House Committee on Armed Services Nuclear Proliferation ... - IDIA
R u t g e r s Mo d e l C o n g r e s s 3 Possible Causes Lack of Security in Developing States The United States was one of the first states to possess nuclear technology. Currently, many developing states like Pakistan, India, and North Korea are struggling for nuclear arms. 12 The nuclear programs of developing states are shrouded in secrecy and rarely allow inspectors to examine the security of their facilities. Developing states also lack strict security protocols, which make it easy for terrorist organizations to smuggle or buy nuclear material to make a weapon. 13 Georgia is a country that has weak security measures, has shown almost no ability to prevent the smuggling of nuclear arms. According to political analyst Richard Weitz, “the anarchic conditions, weak law enforcement, and porous borders in [Georgia] have permitted widespread smuggling.... This condition has facilitated trafficking in nuclear materials.” 14 There have also been instances in which developing states have sold nuclear technology to other states that can threaten U.S. security. According to Vikaas Sharma of the Council of Foreign Relations, “It has been reported that North Korea sold ballistic-missile technology to Iran and Syria, both of which are on the U.S. State department’s list of sponsors of terrorism, and Libya, which was removed from the list in 2006.” 15 As a result of the lack of security in developing states, the United States is concerned about the risk of a nuclear terrorist attack. Developing states have the nuclear material that terrorists want to create their own weapons of mass destruction. Ineffective security and state sponsored terrorism would only aid terrorists in creating their own nuclear weapon. 12 Center for Defense Information, “What if Terrorists go Nuclear?” Center for Defense Information, October 1, 2001. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/nuclear.cfm (accessed October 21. 2008). 13 Baker, Richard, Nuclear Terrorism, (Hauppauge, New York: Novinka Books, 2002) 31. 14 Weitz, Richard, “Georgian War Increase Nuclear Terrorism Risks,” CACI Analysts, October 29, 2008. http://www.cacianalyst.org/?q=node/4970. 15 Sharma, Vikaas, “State Sponsors: North Korea,” Council on Foreign Relations, June 28, 2008. http://www.cfr.org/publication/9364/.
R u t g e r s Mo d e l C o n g r e s s 4 Increasing Hostility from Terrorist Organizations The terrorist attacks on September 11 th in which al-Qaeda operatives attacked the World Trade Center made the United States realize how vulnerable the state was to terrorist attacks. In response to the U.S. led War on Terror, al-Qaeda spokes person Sulaiman Abu Ghaith argued that his organization had “the right to kill four million Americans, including one million children,” which he argued is the number of Muslims killed by American aggression. Nuclear attack is one of the most frequently discussed threats as it would maximize American casualties, and the U.S. remains “vulnerable to a series of nuclear 9/11s,” according to security analyst Graham Allison. 16 Hostility against the United States has increased since the beginning of the U.S. war on terror. The attack on September 11 th was not the only attack that terrorists have plotted against the United States, and since that time there have been numerous terrorist plots uncovered many of which involved the use of nuclear materials. The possibility of a terrorist attack is highly plausible and the increase in hostile threats and attacks around the globe raises questions regarding the United States’ preparedness against nuclear terrorism. The United States must be able to defend itself against any threat terrorist organizations pose. Lack of Secure Entryways and Power Plant Security American border security has been able to prevent numerous attacks; power plants within the United States do not have the same level of security. After the September 11 th attacks, analysts and experts found that nuclear power plants were inadequately prepared for any type of terrorist attack. 17 Several analyses found that a uniform system of security did not exist around the country and security of a power plant was left up to those that managed it. After the attacks on the World Trade Center, the FBI issued a warning to all power plants of an unconfirmed plot involving a commercial airliner 16 Allison, Graham, “Nuclear Terrorism poses the gravest threat today,” The Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2003. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/1271/nuclear_terrorism_poses_the_gravest_threat_today.html?breadc rumb=%2F. 17 Leventhal, Paul, “Nuclear Power Reactors are inadequately protected against terrorist attack, A Review of Security Issues at Nuclear Power Plants.