as print media and now generally includes eight mass media industries: books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television, and the internet. 3 Although media can be found in most countries in the world, its impact and purpose differs in developing countries and developed countries. As we can see today, media and public opinion is highly restricted in certain countries, while the freedom of speech is welcomed openly in other countries. An imbalance of resources and information flow between industrialized and developing countries and the impact on the operation of mass media by the type of social system in a country have all been contributing factors to the difference in mass media between developing, third-world 1 http://www.defencejournal.com/2000/june/imperialism.htm 2 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/3696333.stm 3 http://medialiteracy.suite101.com/article.cfm/what_is_mass_media_

Rutgers Model United Nations 2 countries and developed, industrializing countries. 4 Looking at the history of media, one can better understand why these differences exist. History of Media Mass media can be traced back to the diamond sutra, however it was not popularized until Johannes Gutenberg printed the first book in a printing press in 1453. Due to the high cost of paper, the high illiteracy rate among people, and the enormous amount of labor involved, the concept of mass media had not fully originated until Gutenberg’s creation of the printing press. 5 His creation made it easy to make multiple copies of documents and it brought to life the idea of mass media and led to the production of newspapers. This revolutionary change occurred mostly in Europe and eventually helped bring about the Protestant Reformation. The printing press allowed for the diffusion of knowledge and benefited the higher and enlightened classes. This additionally separated the developed countries in Europe with the developing and industrializing countries in the rest of the world. Newspapers, radio, magazines, and television have all been improved as technological forces and globalization have taken place. Print Publications Newspaper In 1605, Johann Carolus publishes the first printed newspaper, Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, in Strasbourg, France, and area formally known as “Deutsches Reich.” 6 In the 19 th century, many cities in Europe and North and South America began publishing newspaper-type publications. These newspapers were similar in some aspects, but also differed however due to regional and cultural 4 http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearc h_SearchValue_0=ED140848&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED140848 5 http://www.buzzle.com/articles/history-of-mass-media.html 6 http://www.wan-press.org/article2822.html

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