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International Press Corps Background Information - IDIA

International Press Corps Background Information - IDIA

Rutgers Model United

Rutgers Model United Nations 5 Radio Broadcast Media In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor sent and received the first radio signal in Italy. In 1902, he successfully transmitted the first transatlantic radiotelegraph message. Although Guglielmo Marconi was one of the first men to discover the modernday radio, Nikola Tesla is credited for holding the patent to the modern radio. 11 When the radio was first invented, it was mainly used for maritime purposes to send telegraphic messages using Morse code. Radio was especially useful during World War I by both sides. Radio began being used for broadcasting in 1909 in San Jose, California and was fitted for mass communication in the 1920s. The radio had moved from being primarily used for maritime communication to a medium capable of providing entertainment to large audiences in their homes. In 1906, twenty-seven nations arrived in Berlin to attend the International Wireless Telegraph Convention, which helped set up guidelines to which current radio standards follow. 12 In 1915, speech was transmitted from New York City to San Francisco spanning the continent of North America and across the Atlantic Ocean from a radio station in Virginia to the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France. This proved to be a revolutionary step in establishing radio as an important media outlet. With technological advances, radio has evolved in many forms including wireless and mobile communications. Before the television was adopted by the public as the premier source of entertainment, radio broadcasts were not only used for news and media, but also dramas, comedies, and other forms of entertainment. Due to the emergence of the Internet, many people believe that radio may suffer the same fate as videotapes, cassette players, and laser discs. Critics complain that modern broadcast radio no longer provides, “the thrill of discovering something new. 13 In addition, those searching for a job in radio journalism are finding it harder to find a job. However despite these grim reviews, 11 http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blradio.htm 12 http://earlyradiohistory.us/1906conv.htm 13 http://www.consumeraffairs.com/news04/2007/06/radio_future.html

Rutgers Model United Nations 6 radio is still listened to by millions around the globe and is one of the few media outlets. Television Broadcast Media In 1873, Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of selenium and the origins of television began. However, it wasn’t until 1907 that the designs of the first television were made practical. In 1927, John Loige Baird transmitted a signal between London and Glasgow. His company later broadcasted the first transatlantic television signal between London and New York. Baird patented the idea to use transparent rods to transmit images for television. This was the first demonstration of televisions by reflected light. German scientist Karl Bran invented the cathode ray tube oscilloscope in 1897, which brought to life, electronic television. The first successful color television program was broadcasted on December 17, 1953 by RCA. Since then, televisions have undergone many physical changes and are now used as a source of entertainment and information by people all around the world. Media in the Developing World vs. Media in the Developed World The developing world is a term that generates much criticism and uncertainty. There are presently many definitions of a developing country and the World Bank classifies a developing country based on numerical data. The World Bank considers most low and middle income countries as developing and most specifically, any country that has a Gross National Income (GNI) per capita below $11,905. 14 Newly industrializing countries is a recently new category created to classify countries that have not yet reached the status of developed nation, yet have done enough to show economic growth and are undergoing industrialization. For simplicity, we will group these newly industrializing countries which include South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, China, and India together with 14 "Country Classification". World Bank. Retrieved July 20, 2009

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