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International Press Corps Background Information - IDIA

International Press Corps Background Information - IDIA

Rutgers Model United

Rutgers Model United Nations 3 differences. 7 Ever since the first newspaper was published, thousands of newspapers have been published ranging from the poorest countries such as those in the African continent to the richest countries such as the United States. In the late nineteenth century, the popular press was commercialized and newspapers became large businesses whose owners were interested only in making a profit. Earlier newspapers were run by small families or by a proprietor who was interested in writing as editor. The early newspapers were not directed toward a large audience. As newspapers were being commercialized, the costs to operate and own a newspaper grew in turn. Operating costs in addition to the capital required for the buildings, machinery, and other tools cost approximately half a million pounds in 1896. However, though the costs to run the newspapers were high, the growth of advertising kept the cost of newspapers low. Advertising was important to the development of a cheap mass-circulation press. In 1853, advertisers began advertising in newspapers because newspapers provided an ideal means of promoting goods aimed at a popular market. These advertisers were then able to reach a large audience that had sufficient spending power. This period that was symbolized by the growth of advertising became known as the Northcliffe revolution. The other factor that allowed for newspapers to be distributed to a much broader audience than earlier publications was the development of newspaper and magazine chains. Lord Northcliffe was known as the proprietor of what became the most extensive British newspaper empire during this time. He came to own numerous mass-circulation daily newspapers and magazines. Lord Northcliffe brought about significant change in the economic organization of the press, establishing newspapers on a mass scale. 8 The period between 1865 and 1914 is sometimes known as the “golden age” because of the rise of the popular press, the use of the telegraph, the lack of censorship, and the popularity with war stories. This period encompassed World War I and the 7 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/413113/newspaper 8 Media and Society in the Twentieth Century

Rutgers Model United Nations 4 popular press especially thrived in the United States. The press helped create a forum of public opinion for war and was used for propaganda purposes as well. Since then, the number of newspaper publications has increased and newspapers have also become paperless. With the rise of the Internet, many newspaper articles can be read on the Web as well on electronic devices. Scientists are also beginning to discuss the creation for electronic newspapers or E-newspapers. Taking into account environmental concerns, e-paper may revolutionize media by slowly eliminating the traditional folded parcel delivered to the readers’ driveway. 9 Magazines In the 1700s, the first magazines created were very similar in form to books rather than the present-day magazine. They began as a forum for literate men to voice their points of view, in essay or satire. Published in 1731, The Gentleman’s Magazine is recognized as the first general-interest magazine. This magazine published in London was the first to use the term “magazine,” the term which originated from the Arabic term “makazin” or storehouses. From 1890-1930, magazines relied heavily on advertising to survive and by 1930, all mass market magazines included some form of advertising. Magazines no longer sold people information and entertainment, but rather provided advertisers with a steady returning audience. There were subtle changes in content in the magazines as advertising began dominating the sector. Most of these changes included eliminating any potentially offensive material, whether political or sexual. Since then, advertising has continued to publish in magazines, however it has gradually become less evident that advertising once dominated this media outlet. 10 The Scots Magazine, published in 1739 is considered to be the oldest consumer magazine that is still being published. Since then, thousands of magazines have been published. Similar to newpapers, magazines are now seeing a shift from paper publications to online publications due to the emergence of the Internet. 9 http://www.newsweek.com/id/157580 10 http://www.well.com/~art/maghist05.html

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