House Committee on Armed Services Nuclear Proliferation ... - IDIA
R u t g e r s Mo d e l C o n g r e s s 13 involved in nuclear security. The Department of Homeland Security has their own operating procedures that differ from the U.S. military. The department of Homeland Security concentrates on border security and coordinates with federal agencies to prevent nuclear attacks. 58 Unlike the Military, the Department of Homeland Security is empowered to conduct domestic operations. 59 The Department of Homeland Security has similar interests as the US military in regards to the threat of nuclear terrorism however, but their tactics are very different. The Department of Homeland Security wants to tighten security around the borders of the United States, but remains skeptical of military involvement in their operations. Developing States with Nuclear Capabilities Developing states such as North Korea, Pakistan, and India contribute to the threat of nuclear terrorism. States with developing nuclear programs want to continue for tactical use or for peaceful uses. However, due to the lack of transparency in developing states and the lack of security that they impose on nuclear facilities, they are likely sources of nuclear material for terrorist organizations. 60 Some of these states, like Pakistan, are undergoing political unrest, which can compromise security for the United States. “When it comes to preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear bombs, the more worrisome trend in Pakistan is the links between some retired military and intelligence officials and nuclear scientists to Taliban and al-Qaeda terrorists” argues Lisa Curtis of the Heritage Foundation. 61 Developing states do not want other states to impede upon their national sovereignty. Although developed states have tried numerous times to inspect nuclear facilities in developing states, many do not want inspectors at all to allow 58 Levi, Michael, On Nuclear Terrorism, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007).. 59 Brinkerhoff, John R, “The Posse Comitatus Act and Homeland Security,” Homeland Security, February 2002. http://www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/Articles/brinkerhoffpossecomitatus.htm (accessed October 21. 2008). 60 Baker, Richard, Nuclear Terrorism, (Hauppauge, New York: Novinka Books, 2002) 31. 61 Curtis, Lisa, “US Policy and Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons; Containing threats and Encouraging Regional Security,” The Heritage foundation, July 6, 2007. http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm.
R u t g e r s Mo d e l C o n g r e s s 14 their programs to remain in secrecy. 62 Since developing states prefer to keep their nuclear programs secret, when nuclear material is stolen, it is hard for developed states to know this information until it is too late. There is also a strong potential for states to sell nuclear technology to terrorist organizations or states that sponsor terrorism. In 2004, a Pakistani nuclear scientist sold nuclear technology to Iran and North Korea, both of which have advocated and spoken freely about state sponsored terrorism. 63 Many developing states do not see any areas for compromising or negotiations, which makes this a security dilemma for the United States. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) NGOs are private organizations that are independent of the governments under which they operate. There are many NGOs that advocate for security against nuclear terrorism. One example of an NGO whose sole purpose is the prevention of nuclear terrorism is the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). The NTI is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to strengthen global security and prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. 64 According to Sam Nunn, chair of the NTI, we’re moving toward a nuclear nightmare with more enrichment, more nuclear materials, and more know-how around the globe and terrorist groups who have made it very clear they are doing everything they can to get these weapons.... [W]e ought to make nuclear weapons less relevant and less important, prevent nuclear weapons or materials from getting in the hands of dangerous people, and eventually eliminate nuclear weapons as a threat to the world. 65 Another organization that also is for the safe use of nuclear technology and the regulation of nuclear material, which includes tactical material, is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA deals with the nuclear terrorism situation as an international issue whereas the NTI is focused on U.S. security. The NTI wants 62 Medaila, Jonathan, “Nuclear Terrorism: A Brief Review of Threat and Responses,” Congressional Research Service, September 22, 2004. 63 Time, “The Man who sold the Bomb,” Time, February 06, 2005. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1025193-1,00.html (accessed 11/12/08). 64 The Nuclear Threat Initiative, “Nuclear Threat Initiative: Fact Sheet,” Nuclear Threat Initiative, http://www.nti.org/b_aboutnti/b4_programs.html ( accessed November 19, 2008). , 65 David Kimball and Miles Pomper, “A World Free of Nuclear Weapons: Interview with Nuclear Threat Initiative Co-Chairman Sam Nunn,” Arms Control Association, March 2008. http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2008_03/Nunn. .